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clare for Queen

BOOK Jane herself, thinking herself sure of Sir John Bridges and

Sir Nicolas Poyntz, signed a letter to them, therein orderAono 1553. ing them to raise with speed all the power they could of

their servants, tenants, officers, and friends, to allay that tumult: and so she had written to other gentlemen in

those parts to do. This letter also I have put in the No. LXX. Appendix. They de.

And yet, (to see the vicissitude of men's minds, and un

certainty of human affairs,) July 20, divers of those very Mary. counsellors, that but the day before set their hands re

solvedly to stand by Queen Jane, proclaimed Queen Mary

in the city of London, and immediately dispatched the Earl 304 of Arundel and the Lord Paget unto her with a letter, writ

from Baynard's Castle, (where they now were removed from the Tower.) In which letter “ they beg her pardon, and “ to remit their former infirmities, and assure her, calling “ God to witness to the same, that they were ever in their “hearts her true subjects since the King's death: but could “ not utter their minds before that time without great de

“ struction and bloodshed of themselves and others." The No. LXXI. copy of this letter may be read in the Appendix.

The same day the council wrote to the Duke of Nor

thumberland their letters, dated from Westminster, sent by land to lay an herald: wherein the Duke was commanded and charged, down his

in Queen Mary's name, to disarm and discharge his soldiers and to forbear his return to the city, until the Queen's plea

And the same was to be declared to the Marquis of Northampton, and all other gentlemen that were with him. The herald was also, by virtue of his letters from the council, to notify in all places where he came, “that if the Duke “ did not submit himself to the Queen's Highness, he should “ be taken as a traitor, and they of the late King's council “ would persecute him to his utter confusion.” And thus far our Archbishop went. For this was signed by him, and the Bishop of Ely, Lord Chancellor; the Marquis of Winchester, the Duke of Suffolk, the Earls of Bedford, Shrewsbury, Pembrook; the Lord Darcy, Sir Richard Cotton; Petre and Cecyl, Secretaries; Sir John Baker, Sir John Mason, Sir Robert Bowes. The Duke saw it in vain to oppose, and so submitted to this order : and the plot that his

And write to Nor




ambition had been framing so long, and with so much art, CHAP. fell on a sudden.

I. Very speedily Queen Mary was owned abroad, as well as Anno 1553.

The Queen at home : Dr. Wotton, Dean of Canterbury ; Sir William

owned by Pickering, Sir Thomas Chaloner, ambassadors in France, the ambas.

sadors. writ their letters to her and the council, acknowledging her, and ceasing any further to act as ambassadors. She continued Dr. Wotton, and sent for Pickering and Chaloner home; and sent Sir Anthony St. Leger, the beginning of August, ambassador thither, joined with Wotton. This determination the council, August 12, signified to the said three ambassadors.

But now to cast our eyes upon the state of religion at this The Archtime. Upon this access of Queen Mary to the crown, whose bishop mis

reported to interest as well as education made her a zealous Papist, the have said good progress of religion was quite overthrown ; and the mass. pious Archbishop's pains and long endeavours in a great measure frustrated; and he himself soon after exercised with great afflictions. The first pretended occasion of which was this: it was reported abroad, soon after King Edward's death, that the Archbishop had offered to sing the mass and Requiem at the burial of that King, either before the Queen, or at St. Paul's church, or any where else; and that he had said or restored mass already in Canterbury. This indeed had the Suffragan of Dover, Dr. Thornton, done; but without the Archbishop's consent or knowledge.

But however, such good impressions of religion had the Mass at Archbishop left at Canterbury, that, though mass was set up

Canterbury there, and priests were through fear forced to say it, yet it was utterly contrary to their wills. And, about new-year'stide, there was a priest said mass there one day, and the next came into the pulpit, and desired all the people to for- 305 give him. For he said, “ he had betrayed Christ; but not " as Judas did, but Peter.” And then he made a long sermon against the mass.

But the aforesaid slanderous report so troubled the Arch- which hie bishop, that, to stay it, he wrote a letter to a friend of his, makes a

public dethat he never made any promise of saying mass, nor that he claration did set up the mass in Canterbury: but that it was done by against. “a false, flattering, lying monk, Dr. Thornden,” (such a


BOOK character in his just anger he gave him,) who was Suffragan

of Dover, and Vicedean of that church, in the absence of Anno 1553. Dr. Wotton, who was then abroad in embassy. This ThornFoxii MSS. den, saith my manuscript, (writ but a few years after by

Scory, or Becon, as I conjecture,) was “ a man having nei“ther wit, learning, nor honesty. And yet his wit is very

ready. For he preacheth as well extempore, as at a year's warning: so learnedly, that no man can tell what he

chiefly intendeth or goeth about to prove: so aptly, that “ a gross of points is not sufficient to tie his sermon toge“ther: not unlike to Jodocus a monk, of whom Erasmus “ maketh mention in his Colloquies, who, if he were not

garnished with these glorious titles, Monk, Doctor, Vice“ dean, and Suffragan, were worthy to walk openly in the “ streets with a bell and cock's comb.” Besides this letter, the Archbishop resolved to do something in a more public manner, in vindication of the reformation, as well as of himself. So he devised a declaration : wherein he both apologized for himself against this false report, and made a brave challenge, with the assistance of Peter Martyr, and a few more, to maintain, by disputation with any man, the reformation made under King Edward. This declaration, after a first draught of it, he intended to enlarge; and then, being sealed with his own seal, to set it upon the doors of St. Paul's church, and other churches in London. This writing, wherein the good religion and doctrine practised and taught in the former reign was so nobly owned, and offered to be defended in such a public manner, was not only read by somebody boldly in Cheapside, but many copies thereof were taken ; and so became dispersed. It was also soon after printed in Latin, and, I suppose, in English too. Sure I am, in the year 1557, it was printed beyond sea by the exiles: from which print I shall here transcribe it, being sent from Grindal to John Fox, for his use in the writing his history.


A Declaration of the Reverend Father in God Thomas Cran- CHAP.

mer, Archbishop of Canterbury, condemning the untrue and slanderous Report of some, which have reported, That Anno 1553. he should set up the Mass at Canterbury, at the first coming of the Queen to her Reign 1553.

“ AS the Devil, Christ's ancient adversary, is a liar, and the decla“ the father of lying; even so hath he stirred his servants

ration. “ and members to persecute Christ, and his true word and “ religion. Which he ceaseth not to do most earnestly at “ this present. For whereas the most noble Prince of fa“mous memory, King Henry VIII. seeing the great abuses “ of the Latin masses, reformed something herein in his 306 “ time; and also our late sovereign Lord King Edward VI. “ took the same whole away, for the manifold errors and “ abuses thereof, and restored in the place thereof Christ's “ holy supper, according to Christ's own institution, and as " the Apostles in the primitive church used the same in the

beginning: the Devil goeth about by lying to overthrow " the Lord's holy supper, and to restore the Latin satisfac“tory masses, a thing of his own invention and device. And,

to bring the same more easily to pass, some have abused “ the name of me, Thomas Archbishop of Canterbury, bruit

ing abroad, that I have set up the mass at Canterbury, “ and that I offered to say mass before the Queen's High“ ness, and at Paul's church, and I wot not where. I have “ been well exercised these twenty years to suffer and bear “ evil reports and lies; and have not been mych grieved

thereat, and have borne all things quietly. Yet when un“ true reports and lies turn to the hindrance of God's truth,

they be in no wise to be tolerate and suffered. Wherefore “ these be to signify to the world, that it was not I that did " set up the mass at Canterbury; but it was a false, flatter“ing, lying, and dissembling monk, which caused the mass “to be set up there, without my advice or counsel.

“ And as for offering myself to say mass before the

Queen's Highness, or in any other place, I never did, as “ her Grace knoweth well. But if her Grace will give me “ leave, I shall be ready to prove against all that will say “ the contrary; and that the Communion Book, set forth


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BOOK “ by the most innocent and godly Prince, King Edward VI.

“ in his high court of parliament, is conformable to the Anno 1553.« order which our Saviour Christ did both observe and

“ command to be observed, and which his Apostles and pri“ mitive church used many years. Whereas the mass, in

many things, not only hath no foundation of Christ, his

Apostles, nor the primitive church, but also is manifest “contrary to the same: and containeth many horrible blas“phemies in it. And although many, either unlearned, or “ maliciously, do report, that Mr. Peter Martyr is un

learned; yet, if the Queen's Highness will graunt there“ unto, I, with the said Mr. Peter Martyr, and other four or “ five which I shall choose, will, by God's grace, take upon “ us to defend, that not only our Common Prayers of the “ churches, ministration of the sacraments, and other rites “and ceremonies, but also that all the doctrine and religion, “ by our said sovereign Lord King Edward VI. is more “ pure, and according to God's word, than any that hath “ been used in England these thousand years: so that God's “ word may be the judge, and that the reason and proofs

may be set out in writing. To thentent as well all the “ world may examine and judge them, as that no man shall “ start back from their writing; and what faith hath been “ in the church these fifteen hundred years, we will joyne “ with them in this point: and that the doctrine and usage “ is to be followed, which was in the church fifteen hun“dred years past. And we shall prove, that the order of “ the church, set out at this present in this church of Eng

“ land by act of parliament, is the same that was used in the 307

“ church fifteen hundred years past. And so shall they never

“ be able to prove theirs." Appears be- Some copies of this declaration soon fell into the hands fore the commis

of certain bishops, who brought them to the council. The sioners at council sent a copy to the Queen's commissioners: who Paul's.

soon after ordered him to appear before them, and to bring in an inventory of his goods. The reason, as is alleged, of his being ordered to bring in this inventory, was, because it was then intended that he should have a sufficient living assigned him, and to keep his house, and not meddle with religion. So on the day appointed, which was August 27, the Arch

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