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families in misery: that the measures they had taken, must defeat their own wishes; for the government would never yield that to force, which would be readily accorded to respectful representations; and warned them that the majesty of the laws would be vindicated, and their resistence of its power avenged. He spoke nearly two hours, not without frequent interruption. But admonition and argument were unavailing; the insurgents declared they would maintain their ground until satisfaction was ohtained. Judge Ward, addressing himself to Wheeler, advised him to suffer the troops to disperse: "they were waging war, which was treason, and its end would be," he added, after a momentary pause, 'the gallows.' The judges then retired unmolested, through armed files. Soon after the court was opened at the United States Arms Tavern, and immediately adjourned to the next day.”
South View of Springfield. Taken from near the railroad on the bank of the Connecticut, south from the city. The Western Rail. road bridge over the Connecticut, appears on the extreme left. The U. S. Armory is seen on the hill on the extreme right. Mount Tum, on the west side of the Connecticut, is seen in the central part in the distance.
SPRINGFIELD, one of the most beautiful and important inland towns in New England, lies on the east bank of Connecticut River, 98 miles W. by S. from Boston; 102, E. by S. from Albany, N. Y.; 138 N. E. from New York; and 26 N. from Hartford, Conn. Population about 15,000. The main street runs parallel with the Connecticut, extending upward of two, miles. The houses are well built, and many are elegant. Springfield is the center of a large inland and river commerce, its natural and artificial advantages rendering it one of the most important commercial depots on the Connecticut River, being nearly equidistant from Boston and Albany, on the line of the Western Railroad, and at the point of intersection of the great route N. and S. through the Connecticut valley.
The United States Armory, at Springfield, is the most important arsenal of construction in the United States, and its establishment
here ear.y gave an impulse to the enterprise and prosperity of the place. The principal armory buildings are on the elevated table land east of the main street, called the “Hill," and are arranged in a handsome manner around a square. From 12,000 to 15,000 muskets are manufactured here annually, and about 200,000 are stored in the arsenals of the establishment. Mill River, which here flows into the Connecticut, is an extensive water power, which is used for manufactories and mills of various kinds. Springfield was selected at an early period of the Revolution, as a suitable place for making the various munitions of war, and for a depot for military stores, it being out of the reach of any sudden invasion of the enemy.
William Pynchon may be considered as the father of Springfield. He was one of the patentees of the colony charter, and was appointed a magistrate in 1629, in England, at the same time with the governor and other officers. In 1635, Mr. Pynchon had leave of the general court to remove to any place under the jurisdiction of Massachusetts. The fertility of the land upon the Connecticut induced him and some others to make a settlement here in 1636; it was at first called by its Indian name, Agawam. For 40 years after its settlement, the inhabitants lived in peace with the Indians, but in Philip's war the town was attacked, four persons were killed, and 30 dwellings were burnt. The massacre would probably have been general, had not the inhabitants been put on their guard by Toto, a friendly Indian.
In January, 1787, during Shays' rebellion, Springfield became the theater of operations. The movements of the insurgents were such that the governor and council determined to raise a force of 4,400 men, in order to put them down. Gen. Lincoln was entrusted with the command.
" Before the troops under Gen. Lincoln marched from Roxbury, Gen. Shepard had been ordered to take possession of the post at Springfield. He soon collected 900 men, and afterward 200 more, the continental arsenal furnishing them with a sufficient number of field pieces, and such equipments as were wanted. It became an object with the insurgents to gain this post, if possible, before the arrival of Lincoln's army.
Their movements, therefore, were toward West Springfield on the one side, where about 400 men were collected under the command of Luke Day; and toward the Boston road on the other, where 1,100 more were headed by Shays himself. Besides these, a party of about 400 from the county of Berkshire, under the command of Eli Parsons, were stationed in the north parish of Springfield. Shays proposed to attack the post on the 25th of January, and wrote to Day on the 24th, to co-operate with him. In a letter which was intercepted by Gen. Shepard, Day replied that he could not assist him on the 25th, hut would the day after. On the 25th, however, Shays, confident of his aid, about 4 o'clock in the afternoon, approached the arsenal where the militia were posted, with his troops in open column. Gen. Shepard sent several times to know the intention of the enemy, and to warn them of their danger; and received for answer, in substance, that they would have the barracks, and they immediately marched onward to within 250 yards of the arsenal. Another message was sent, informing them that the militia were posted there by order of the governor, and of congress, and that if they approached any nearer they would be fired upon. One of their leaders replied, "That is all we want;' and they immediately advanced 100 yards. Gen. Shepard was now compelled to fire; but, in hope of intimidating them, ordered the two first shots to be directed over their heads, which, instead of retard
ing, quickened their approach; and the artillery was at last pointed at the center of their column, which produced its effect. A cry of murder was raised in the rear of the insurgents; their whole body was thrown into the greatest confusion, and, in spite of all the efforts of Shays to form them, the troops retreated precipitately about 10 miles to Ludlow, leaving three of their men dead on the field, and one wounded. Had Gen. Shepard been disposed to pursue, he might easily have cut many of them in pieces. But the object was not to destroy them, but to bring them to consideration and amendment.
Notwithstanding this retreat, there was serious apprehension of another attack from the insurgents; for Day was now on the west side of Connecticut River with his men, and Parsons at Chicopee, whither the party of Shays repaired (after losing 200 men by desertion) on the 26th. This apprehension was allayed the next day, at noon, by the arrival of Lincoln's army."
Holyoke, originally known as “Ireland Parish," and forming then a part of West Springfield, is on the west bank of the Connecticut, nine miles above Springfield, at Hadley Falls.
“This flourishing town has sprung up, within a few years, almost from nothing. It is already the seat of some of the most gigantic industrial operations thus far entered into in New England. The Hadley Falls Company, with a capital of $4,000,000, was incorporated 1848. Their first work was the construction of a dam across the river. This was completed the same year; but it was swept away within a few hours after the gates were shut. The next year the company proceeded to build the dam which now stands, a masterly work, the triumph of art over nature. It is more than 1,000 feet in length, or about one fifth of a mile. The butments contain nearly 13,000 perches of solid masonry : 4,000,000 feet of timber were used in the structure of the dam between the butments. This dam has been well tested, having supported the almost incalculable weight of the greatest freshet ever known on the Connecticut. Probably there is no other such water power in this country, if in the world, as this dam furnishes. The force is so great that the water can be used twice by mills on two different levels.
The town is supplied with pure, soft water, from the Connecticut River. A reservoir, capacious enough to hold 2,000,000 gallons, is built upon the highest point of land in the village. Into this reservoir, the water is forced by pumps driven by water.
The great water power, the convenience of its development and application, and the favorable location of the town, all go to show that Holyoke is destined to be a great manufacturing city.
Northampton, the shire town of Hampshire county, considered one of the most beautiful and best built villages in New England, is 17 miles N. from Springfield, 115 W. from Boston, and 76 N. from New Haven, Conn., with which it is connected by railroads. The village contains seven churches, and an extensive water cure establishment on Round Hill, a state lunatic asylum, and about 4,000 inhabitants. Situated in the fertile and delightful valley of the Connecticut, surrounded with beautiful and variegated prospects on every side, with the magnificient front of Mt. Holyoke rising to the hight of 830
feet, on the opposite side of the river, the scenery of this place is highly attractive.
The Indian name of Northampton, which formerly included several surrounding townships, was Nonotuck. It was purchased in 1653, for the consideration of 100 fathoms of wampum, 10 coats and some small gifts, and also for plowing up 16 acres of land on the east side
Northern View of the Central part of Northampton. The court house and Congregational Church are seen on the right; the Holyoke Bank on the left. The town hall is in the distance in the central part. of Connecticut River. The original planters were 21 in number, and the legal grant was made to them in 1654, by John Pynchon, Elizur Holyoke, and Samuel Chapin. In 1657, the town employed an agent “ to obtain a minister, and to devise means to prevent the excess of liquors and cider from coming to the town.”
Rev. Solomon Stoddard, one of the first ministers in the town, preached here nearly 60 years; he was succeeded by Jonathan Edwards, the celebrated divine, who continued here until 1750, after a ministry of more than 23 years. Mr. Stoddard “possessed, probably, more influence than any other clergyman in the province, during a period of 30 years. He was regarded with great reverence. The very Indians are said to have felt toward him a peculiar awe. Once, when riding from Northampton to Hatfield, and passing a place called Dewey's Hole, an ambush of savages lined the road. It is said that a Frenchman, directing his gun toward him, was warned' by one of the Indians, who some time before had been among the English, not to fire, because that man was “Englishman's God.” A similar adventure is said to have befallen him, while meditating in an orchard immediately behind the church in Deerfield, a sermon he was about to preach.” David Brainard, the celebrated missionary, died at the
house of Jonathan Edwards, in this place, and by his side rest the remains of his betrothed, Jerusha, the daughter of Mr. Edwards.
The following inscriptions are copied from monuments in the vil. lage grave-yard:
Here is inter'd the body of the Rev. Mr. Solomon STODDARD, A.M., some time Fellow of Harvard College, pastor of ye church in Northampton, New England, for near 60 years; who departed this life Feb. 11, 1729, and in the 86th yoar of his age. A man of God, an able minister of the New Testament; singularly qualified for that sacred office, and faithful therein, sealed by the H.: Spirit, in numerous converts to Christ, by his solid, powerful, and most searching ministry. A light to the churches in general, a peculiar blessing to this; eminent for the holiness of his life, as remarkable for his peace at death.
Sacred to the memory of the Rev. David BRAINARD, a faithful & laborious missionary to the Stockbridge, the Delaware & the Susquehannah tribes of Indians, who died in this town Oct. 10, 1747, aged 30.
SOLOMON WILLIAMS, born July 25, 1752, lived as pastor of the Church of Christ in Northampton, 56 years and 5 months. His spirit ASCENDED in sweet peace to the Upper Sanctuary on the morning of the Sabbath, Nov. 9, 1834.
In memory of Caleb Strong, late Governor of Massachusetts, who, after a life eminent for piety and devotion to the public service, died Nov. 7, 1819, in the 75th year of his age.
In memory of Rev. HENRY LYMAN, son of Theodore and Susan W. Lyman, a Missionary of the American Board, who, with his associate, Rev. Samuel Munson, suffered a violent death from the Battahs, in Sumatra, June 28, 1834, aged 24.
We are more than conquerors.
Seven miles east of Northampton, in a highly picturesque country, is the village of Amherst, the seat of Amherst College, one of the most flourishing institutions in New England, established in 1821. More than 1,000 young men have here obtained their education since the college was first founded.
Pittsfield, Berkshire county, is finely situated at the junction of the principal branches of the Housatonic River, and occupies a beautiful expansion of the valley between the Taconic and Green Mountain range, 151 miles W. from Boston by railroad, 49 E. from Albany, and 169 by railroad to New York. The settlement of this town was commenced in 1752, by Solomon Deming, who moved here with his family from Wethersfield. Mrs. Deming was the first white woman who came here; she was often left alone during the night, by the necessary absence of her husband, when there was not another white person in the town, and the wilderness was filled with Indians. She was the last, as well as the first, of the settlers, and died in March, 1818, aged 92. Charles Goodrich, one of the first settlers, died in 1815, aged 96. He drove the first cart and team into the town from Wethersfield, and was obliged to cut his way through the woods a number of miles. Pittsfield is the seat of the Berkshire Medical Institution. The young ladies' institute, and several other kindred institutions of