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Some, indeed, among us are not so much grieved for the present state of our affairs, as apprehensive for the future. The growth of luxury alarms them, and they think we are from that alone in the high road to ruin. They observe, that no revenue is sufficient without economy, and that the most plentiful income of a whole people from the natural productions of their country may be dissipated in vain and needless expenses, and poverty be introduced in the place of affluence. This may be possible. It however rarely happens : for there seems to be in every nation a greater proportion of industry and frugality, which tend to enrich, than of idleness and prodigality, which occasion poverty; so that, upon the whole, there is a continual accumulation. Reflect what Spain, Gaul, Germany, and Britain were in the time of the Romans, inhabited by people little richer than our savages; and consider the wealth they at present possess, in numerous wellbuilt cities, improved farms, rich moveables, magazines stocked with valuable manufactures, to say nothing of plate, jewels, and coined money; and all this, notwithstanding their bad, wasteful, plundering governments, and their wad destructive wars; and yet luxury and extravagant living has never suffered much restraint in those countries. Then cousider the great proportion of industrious frugal farmers inhabiting the inierior parts of these American states, and of whom the body of our nation consists; and judge whether it is possible that the luxury of our sea-ports can be sufficient to ruin such a country. If the importation of foreign luxuries could ruin a people, we should probably
have been ruined long ago; for the British nation claimed a right, and practised it, of importiug among us, not only the superfluities of their own production, but those of every nation under hea. ven ; we bought and consumed them, and yet we flourished and grew rich. At present our inde. pendent governments may do what we could not then do; discourage by heavy duties, or prevent by heavy prohibitions, such importations, and thereby grow richer ; if indeed, (which may admit of dis. pute) the desire of adorning ourselves with fine clothes, possessing fine furniture, with elegant houses, &c. is not, by strongly inciting to labour and industry, the occasion of producing a greater value than is consumed in the gratification of that desire.
The agriculture and fisheries of the United States are the great sources of our increasing wealth. He that puts a seed into the earth is recompensed, perhaps, by receiving forty out of it; and he who draws a fish out of our water, draws up a piece of silver.
Let us (and there is no doubt but we shall) be attentive to these, and then the power of rivals, with all their restraining and prohibiting acts, cannot much hurt us. We are sons of the earth and seas; and, like Antæus in the fable, if, in wrestling with a Hercules, we now and then receive a fall, the touch of our parents will communicate to us fresh strength and vigour to renew the contest.
INFORMATION TO THOSE WHO WOULD
REMOVE TO AMERICA. Many persons in Europe having, directly or by letters, expressed to the writer of this, who is well acquainted with North America, their desire of transporting and establishing themselves in that country; but who appear to him to have formed, through ignorance, mistaken ideas and expectations of what is to be obtained there; he thinks it may be useful, and prevent inconvenient, expensive, and fruitless removals and voyages of improper persons, if he gives some clearer and truer notions of that part of the world, than appear to have hitherto prevailed, · He finds it is imagined by numbers, that the inhabitants of North America are rich, capable of rewarding, and disposed to reward, all sorts of ingenuity; that they are at the same time ignorant of all the sciences, and consequently, that strangers, possessing talents in the belles lettres, fine arts, &c. must be highly esteenied, and so well paid, as to become easily rich theinselves; that there are also abundance of profitable offices to be disposed of, which the natives are not qualified to fill; and that, having few persons of family among them, stranger's of birth must be greatly respected, and of course easily obtain the best of those offices, which will make all their fortunes : that the governments too, to encourage emigrations from Europe, not only pay the expense of personal transportation, but give lands gratis to strangers, with negroes to
work for them, utensils of husbandry, and stocks of cattle. These are all wild imaginations; and those who go to America with expectations founded upon them will surely find themselves disappointed.
The truth is, that though there are in that counl. try few people so miserable as the poor of Europe, there are also very few that in Europe would be called rich; it is rather a general happy mediocrity that prevails. There are few great proprietors of the soil, and few tenants; most people cultirate their own lands, or follow some handycraft or merchandize; very few rich enough to live idly upon their rents or incomes, or to pay the high prices given iu Europe for painting, statues, architecture, and the other works of art, that are more çurious than useful. Hence the natural geniuses, that have arisen in America with such talents, have uniformly quitted that country for Europe, where they can be more suitably rewarded. It is true, that letters and mathematical knowledge are in esteem there, but they are at the same time more common than is apprehended; there being already existing nine colleges or universities, viz. four in New England, and one in each of the provinces of New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Maryland, and Virginia, all furnished with learned professors; besides a number of smaller academies : these educate many of their youth in the languages, and those sciences that qualify men for the professions of divivity, law, or physic. Strangers indeed are by no means excluded from exercising those professions; and the quick increase of inhabitants every
where gives them a chance of employ, which they have in common with the natives. Of civil offices or employments, there are few; no saperfluous ones, as in Europe; and it is a rule established in some of the states, that no office should be so pro, fitable as to make it desirable. The thirty-sixth article of the constitution of Pennsylvania runs expressly in these words : “ As every freeman, to préserve his independence, (if he has not a sufficient estate) ought to have some profession, calling, trade, or farm, whereby he may honestly subsist, there can be no necessity for, nor use in, establishing offices of profit; the usual effects of which are dependence and servility, unbecoming freemen, in the possessors and expectants ; faction, contention; corruption, and disorder among the people. Where: fore, whenever an office, through increase of fees, or otherwise, becomes so profitable as to occasion many to apply for it, the profits ought to be lessened by the legislature.”
These ideas prevailing more or less in all the United States, it cannot be worth any man's while, who has a means of living at home, to expatriate himself, in hopes of obtaining a profitable civil office in America; and as 'to military offices, they are at an end with the war, the armies being disa banded. Much less is it adviseable for a person to go thither, who has no other quality to recommend him but his birth. In Europe it has indeed its value ; but it is a commodity thạt cannot be cará ried to a worse market thau to that of America; where people do not inquire concerning a stranger, What is he? but What can he do? If he has any