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lands, was never relinquished, but on the contrary was expressly reserved in our last treaty, held at Crosswicks, in 1758.
Having myself been one of the parties to the sale, I believe in 1801, I know that these rights were not sold or parted with.
We now offer to sell these priviliges to the state of New Jersey. They were once of great value to us, and we apprehend that neither time nor distance, nor the non-use of our rights, has at all affected them, but that the courts hero would consider our claims valid, were we to exercise them ourselves, or delegate them to others. It is not, howover, our wish thus to excite litigation. We consider the state legislature the proper purchaser, and throw ourselres upon its benevolence and magnanimity, trusting that feelings of justice and liberality will induce you to give us what you deem a compensation.
And as we have ever looked up to the leading characters of the United States (and to the leading characters of this state in particular), as our fathers, protectors, and friends, we now look up to you as such, and humbly beg that you will look upon us with that eye of pity, as we have reason to think our poor untutored forefathers looked upon yours, when they first arrived upon our then extensive but uncultivated dominions, and sold them their lands, in many instances, for trifles in comparison as “light as air." From your humble petitioners,
BARTHOLOMEW S. Calvin,
In behalf of himself and his red brethren. The whole subject was referred to a committee, before whom the Hon. Samuel L. Southard voluntarily and ably advocated the claims of the Delawares, and at the close of a speech which did him honor as a man and an orator, he remarked, "That it was a proud fact in the history of New Jersey, that every foot of her soil had been obtained from the Indians by fair and voluntary purchase and transfer, a fact that no other state of the Union, not even the land which bears the name of Penn, can boast of.”
The committee reported favorably, and the legislature acted accordingly. The sum he received ($2,000) was indeed not large, yet it was all he solicited; and considering the nature of the claims, it must be regarded as an act of beneficence as much as of justice. It was, however, but the crowning act of a series in which justice and kindness to the Indians have been kept steadily in view. The counsels of Barclay and of Penn (the former a governor and the latter a proprietor of the colony), seemed to have influenced their suocessors, and it is with feelings of honest pride that a Jerseyman may advert to the fact, that the soil of bis state is unpolluted by a battle with the Indians, that every acre of it has been fairly purchased, and that all claims have been listened to with respectful attention.
The following letter of thanks was addressed to the legislature by Calvin, and read be. fore the houses in joint session on March 14th. It was received with shouts of acclamation:
TRENTON, March 12, 1832. " Bartholomew S. Calvin takes this method to return his thanks to both houses of the state legislature, and especially to their committees, for their very respectful attention to, and candid examination of the Indian claims which he was delegated to present.
The final act of official intercourse between the state of New Jersey and the Delaware Indians, who once owned nearly the whole of its territory, has now been consummated, and in a manner which must redound to the honor of this growing state, and, in all probability, to the prolongation of the existence of a wasted, yet grateful people. Upon this parting occasion, I feel it to be an incumbent duty to bear the feeble tribute of my praise to the bigh-toned justice which, in this instance, and, so far as I am acquainted, in all former times, has actuated the councils of this commonwealth in dealing with the aboriginal inhabitants.
Not a drop of our blood have you spilled in battle-not an acre of our land have you taken but by our consent. These facts speak for themselves, and need no comment. They place the character of New Jersey in bold relief and bright example to those states within whose territorial limits our brethren still remain. Nothing save benisons can fall upon ber from the lips of a Lenni Lenappi.
There may be some who would despise an Indian benediction ; but when I return to my people, and make known to them the result of my mission, the ear of the great Sovereign of the Universe, which is still open to our ory, will be penetrated with our invocation of blessings upon the generous sons of New Jersey.
To those gentlemen, members of the legislature, and others who have evinced their kindDess to me, I can not refrain from paying the unsolicited tribute of my heart-felt thanks. Unable to return them any other compensation, I fervently pray that God will have them in His holy keeping-will guide them in safety through the vicissitudes of this life, and ultimately, through the rich mercies of our blessed Redeemer, receive them into the glorious entertainment of his kingdom above."
It ought not to be omitted that Calvin was educated at Princeton, at the expense of the Scotch Missionary Society, and there remained in the pursuit of his studies till the commencement of hostilities between the colonies and the mother country, when he shouldered his musket and marched against the common enemy.
PENNSYL V A N I A.
ARMS OF PENNSYLVANIA.
The Dutch were the first adventurers who attempted to colonize the country lying on Delaware Bay and River. Although they aspired to pos
sess and rule the country, their claims were contested by the Swedes in 1631; and the English from New Haven in 1640. These Swedes laid out the present town of New Castle, and built a fort and commenced a settlement at Christiana, now Wilmington, Delaware. They also constructed a number of other forts northward of this, within the present limits of Pennsylvania.
In 1655, the Dutch at New Amsterdam, now New York, under the command of Gov. Stuyvesant, with a fleet of six or seven vessels, and 700 men, sailed for the Delaware, and took possession of the Swedish settlements.
The Dutch in their turn, were subdued by the English. In 1664, King Charles II granted a patent to his brother James, duke of York and Albany. This tract comprised what the Dutch claimed as New Netherlands, which extended to the settlements on the Delaware.
In 1675, the western part of Pennsylvania was sold to Edward Bylinge, of the Society of Friends, to whom William Penn, a member of the same society, became a trustee; by which means he got well acquainted with this part of the country. At his solicitation, and in recompense for the unpaid services which his father, Admiral Penn, had rendered the crown, this tract was, in 1681, granted to him by the king, who named the country Pennsyl. vania.
William Penn having thus come into possession, and being desirous of founding a colony, in a public advertisement described the country, and set forth the advantages which it offered to the inhabitants, which induced many persons, chiefly Friends or Quakers, to purchase. He offered his lands at the rate of forty shillings sterling for one hundred acres, and one shilling per annum forever; and good conditions of settlement to those who chose to become adventurers in the new country. He also wrote to the Indian natives, informing them of his desire to live in peace and brotherly love with all mankind; "and if any difference should happen between them, it might be adjusted by an equal number of men, chosen on both sides." 32
In April, 1682, Penn published a frame of government, the chief object of which was declared to be “to support power in reverence with the people, and to secure the people from the abuse of power.” He also published a body of laws, which had been examined and approved by the emigrants in England; and which, says an eminent historian, “does great honor to their wisdom as statesmen, to their morals as men, and to their spirit as colonists." From the duke of York, Penn obtained the relinquishment of a tract of land lying on the south side of the Delaware, a part of which had been already settled, and in August, accompanied by about 2,000 emigrants, he sailed for America.
He landed first at New Castle, Delaware, which was a part of the "territories” conveyed to him by the duke. He then proceeded to Chester, then called “Upland," where he held the first assembly. This body then annexed the territories (now comprising Delaware) to the province, adopted the frame of government, and enacted in form a body of laws. Penn also made a treaty with the Indians, and purchased as much land as the circumstances of the colony required. He selected the site, and marked out the plan of an extensive city, to which he gave the name of “Philadelphia,” or the city of brotherly love. Before the end of the year it contained eighty houses and cottages.
In 1683, a second assembly was held, and at the request of the freemen and delegates, Penn granted them a second charter, which diminished the number of the council and assembly, and was in other respects different from the first. It was ordained that to prevent law suits, three arbitrators, to be called peacemakers, should be chosen by the county courts, to hear and determine small differences between man and man: that children should be taught some useful trade, to the end that none might be idle, that the poor might work to live, and the rich learn how to work if they should become poor: that factors wronging their employers, should make satisfaction and one third over: that everything which excites the people to rudeness, cruelty, and irreligion should be discouraged and severely punished : that no one, acknowledging one God, and living peaceably in society, should be molested for his opinions, or his practice, or compelled to frequent or maintain any ministry whatever.” These and other judicious regulations attracted many emigrants, and within four years from the date of the grant of Penn, the province contained twenty settlements, and Philadelphia 2,000 inbabi. tants.
In 1684, Penn returned to England, where his enemies, taking advantage of his absence, had thrown his affairs into a critical situation. He left his province in a tranquil state, under the administration of five commissioners, chosen from the council. The unfortunate James II, soon after ascended the throne. “As he has," said Penn,“ been my friend, and my father's friend, I feel in justice to be a friend to him.” He adhered to king James while he remained on the throne, and for two years after he was expelled from his kingdom, the government of Pennsylvania was administered in his
By this display of attachment, Penn incurred the displeasure of King William, and on suspicion and unfounded charges, he was four times imprisoned. The government of his colony was taken from him and given to Col. Fletcher, the governor of New York. After many persecutions, Penn was permitted to make his own defense before the king and council. He succeeded in removing all unfavorable impressions, and being reinstated in his rights as proprietary and governor, he sent out William Markham as his deputy.
In August, 1699, William Penn, with his family, embarked for his province. He was nearly three months at sea; but this delay was providentialfor he did not arrive until the yellow fever, which had been raging in the colony, had ceased; and of which Thomas Storey, an eminent Quaker preacher of the time, thus speaks:
"Great was the majesty and hand of the Lord; great was the fear that fell upon all flesh. I saw no lofty or airy countenance, nor heard any vain jesting to move men to laughter; nor witty repartee to raise mirth; nor extravagant feasting, to excite the lusts and desires of the flesh above measure; but every face gathered paleness, and many hearts were humbled, and countenances fallen and sunk, and such that waited every moment to be suinmoned to the bar and numbered to the grave."
The proprietor and his family were cordially received by the inhabitants. Nevertheless the numerous civil dissensions during his absence, and the conduct of his own deputy governor, created much discontent among the people. Many things were wanting in the laws of the province, and the property of the land owners was not yet fully secured. Immoralities had increased; and the offense of fostering contraband trade, and even piracy, was charged upon the colony by its enemies. In 1701, Penn, at the request of the people, prepared a new charter, which was accepted by the assembly. It gave to that body the right of originating bills, which by the previous charters belonged to the governor alone, and of amending or rejecting those which might be laid before them. To the governor it gave the right of rejecting bills passed by the assembly, of appointing his own council, and of exercising the whole of the executive power. The territories, now the State of Delaware, refusing to accept the new charter, separated from Pennsylvania, and were allowed a distinct assembly. The same governor, however, presided over both.
Immediately after granting his third and last charter, Penn returned to England, where he remained until his death, in 1717. The executive authority was administered by deputy governors, appointed by the proprietor. The people incessantly murmured and complained; but the uninterrupted and great prosperity of the colony demonstrates that but slight occasion for complaint existed. The greatest cause of irritation among the colonists was the refusal of the deputy governors to assent to any law imposing taxes on the lands of the proprietors, although those sought to be raised were to be expended for the benefit of the whole province.
Upon the death of Penn, the government was managed by his heirs. During this period, new principles of action sprung up in the colony. After the Protestant succession in England by the revolution of 1688, the Friends or Quakers were no longer compelled to go to America to avoid persecution; while a new set of men, bent more on making their fortunes than upon the promotion of high religious principles, were induced to emigrate. These were either of the Church of England or Presbyterians from Scotland and Ireland, and were not averse to bearing arms. The adventurous traders of New England, trained in the school of Puritan republicanism, came also to seek their fortunes. The Mennonists or German Baptists, a sect which adhered to the principle of non-resistance, persecuted in Europe, and driven from one country to another, sought the toleration of Penn's colony, and emigrated between the years 1698 and 1717—many in the latter year settling in Lancaster, Berks, and the upper parts of Chester county. The Dunkards, also a nonresistant sect, began to emigrate about the year 1718, and afterward established a sort of monastery and convent at Ephrata, in Lan