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10 to 12,000,000 of gallons daily. The fall from the lake to the Brookline Reservoir, is 426 feet, making the hight of water in the reservoir, at its lowest level, 120 feet above high water mark. The Brookline Reservoir is a beautiful structure, covering 38 acres, and will contain 100,000,000 of gallons. The Beacon Hill Reservoir is a structure of massive stone-masonry, capable of holding over 2,500,000 gallons; the South Boston Reservoir is capable of holding 7,000,000 of gallons.
Benjamin Franklin, LL.D., was born in Boston, Jan. 17,1706, and served an apprenticeship to the printing business. He showed a phi
losophic mind from his earliest years, and by the continual exercise of his genius, prepared himself for those great discoveries in science, which have associated his name with that of Newton, and for those political associations, which have placed him by the side of a Solon and a Lycurgus. Soon after his removal from Boston to Philadelphia, in concert with other young men, he established a small club, in which various subjects were discussed. This society has been the source of the most useful establishments in Philadelphia, for promoting the cause of science, the mechanic arts, and the improvement of the human understanding.
On the 17th of September, 1856, a new statue FRANKLIN'S STATUE.
of Franklin, by Greenough, was inagurated amid an immense concourse of spectators. Business was suspended, and all along the line of the vast procession, and in many parts of the
city, were numerous decorations, flags, etc. The birth place of Franklin, in Milkstreet, was most elegantly decorated. Beneath a star were the
words: “He took the lightning from Heaven," under which was a painting subscribed: “ The House in which Franklin was born. Benjamin Franklin was born on this spot on Sunday, the 17th of January, A. D. 1706." In Federal street were flags with the following inscriptions : "Born Jan. 17, 1706. Tallow Chandler's apprentice, 1717. Printer's apprentice, 1719. Author, 1725. Dry Good's clerk, 1727. Printer, 1729. Legislator for Pennsylvania, 1732. Founder of the University of Pennsylvania. Deputy Postmaster General, 1751. The inventor of Lightning Rods was the originator of the Volunteer Militia. Fellow of the Royal Society. Doctor of Laws by Oxford. Colonel of Militia. Representative of America in England, 1764. Concluded first treaty for America, 1778. Member of Continental Congress, 1775._ Commissioner Plenipotentiary to France, 1776. Minister Plenipotentiary to France, 1778. Commissioner to treat with England, 1782. President of Pennsylvania, 1775. Delegate to Federal Convention, 1787.' Died, April 17, 1790." Washington street and Dover street had many fine decorations and appropriate inscriptions, and every where apt quotations from “Poor Richard" met the eye. The procession was a fine one.
No American abroad, probably, was ever held in so much love and reverence, as Dr. Franklin, while ambassador at the court of France, in the period of our revolution. Watson, in his Memoirs, has given some interesting reminiscences to this point. While at Paris, at this time, he was invited to dine at Passy with Franklin. He says:
"We entered a spacious room, a folding door opened at our approach, and presented to my view a brilliant assembly, who all greeted the wise old man in the most cordial and appropriate manner. He introduced me as a young. American just arrived. One of the young ladies approached him with the familiarity of a daughter, tapped him kindly on the cheek, and called him Papa Franklin."
On visiting the paintings in the Louvre, Watson was greatly pleased to find the portrait of Franklin honored, and by the royal orders in being hung near those of the king and queen. His popularity and influence at court were almost unprecedented, and he was so much venerated by the people, that Watson often saw them following his carriage just as they had the king's. “His venerable figure, the ease of his manners, formed in an intercourse of 50 years with the world, his benevolent countenance, and his fame as a philosopher, all tended to excite love and to command influence and respect." He was an especial favorite of the queen, and through the strong political influence she held, adroitly directed by him, the government was led to acknowledge our independence, and to aid us in the struggle with fleets and armies.
The last interview Watson had with Franklin, occurred in 1786, at which time he was more than 80 years of age. “On my first entering the room," says Watson, “Franklin observed that all his old friends were dead, and he found himself alone in the midst of a new generation, and added the remark alike characteristic of the man and the philosopher, he was in their way, and it was time he was off the stage.' Yet he delighted a circle of young people—for he was a most instructive companion of youth in his old age—the whole evening with pleasant anecdotes and interesting stories. His voice was very sonorous and clear, at the same time hollow and peculiar."
The British ministry, when persisting in their right to tax the Americans, in 1773, gave permission to the East India Company to ship a large quantity of tea to America charged with the duty. The Americans opposed the landing of the tea, and in some instances compelled the vessels to return to England without landing. One or two ships having arrived in Boston with tea on board, the people assembled at the “ Old South” Church on Tuesday, Dec. 14th, and demanded the return of the ships, and they adjourned to Thursday.
“On Thursday, there was the fullest meeting ever known, 2,000 men, at least, were present from the country. Samuel Philips Savage, Esq., of Weston, was appointed moderator. Mr. Rotch reported that the collector would not give bim a clearance. He was then ordered, upon his peril, to get his ship ready for sea this day, enter a protest immediately against the custom house, and proceed directly to the governor (then at Milton, seven miles distant), and demand a pass for his ship to go by the castle. An adjournment to 3 P. M. then took place. At three, having met, they waited very patiently until five o'clock, when, finding that Mr. Roteh did not return, they began to be very uneasy, called for a dissolution of the meeting, and finally obtained a vote for it. But the more judicious, fearing what would be the consequences, begged for a reconsideration of that vote, 'for this reason, that they ought to do everything in their power to send the tea back, ac cording to their resolves. This touched the pride of the assembly, and they agreed to remain together one hour.
“This interval was improved by Josiah Quincy, Jr., to apprise his fellow-citizens of the importance of the crisis, and direct their attention to the probable results of this controversy. He succeeded in holding them in attentive silence until Mr. Roteh’s return, at three quarters past five o'clock. The answer which he brought
from the governor was, 'that, for the honor of the laws, and from duty toward the king, he could not grant the permit, until the vessel was regularly cleared.' A violent commotion immediately ensued. A person who was in the gallery, disguised after the manner of the Indians, shouted, at this juncture, the cry of war: it was answered by about 30 persons, disguised in like manner, at the door. The meeting was dissolved in the twinkling of an eye. The multitude rushed to Griffin's wharf. The disguised Indians went on board the ships laden with the tea. In less than two hours, 240 chests, and 100 half chests, were staved and emptied into the dock. The affair was conducted without any tumult; no damage was done to the vessels or to any other effects whatever.
Northern View in Salem. The view is taken in Washington-st., looking south. The Eastern Railroad depot is seen in the central part, a few rods to the north of which the railroad passes underneath Washington-st. The building on the left is occupied by several banks, the postoffice, etc.
Salem is built on a peninsula, formed by two inlets of the sea, called North and South Rivers—its situation is rather low, but pleasant and healthy. The compact part of the town is over a mile and a half in length, and three fourths of a mile in breadth. The city is well built, and many of the houses are large and elegant, particularly some of those in the vicinity of the common—a beautiful public ground in the east part of the city-containing about eight acres.
It has about 20 churches; the principal public buildings beside these, are the city hall, court house, the custom house, and market. The Salem Atheneum was incorporated in 1810. By the liberal bequest of $30,000, by Miss Plummer, a new structure is being built. Its library contains about 11,000 volumes. Salem is 14 miles north-easterly from Boston. Population about 23,000.
Salem, having a convenient harbor and good anchorage, has always been a commercial place. There is scarcely any part of the world which her ships have not visited, and Salem has been more known for its East India trade, than any other seaport in the United States.
The first ship engaged in this trade, was the Grand Turk, owned by C. H. Derby. She was at Canton in 1786, commanded by Captain West. A model of her, completely rigged, is preserved in the valuable and interesting museum of the “East India Marine Society” of this place.
The number of vessels engaged in foreign commerce, from Salem, is over 100. Many owned here take their cargoes to Boston or New York. In proportion to its size, Salem is one of the wealthiest places in the United States. Although it is without any important water power, and has ever been mainly devoted to maritime pursuits, yet its manufacturing business has been considerable. Salem was incorporated a city in the year 1836. An aqueduct supplies the place with fine soft water.
The history of Salem is identified with that of Massachusetts. Its Indian name was Naumkeag. It was first settled in 1626, by Roger Conant, and others, who had failed in an attempt to plant themselves at Cape Ann. In 1628, a patent was made to Sir Henry Roswell and others, with a view to establish a colony there. Out of this grew a company, of which Matthew Cradock was president; and in 1638 John Endicott was sent over to reside at Salem, as the company's agent. The next year the first church was formed, with Rev. Francis Higginson as its pastor, which was the first completely organized Protestant Church formed in North America.
During the spring and summer of 1692, occurred one of the most surprising and afflicting scenes ever witnessed in New England, from the supposed prevalence of witchcraft. This excitement commenced in Salem village, now Danvers, in the family of the Rev. Mr. Parris, the minister of that place. The town suffered greatly by the excitement; a fourth part of the inhabitants left the place: 20 persons were executed for witchcraft; one of them, Giles Cory, refusing to put him. self on trial, was pressed to death. About 100 were accused, of whom 50 confessed themselves guilty, and about this number of other persons were afllicted. Those who confessed themselves guilty of this crime, appear to have done it in order to save their lives, as they afterward declared themselves innocent. Most of those who were executed exhibited a forcible example of the strength of moral principle; rather than confess what they knew to be untrue, they nobly suffered death. Those who suffered were executed on a hill in the westerly part of the town, since known as Gallows Hill.
A belief in witchcraft was, at this time, universal, and punishments for witchcraft had been sanctioned by the Catholic Church, for more than a century previously. Henry VIII, made the practice of witchcraft a capital offense, and Sir Matthew Hale, confessedly one of the most learned and upright judges of his age, often tried and condemned persons accused of witchcraft. Professional “ witch hunters" were then common in England. In the 16th century, more than 100,000 persons, accused of witchcraft, perished in the flames in Germany alone.
Salem was distinguished for its patriotism, and especially for its naval achievements, in the cause of American independence. During the revolution there wero about 60 armed vessels fitted out from Salem, manned by 4,000 men; and many were the daring and chivalrous exploits performed on the sea by her citizens during that eventful period.
Among the distinguished men, in almost every learned profession, which Salem claims as among its sons, the name of Nathaniel Bowditch, author of the Practical Navigator, is identified with its fame and nautical achievements. The Practical Navigator has been translated into every European language, and its use is coextensive with maritime adventures.
Danvers, which was formerly a part of Salem, is about three miles north-west of Salem, and comprises, within its limits, several villages.
Many of the historical events of Salem have a direct reference to Danvers. It was by a mere chance that the first blood shed in the revolution did not take place here instead of at Lexington, as will be seen in the annexed account of the expedition of Col. Leslie, from Holmes' Annals:
“On the 26th of February, 1775, Gen. Gage, having received intelligence that some military stores were deposited in Salem, dispatched Lieut. Col. Leslie from Castle William, with 140 soldiers in a transport to seize them. Having landed at Marblehead, they proceeded to Salem; but not finding the stores there, they passed on to the draw bridge leading to Danvers, where a large number of people had assembled, and on the opposite side of which Col. Pickering had mustered 30 or 40 men, and drawn up the bridge. Leslie ordered them to let it down; but they peremptorily refused, declaring it to be a private road, by which he had no authority to demand a pass. On this refusal he determined to ferry over a few men in a gondola, which lay on the bank, as soon as it could be put afloat; but the people, perceiving the intention, instantly sprang into the gondola, and scuttled it with their axes. There was danger of instant hostility; but the prudent interposition of Mr. Barnard, minister of Salem, and other persons, prevented that extremity. To moderate the ardor of the soldiery, the folly of opposing such numbers was stated; and to moderate the ardor of the citizens, it was insisted, that, at so late an hour, the meditated object of the British troops was impracticable. The bridge was at length let down; Leslie passed it, and marched about 30 rods; and, the evening being now advanced, he returned, and embarked for Boston."
Some particulars of this account are taken from the MSS. of President Stiles ;where he farther writes, that the British soldiers pricked the people with their bayonets; that Leslie kept his troops at the bridge an hour and a half; that he at length pledged his honor, that, if they would let down the bridge, he would march but 13 rods over it, and return without doing anything farther; that the line was marked; and that Col. Pickering, with his 40 brave men, like Leonidas at Thermopylæ, faced the king's troops.
Newburyport was formerly the port of the town of Newbury. It was incorporated as a distinct town in 1764, and chartered as a city in 1851. It is most beautifully situated on the south bank of the Merrimac, near its union with the ocean, having a city-like appearance for more than two miles along the bank. The most populous part of the city stands upon a slope declining to the river, so that a summer rain completely washes the streets. The city has a large number of churches, and its other public buildings are numerous and elegant. It is situated 34 miles N. E. from Boston, and 20 N. from Salem. Population, about 12,000. The facilities for a free and superior education in this place are unsurpassed by any other in this country. The Eastern Railroad passes through a tunnel under High street. The Merrimac suspension bridge, a beautiful structure, crosses the Merrimac from the north part of the city.
Newburyport was early noted for its commerce and ship building. Located at the mouth of a river famous for its excellent timber, it was at an early day the principal seat of ship building. Ninety vessels have been known to have been in progress of construction at one time. No place in New England has experienced greater commercial vicissitudes. Its capital had become largely invested in the fisheries and freighting business, and the suspension of its commerce and ship building, in consequence of the embargo of 1808, and the commercial