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cases, absolutely shortens life. 'Sloth, like rnst, consumes faster than labour wears, while the used key is always bright,' as poor Richard says. 'But dost thou love life, then do not squander time, for that is the stuff life is made of,' as poor Richard says. How much more than is necessary do we spend in sleep I forgetting, that' the sleeping fox catches no poultry, and that there will be sleeping enough in the grave,' as poor Richard says.
"' If time be of all things the most precious, wasting time must be,' as poor Richard says, * the greatest prodigality;' since, as he elsewhere tells ns,' lost time is never found again; and what we call time enough always proves little enough:' let ns then up and be doing, and doing to the purpose; so by diligence shall we do more with less perplexity. 'Sloth makes all things difficult, but industry all easy; and he that riseth late must trot all day, and shall scarce overtake his business at night; while laziness travels so slowly, that poverty soon overtakes him. Drive thy business, let not that drive thee; and early to bed, and early to rise, makes a man healthy, wealthy, and wise,' as poor Richard says.
"So what signifies wishing and hoping for better times? We may make these times better, if we bestir ourselves. 'Industry need not wish, and he that lives upon hope will die fasting. There are no gains without pains; then help hands, for I have no lands,' or, if I have, they are smartly taxed. 'He that hath a trade hath an estate; and he that hath a calling hath an office of profit and honour,' as poor Richard says: but then the trade must be worked at, and the calling well followed, or neither the estate nor the office will enable us to pay our taxes. If we are industrious, we shall never starve; for ' at the working man's house hunger looks in, but dares not enter.' Nor will the bailiff or the constable enter; for ' industry pays debts, while despair increaseth them.' What though you have found no treasure, nor has any rich relation left you a legacy, * diligence is the mother of good luck, and God gives all things to industry. Then plough deep while sluggards sleep, and you shall have corn to sell and to keep.' Work while it is called to-day, for you know not how much you may be hindered to-morrow. 'One to-day is worth two to-morrows,' as poor Richard says; and farther, 'never leave that till to-morrow which you can do today.' If you were a servant, would you not be ashamed that a good master should catch you idle? Are you then your own master? Be ashamed to catch yourself idle, when there is so much to be done for yourself, your family, your country, and your king. Handle your tools without mittens; remember, that' the cat in gloves catches no mice,' as poor Richard says. It is true, there is much to be done, and perhaps you are weak-handed; but stick to it steadily, and you will see great effects; for 'constant dropping wears away stones; and by diligence and patience the mouse ate in two the cable; and little strokes fell great oaks.'
"Methinks I hear some of you say,' must a man afford himself no leisure?' I will tell thee, my friend, what poor Richard says: 'employ thy time well, if thou meanest to gain leisure; and since thou art not sure of a minute, throw not away an hour.' Leisure is time for doing something uselul; this leisure the diligent man will obtain, but the lazy man never; for ' a life of leisure and a life of laziness are two things. Many, without labour, would live by their wits only, but they break for want of stock;' whereas industry gives comfort, and plenty, and respect. 'Fly pleasures, and they will follow you. The diligent spinner has a large shift; and now I have a sheep and a cow, every body bids me good-morrow.'
"II. But with our industry we must likewise be steady, settled, and careful, and oversee our own affairs with our own eyes, and not trust too much to others; for, as poor Richard says,
'I never saw an oft-removed tree,
And again, 'three removes are as bad as a fire;' and again, ' keep thy shop, and thy shop will keep thee;' and again, • if you would have your business done, go; if not, send.' And again,
'He that by the plough would thrive,
And again,' the eye of a master will do more work than both his hands;' and again, 'want of care does us more damage than want of knowledge;' and again, 'not to oversee workmen is to leave them your purse open.' Trusting too much to others' care is the ruin of many; for, 'in the affairs of this world, men are saved, not by faith, but by the want of it;' but a man's own care is profitable; for ' if you would have a faithful servant, and one that you like, serve yourself. A little neglect may breed great mischief; for want of a nail the shoe was lost, and for want of a shoe the horse was lost, and for want of a horse the rider was lost,' being overtaken and slain by the enemy; all for want of a little care about a horseshoe nail.
"III. So much for industry, my friends, and attention to one's own business; but to these we must add frugality, if we would make our industry more certainly successful. A man may, if he knows not how to save as he gets, 'keep his nose all his life to the grind-stone, and die not worth a groat at last. A fat kitchen makes a lean will;' and
• Many estates are spent in the getting, Since women for tea forsook spinning and knitting. And men for punch forsook hewing and splitting.'
'If you would be wealthy, think of saving as well as of getting. The Indies have not made Spain rich, becanse her outgoes are greater than her incomes.'
"Away, then, with your expensive follies, and you will not then have so much canse to complain of hard times, heavy taxes, and chargeable families; for
'Women and wine, game and deceit, Make the wealth small, and the want great.'
And farther,' what maintains one vice would bring up two children.' You may think, perhaps, that a little tea, or a little punch now and then, diet a little more costly, clothes a little finer, and a little entertainment now and then, can be no great mattar; but remember,' many a little makes a mickle." Beware of little expenses; 'a small leak will sink a great ship,' as poor Richard says; and again, 'who dainties love shall beggars prove;' and moreover,' fools make feasts, and wise men eat them.'
"Here you are all got together to this sale of fineries and nick-nacks. You call them goods, but if you do not take care, they will prove evils to some of you. You expect they will be sold cheap, and perhaps they may, for less than they cost; but, if you have no occasion for them, they must be dear to you. Remember what poor Richard says : 'buy what thou hast no need of, and ere long thou shalt sell thy necessaries.' And again, * at a great pennyworth panse awhile.' He means, that perhaps the cheapness is apparent only, and not real; or the bargain, by straitening thee in thy business, may do thee more harm than good: for in another place he says,' many have been ruined by buying good pennyworths.' Again, 'it is foolish to lay out money in a purchase of repentance;' and yet this folly is practised every day at anctions, for want of minding the almanack. Many a one, for the sake of finery on the back, have gone with a hungry belly, and half starved their families: 'silks and satins, scarlet and velvets, put out the kitchen fire,' as poor Richard says. These are not the necessaries of life, they can scarcely be called the conveniences; and yet, only becanse they look pretty, how many want to have them! By these and other extravagancies, the genteel are reduced to poverty, and forced to borrow of those whom they formerly despised, but who, through industry and frugality, have maintained their standing; in