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volumes. The Academy of Natural Sciences, has the largest museum of natural history in America. It has 25,000 specimens in ornithology alone, and 30,000 in botany. The Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, organized in 1807, contains rare sculptures and valuable paintings, and holds annual exhibitions.

The Fairmount Water-works are situated on the left bank of the Schuylkill, two miles from the center of the city, and have been in operation since 1822. A dam, erected in 1819, extends across the river, 1,248 feet long; the water is thus turned into an artificial forebay, 419 feet long and 90 feet wide, from whence it falls upon and turns eight wheels from 16 to 18 feet in diameter, each having its separate pump with power sufficient to raise 1,500,000 gallons in 24 hours, to the reservoirs on the summit of the hill, 100 feet above tide-water, and 56 feet above the highest ground in the city. From these reservoirs (which are capable of containing 22,000,000 of gallons) the water is distributed throughout the city by iron pipes. On the summit slopes of the hill, neat graveled walks are arranged, and at the base of the precipice, in spaces not occupied by machinery, a garden has been laid out, tastefully decorated with flowers, shrubbery, etc. From the summit, there is a magnificent prospect of the city. The northern part of the city is supplied by water from the Schuylkill, raised by steam power about a mile above Fairmount. The Laurei Hili Cemetery, on the banks of the Schuylkill, four miles from the State House, is laid out with great beauty and grandeur. At the entrance there is an imposing gateway in the Doric style, and just within the entrance is a group of statuary by Thom, representing Sir Walter Scott, conversing with Old Mortality,

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The Swedes were the first civilized people who located themselves within the present limits of Philadelphia. The first house was built at an early

period, possibly as early as 1630. The records show that the southern part of Philadelphia, including the navy yard and vicinity, was originally possessed by the Swedish family

of Sven, the chief of which was Sven Schute, a title equivalent to commandant. The family name (Sven sons) was successively altered, until it was called Swanson. The original log house of the sons of Sven, anciently called The Swedes'

House," was on a knoll or hill THE SWEDES CHURCH AND HOUSE OF SVEN SENER.

(now leveled), on the north-west The annexed engraving is partially copied from Wat corner of Swansen street and son's Annals of Philadelphia. The Swedes' Church, the first erected, is on the left, the house of Sven Seper on the Beck's alley, a little north of the right.

Swedes' church. It remained as a relic of antiquity, until the British troops occupied Philadelphia; when it was taken down for fuel. It is described as having been one and a half story high, with a piazza all around it, four rooms on a floor, and a very large fire place with seats in each jamb. The first Swedes' church at Wiccaco (now Southwark), was built on the present site, in 1677, five years before Penn's Colony came. " It was of logs, and had loop-holes in lieu of window

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lights, which might serve for fire arms in case of need. The congregation, also, was accustomed to bring fire arms with them to prevent surprise, but ostensibly to use for any wild game which might happen in their way in coming from various places.”

After William Penn had landed at Chester, the tradition is that he sailed up from thence to Wiccaco in an open boat with a few friends, in the latter part of Nov. 1682. At Wiccaco he found dwelling there three Swedes, brothers, by the name Swerson, of whom he afterward purchased the site of the city, giving them other lands in exchange. The site of the city, at that day, presented a high bold bank along the Delaware, fringed with a grove of tall pine trees. The early Jersey colonists had noticed this place. Proud, in history, states that

“In the 10th month, O. S. (Dec.), 1678, arrived the Shield, from Hull, Daniel Towes commander, and anchored before Burlington. This was the first ship that came so far up the River Delaware. Opposite to Coaquanock, the Indian name of the place where Philadelphia now stands, which was a bold and high shore, she went so near it, in turning, that part of the tackling struck the trees—some of the passengers expressing, 'It was a fine situation for à town.'

In this bank many of the first and early adventurers had their caves, or holes, for their residence, before any houses were built, or better accommodations prepared for them. The first house erected on this plot of ground, was built by Geo. Guest, and not finished at the time of the proprietor's arrival. This house was then building in Budd's row, near that called Powell's dock.

He, for many years afterward, kept a tavern there called the Blue Anchor.

John Key-was said to be the first born child of English parents in Philadelphia, and that in com iment of which William Penn gave him a lot of grounddied at Kennet, in Chester county, on the 5th of July, 1767, in the 85th year of his age; where his corpse was interred, in the Quaker's burying ground, the next day, attended by a great concourse of people. He was born in a cave, long afterward known by the name of Penny-pot, near Sassafras street. I have seen him myself more than once, in the city-to which, about six years before his death, he walked on foot, from Kennet (about 30 miles), in one day. In the latter part of his life he generally, in the city, went under the name of first-born.

In the latter part of the year 1682,* the propietary, having finished his business with the Indians, undertook, with the assistance of his surveyor-general, Thomas Holme, to lay out a place for the city.

The following is an extract, from Thomas Holme's description : 'The city, as the model shows, consists of a large Front street on each river, and a High street near the middle, from river to river, of 100 feet broad; and a Broad

* It is thought by others that the city was not fully laid out until 1683, as Penn says in his letter to the society of free traders, 16th Aug., 1683, Philadelphia-the expectation of those that are concerned in this province-is, at last, laid out, to the.great content of those here that are any ways interested therein. I say little of the town itself, because a plat. form will be shewn you by my agent, in which those, who are purchasers of me, will find their names and interests. But this I will say, for the good providence of God, that, of all the many places I have seen in the world, I remember not one better seated; 80 that it seems to me to have been appointed for a town, whether we regard the rivers, or the conveniency of the coves, docks, springs, the loftiness and soundness of the land, and the air, held by the people of these parts to be very good. It is advanced, within less than a year, to about four-score houses and cottages, such as they are, where merchants and handicrafts are following their vocations as fast as they can, while the countrymen are close at their farms. Some of them got a little winter corn in the ground last season; and the generality have had a handsome summer crop, and are preparing for their winter corn. They reaped their barley, this year, in the month called May—the wheat in the month following, so that there is time, in these parts, for another crop of divers things before the winter season. We are daily in hopes of shipping, to add to our number; for, blessed be God, here is both room and accommodation for them. I bless God, I am fully satisfied with the country, and entertainment I got in it; for I find that particular content which hath always attended me where God, in his providence, hath made it my place and service to reside.

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street, in the middle of the city, from side to side, of the like breadth. In the center of the city is a square of 10 acres, at each angle to build houses for public affairs. There is also, in each quarter of the city, a square of eight acres, to be for the like uses as Moorfields, in London; and eight streets, besides the said High street, that run from river to river, or from Front to Front; and 20 streets, besides the Broad street and two Front streets, that run across the city from side to side. All these streets are 50 feet broad.'

William Penn-in answer to a remonstrance and address to him from several of the adventurers, freeholders, and inhabitants, in the city of Philadelphia, respecting the front, or bank lots along the side of Delaware, who claimed the privilege to build vaults, or stores, in the bank, against their respective lots—thus expresses himself, in 1684: "The bank is a top common, from end to end. The rest, next the water, belongs to front-lot men no more than back-lot men. The way bounds them. They may build stairs, and, at the top of the bank, a common exchange, or walk-and against the street common wharves may be built freely; but into the water, and the shore, is no purchaser's.'

Within the space of the first year, after the proper requisites for a regular settlement were obtained, between 20 and 30 sail of ships, with passengers, arrived in the province—including those which came before, and about the same time with the proprietary. The settlers amounted to such a large number, that the parts near Delaware were peopled in a very rapid manner-even from about the falls of Trenton, down to Chester, near 50 miles on the river; besides the settlements in the lower counties, which, at the same time, were very considerable.

As the first colonists were generally Quakers, and in their native country had suffered much on account of their religion, both in person and property, their great and primary concern is said to have been the continuance and support of their religious public worship, in every part of the country, where they made settlements, in such manner as their situation and circumstances then permitted.”

In this, 1781, and the two next succeeding years, 1782–83, arrived ships, with passengers or settlers, from London, Bristol, Ireland, Wales, Cheshire, Lancashire, Holland, Germany, etc., to the number of about 50 sail. Among those from Germany, were some Friends, or Quakers, from Krisheim, or Cresheim, a town not far from Worms, in the Palatinate. They had been early convinced of the religious principles of the Quakers, by the preaching of William Ames, an Englishman; for which they had borne a public testimony there, until the present timewhen they all removed to Pennsylvania, and settled about six or seven miles distant from Philadelphia, a place which they called Germantown.

These adventurers were not all young persons, able to endure the hardships unavoidable in subduing a wilderness, or as equally regardless of convenient accommodations as young, healthy, and strong men, accustomed to labor and disappointment; but there were among them, persons advanced in years, with women and children, and such as, in their native country, had lived well, and enjoyed ease and plenty:

Their first business, after their arrival, was to land their property, and put it under such shelter as could be found; then, while some of them got warrants of survey, for taking up so much land as was sufficient for immediate settling, others went diversely further into the woods, to the different places where their lands were laid out, often without any path or road to direct them-for scarce any were to be found above two miles from the water side—not so much as any mark or sign of any European having been there. As to the Indians, they seldom traveled so regularly as to be traced or followed by footsteps; except, perhaps, from one of their towns to another. Their huntings were rather like ships at sea, without any track or path. So that all the country, further than about two miles distant from the river (excepting the Indians' movable settlements), was an entire wilderness, producing nothing for the support of human life but the wild fruits and animals of the woods.

The lodgings of some of these settlers were, at first, in the woods. A chosen tree was frequently all the shelter they had against the inclemency of the weather. This sometimes happened late in the fall, and even in the winter season, The next coverings of many of them were either caves in the earth, or such huts

erected upon it as could be most expeditiously procured, until better houses were built, for which they had no want of timber. The world wide celebrated treaty of William Penn with the Indians,

was made in 1682, at Shackamaxon, now that part of Philadelphia called Ken

sington. The elm tree on the bank of the Delaware, under which the treaty was made, was 24 feet in girth. In its form it was remarkably wide spread, but not lofty. The “Treaty Tree" was long preserved in the affections of the Indians and colonists. During the time the British occupied Philadelphia, and were scouring the country for fire wood, Gen. Simcoe, who commanded in this dis

trict, placed a sentinel under the tree PENN'S TREATY TREE.

to protect it. The Methodists and The engraving represents the elm treo formerly Baptists often held their summer standing at Kensington, under which Penn made his memorable treaty with the Indians, copied from meetings under its shade. When it a sketch of the tree before it was blown down in 1810, was blown down in 1810, it was ascertained, by its circles of annual growth, to be 283 years old. Many pieces of it were wrought into various articles to be preserved as relics. The Penn Society have erected a monument on the spot where the tree stood, on which are the following inscriptions:

Treaty ground of William Penn and the Indian Nations, 1682. Unbroken faith-William Penn born 1644, died 1718. Placed by the Penn Society, A. D. 1827, to mark the site of the great elm tree. Pennsylvania, founded 1681, by deeds of peace.

Although no original written record exists of this celebrated event, yet the evidence of its occurrence is satisfactory. The treaty and its stipulations are referred to repeatedly in the early minutes of the council, speeches, etc. Gov. Gordon, in a council with many chiefs of the Conestogoes, Delawares, Shawanees, and Ganawese, held at Philadelphia in 1728, thus addresses them :

My Brethren : You have been faithfull to your Leagues with us, your Hearts have been clean, & you have preserved the Chain from Spotts or Rust, or if there were any, you have been carefull to wipe them away; your Leagues with your Father William Penn, & with his Governours, are in Writing on Record, that our Children & our Children's Children, may have them in everlasting Remembrance. And we know that you preserve the memory of those things amongst you, by telling them to your Children, & they again to the next Generation, so that they remain stamp'd on your Minds, never to be forgott. The Chief Heads or Strongest

Links of this Chain, I find are these Nine, vizt : 1st. That all William Penn's People, or Christians, and all the Indians should be brethren, as the Children of one Father, joyned together as with one Heart, one Head, & one Body.

2d. That all Paths should be open and free to both Christians and Indians. 3d. That the Doors of the Christians' Houses should be open to the Indians, & the Houses of the Indians open to the Christians, & that they should make each other welcome as their Friends.

4th. That the Christians should not believe any false Rumours, or Reports of the Indians, nor the Indians believe any such Rumours or Reports of the Christians, but should first come as Brethren to inquire of each other ; And that both Christians and Indians, when they hear any such false Reports of their Brethren, they should bury them as in a bottomless Pitt.

5th. That if the Christians heard any ill news that may be to the Hurt of the Indians, or the Indians hear any such ill news that may be to the Injury of the Christians, they should acquaint each other with it speedily as true Friends & Brethren.

6th. That the Indians should do no manner of Harm to the Christians nor their Crea

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tures, nor the Christians do any Hurt to any Indians, but each treat the othor as their Brethren.

7th. But as there are wicked People in all Nations, if either Indians or Christians should do any harm to each other, Complaint should be made of it by the Persons Suffering, that Right may be done; and when Satisfaction is made, the Injury or Wrong should be forgott, & be buried as in a bottomless Pitt.

8th. That the Indians should, in all things, assist the Christians, & the Christians assist the Indians against all wicked People that would disturb them.

9th. And lastly, that both Christians & Indians should acquaint their Children with this League & firm Chain of Friendship made between them, & that it should always be made stronger & stronger, & be kept bright and clean, without Rust or Spott between our Children and Children's Children, while the Creeks and Rivers run, and while the Sun, Moon & Stars endure."

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The winter of 1777–8, immediately following the battle of Brandywine, was memorable for the occupation of Philadelphia by the British army, der Gen. Sir William Howe, accompanied by Lord Howe, his brother, who had command of the British fleet in the Delaware. The following extracts are from Watson's Annals of Philadelphia:

“We knew the enemy bad landed at the head of Elk; but of their procedure and movements we had but vague information--for none were left in the city in public employ, to whom expresses would be addressed. The day of the battle of Brandywine was one of deep anxiety. We heard the firing, and knew of an engagement between the armies, without expecting immediate information of the result, when, toward night, a horseman rode at full speed down Chestnut street, and turned round Fourth to the Indian Queen public house. Many ran to hear what he had to tell ; and, as I remember, his account was pretty near the truth. He told of LaFayette being wounded.

The army marched in and took possession of the town in the morning. We were up stairs, and saw them pass to the state house. They looked well, clean, and well clad; and the contrast between them and our own poor barefooted and ragged troops, was very great, and caused a feeling of despair. It was a solemn and impressive day ; but I saw no exultation in the enemy, nor, indeed, in those who were reckoned favorable to their success. Early in the afternoon Lord Cornwallis' suite arrived, and took possession of my mother's house. But my mother was appalled by the numerous train, and shrank from such inmates ; for a guard was mounted at the door, and the yard filled with soldiers and baggage of every description; and I well remember what we thought of the haughty looks of Lord Rawdon (afterward the Marquis of Hastings), and the other aid-de-camp, as they traversed the apartments. My mother desired to speak with Lord Cornwallis, and he attended her in the front parlor. She told him of her situation, and how impossible it would be for her to stay in her own house with such a numerous train as composed his lordship's establishment. He behaved with great politeness to her-said he should be sorry to give trouble, and would have other quarters looked out for him. They withdrew that very afternoon, and he was accommodated at Peter Reeve's, in Second, near to Spruce street ; and we felt very glad at the exemption. But it did not last long; for, directly, the quarter-masters were employed in billeting the troops, and we had to find room for two officers of artillery, and afterward, in addition, for two gentlemen, secretaries of Lord Howe.

The officers, very generally I believe, behaved with politeness to the inhabitants; and many of them, upon going away, expressed their satisfaction that no injury to the city was contemplated by their commander. They said that living among the inhabitants, and speaking the same language, made them uneasy at the thought of acting as enemies.

At first, provisions were scarce and dear, and we bad to live with much less abundance than we had been accustomed to. Hard money was, indeed, as difficult to come at as if it had never been taken from the mines, except with those who had things to sell for the use of the army.

The day of the battle of Germantown, we heard the firing all day, but knew not the result. Toward evening they brought in the wounded. The prisoners were carried to the state house lobbies ; and the street was presently filled with women, taking lint and bandages, and every refreshment which they thought their suffering countrymen might want.

Gen. Howe, during the time he staid in Philadelphia, seized, and kept for his own use, Mary Pemberton's coach and horse3—in which he used to ride about the town. The old oflicers appeared to be uneasy at his conduct, and some of them freely expressed their opinions. They said, that before his promotion to the chief command he sought for the counsels and company of officers of experience and merit; but now, his companions were usually a set of boys—the most dissipated fellows in the army.

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