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From the anger of a lord, and from a mutiny of the people,
God deliver us. -Spanish.
Good laws often proceed from bad manners.
Ital.—Le buone leggi spesso nascono da cattivi costumi. Good kings never make war, but for sake of peace. Good men are a public good.
Spanish~Quien padre tiene alcalde, seguro va à juicio.
person. He that England would win, Must with Ireland first begin. In time of war Ireland is of the first importance to this country,
furnishing her with a number of able men, both soldiers and sailors, and likewise beef, pork, butter, and other provisions for victualling her fleets and garrisons : if these supplies were cut off, by Ireland being in the hands of an enemy, it would be ex
tremely detrimental. He is half a king who has the king's good graces.- Italian. He who gives to the public gives to no one.
Spanish..Quien hace por comun, hace por ningun. Hospitality to the exile, and broken bones to the oppressor.
land, and form the basis of her foreign and domestic policy. We have greatly degenerated from the virtues of our remote progenitors. The ancient Gael, even in their fastnesses and mountains, were more generous than their descendants in all their opulence and grandeur. They had no Alien Bills—no midnight arrests- no espionage to fright the stranger from their shores, or render his abode there precarious. They did not unite with oppressors, or, by a suspicious neutrality, countenance their injustice; they threw open their doors to the exile, and broke the bones of the oppressor. The sentiment is so magnanimous, it seems
worth preserving in the original Gaelic; “ Fialachd dh' an fhògarrach, 's enamhan brist dh'an eacarach."
He that serves the public obliges nobody.-Italian.
will be a church ; by a Frenchman, a fort; by a Dutch
man, a warehouse ; and by an Englishman, an alehouse. It is the justice's clerk that makes the justice. It were better to hear the lark sing, than the mouse cheep. A border proverb of the Douglases; to express, as Sir Walter Scott
observes, what Bruce had pointed out, that the woods and hills of their country were their safest bulwarks, instead of the fortified places, which the English surpassed their neighbours in the
art of assaulting and defending. Justice will not condemn, even the devil, wrongfully.
K. King's chaff is worth other men's corn.-Scotch. The perquisites that attend kings are better than the wages of other
persons. Kings and bears oft worry their keepers. Kings have long arms, and have many eyes and ears.--Italian. Kings have no power over souls,
L. Laws catch flies, but let hornets go free. Law makers should not be law breakers.--Scotch. Law governs man, and reason the law. Law cannot persuade where it cannot punish. Law is costly, take a part and agree.-Scotch. Like the judges of Gallicia, who, for half a dozen chickens,
will dispense with a dozen penal statutes.--Spanish. A similar dole is said to have been formerly very efficacious with
our country justices of the peace. Another Spanish proverb says, “ To the judges of Gallicia go with feet in hand," alluding to a present of poultry, usually held by the legs.
M. Might overcomes right.
Money is an abridgement of human power.
Italian.--Il danaro é un compendio del potere humano. Much disorder brings with it much order.-Spanish. Much law but little justice. Where there is much law, there must be much uncertainty, and
uncertainty in the laws must be productive of litigation, which itself is a cause of great suffering and injustice to those possessed of little property.
New lords, new laws.
governments of Switzerland, who sold their citizens to shed their
0. Oppression causes rebellion. Of all wars, peace ought to be the end.-Pax quæritur bello. Oppression will make a wise man mad. Scotch.
Possession is eleven points of the law, and they say there are
but twelve. Popular opinion is the greatest lie in the world. This is in the wrong tense; it ought to have been in the past, not in
the present time. Popular opinion is not now a thing to be despised, though, prior to the more general diffusion of letters, it was little better than popular delusion. What, indeed, was the opinion of the educated classes worth two centuries ago, upon any question of morals, government, or natural philosophy? What did they know of any branch of physical science, of political eco nomy, penal law, or the principles of government? They had no books, and if they had, they could not have read them. Many of the Peers, in the reign of Henry VIII. did not know how to read, and could only sign their names with that almost forgotten symbol a--X, which the most illiterate classes would now be ashamed of employing. Books upon hobgoblins, witches, omens, and incantations, formed the literature of the age, and, of course, the more of this sort of knowledge any one possessed, the more
stupid and mischievous he became. James I, was esteemed wise in his generation; he was the Solomon of his time, and his superior wisdom consisted in burning and tormenting those who differed from him on the nature of the Divine essence. Judge Hale is a well-known instance of the vandalism of the upper-classes to a recent period : this luminary of the law could not define simple larceny ; but understood the nature of witchcraft, and publicly condemned men for this imaginary offence, amidst the applause of his no less enlightened contemporaries ! Popular opinion was a “great lie,” when Galileo was prosecuted for explaining the true nature of the earth's motion; but the times have widely changed. The invention of printing, and consequent spread of knowledge, have dispersed the cloud with which all ranks were enveloped ; and the vox populi may be now considered
the barometer of Truth. Peace would be general in the world, if there were neither
mine nor thine. Ital.-Gran pace sarrebbe in terra, se non vi fosse il mio, e il tuo.
Rewards and punishments are the basis of good government,
Ital.- Pena e premio son l'anima del buon governo. Rigid justice is the greatest injustice. This seems paradoxical. It doubtless means that to execute the
laws strictly to the letter, without regard to those circumstances of alleviation, which occasionally attend the commision of crimes, would be unjust. For example, when theft is committed merely to obtain the means of subsistence, or murder after suffering a grievous provocation, for which there is no redress; then it seems fair the execution, if not the sentence, of the law should be mitigated. The English penal code has, in several instances, provided a different punishment for the same offence, owing to the circumstances under which it was committed, as in the different cases of homicide. But it was impossible to foresee all the shades of difference, which tend to soften or aggravate the atrocity of crimes, and, in consequence, considerable discretion is left in the execution of the laws to the judge or chief magistrate. This does not alter the fundamental principle of jurisprudence, that the law should be the same for all; it only modifies the execution, not the sentence of the law. It makes no distinction between the rich and the poor ; for if a gentleman commits a felon's offence, he receives a felon's punishment, without regard to his embroidered coat or long purse.
The blood of the soldier makes the glory of the general,
Ital.-Il sangue del soldato fa grande il capitano. The people murder one another, and princes embrace one
another.--Italian. The soldier is well paid for doing mischief.
Ital.-Il soldato per far male e ben pagato.
Ital.—Peggio è la paura della guerra, che la guerra istessa.
Spanish. Allà van leyes, donde quieren reyes.
nage them. The treason is loved, but the traitor is hated.-Italian. A sentiment often repeated by Julius Cæsar, of which probably he
was the author. Shakspeare has forcibly expressed the feelings of one who had been deceived.
" Thou cold-blooded slave,