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The day with cloudes was suddeine overcast,
And angry love an hideous storme of raine
Did poure into his lemans lap so fast,

That everie wight to shrowd it did constrain;
And this faire couple eke to shroud themselves were fain.


Enforst to seeke some covert nigh at hand,
A shadie grove not farr away they spide,
That promist ayde the tempest to withstand;
Whose loftie trees, yclad with sommers pride,
Did spred so broad, that heavens light did hide,
Not perceable with power of any starr;
And all within were pathes and alleies wide,

With footing worne, and leading inward farr:
Faire harbour that them seems; so in they entred ar.


And foorth they passe, with pleasure forward led,
loying to heare the birdes sweete harmony,
Which, therein shrouded from the tempest dred,
Seemd in their song to scorne the cruell sky.
Much can they praise the trees so straight and hy, –
The sayling pine; the cedar, proud and tall;
The vine-propp elme; the poplar, never dry;

The builder oake, sole king of forrests all;
The aspine, good for staves ; the cypresse funerall;


The laurell, meed of mightie conquerours
And poets sage; the firre, that weepeth still ;
The willow, worne of forlorne paramours;
The eugh,' obedient to the benders will ;
The birch, for shaftes; the sallow, for the mill;
The mirrhe, sweete-bleeding in the bitter wound;
The warlike beech; the ash, for nothing ill;

The fruitfull olive; and the platane round;
The carver holme; the maple, seeldom inward sound.


Led with delight, they thus beguile the way
Untill the blustering storme is overblowne;
When, weening to returne whence they did stray,
They can not finde that path which first was showne,
But wander to and fro in waies unknowne,
Furthest from end then, when they neerest weene,
That makes them doubt their wits be not their owne :
So many pathes, so many turnings seene,
That, which of them to take, in diverse doubt they been.

Faerie Queene, Book I., Canto I.

1 Yew.


ROGER ASCHAM. - 1515-1568. The celebrated tutor of Queen Elizabeth. Author of a work on Germany, and “ Toxophilus,” in the preface of which he apologizes for writing it in English. His greatest work is “ The Schoolmaster.”

GEORGE BUCHANAN. — 1506-1582. Learned author of much Latin verse and prose, and of “ The Chameleon,” in Scotch.

Sir PHILIP SIDNEY. — 1554-1586. The gallant soldier; anthor of the Countess of Pembroke's “Arcadia,” “Defense of Poesie," and many beautiful sonnets.

RICHARD HOOKER. — 1553-1600. “ Laws of Ecclesiastical Polity,” “the first book of which,” Hallam says, “ is at this day one of the masterpieces of English eloquence."

THOMAS SACKVILLE. - 1536-1608. Joint author, with Thomas Norton, of Gorboduc,” a five-act tragedy, with chorus; "The Mirrour of Magistrates,.

' of which he wrote “ The Induction;” and “Story of the Duke of Buckingham.”

Sir WALTER RALEIGH. — 1552–1618. Gallant soldier and accomplished courtier; author of “History of the World,” “Narrative of a Cruise to Guiana,” and other works in prose; also cultivated poetry somewhat.

BEN JONSON. 1574-1637. Celebrated English dramatist, the friend of Shakspeare; author of “ Catiline" and "6

Sejanus,” tragedies; “Every Man in his Humor,” “ The Alchemist,” and “ Volpone,” comedies; and many other plays, minor poems, and prose-writings. On his tombstone are the words, “O rare Beni Jonson!”

THOMAS TUSSER. - 1523-1580 ? “ Five Hundred Points of Good Husbandry.”

ROBERT GREENE. — 1560 ?-1592. Occupies a high rank among early English dramatists. “ A Groat's Worth of Wit bought with a Million of Repentance."

ROBERT SOUTHWELL. - 1560-1595. “St. Peter's Complaint," " Mary Magdalene's Funeral Teurs,” and other poeins. SAMUEL DANIEL. 1562-1619. Musophilus,”

," "A History of the Wars between the Houses of York and Lancaster.”

MICHAEL DRAYTON. – 1563–1631. “Polyolbion," " The Shepherd's Garland," “Barons' Wars," " England's Heroical Epistles,” “Nymphidia,” and others.

CHRISTOPHER MARLOWE. —1563?-1593. Wrote several plays in excellent blank verse,

“ Tamburlaine the Great," " Life and Death of Dr. Faustus," "The Jew of Malta," and " Edward III."

Sir HENRY WOTTON. - 1568-1639. Elements of Architecture; " " The State of Christendom; ” and “ Reliquiæ Wottonianæ," published after his death.

FRANCIS BEAUMONT. - 1586 -1615. JOHN FLETCHER. - 1576-1625. Wrote fifty-two tragedies and comedies. More popular than Shakspeare in their day, and still belong to the English classics.

PHINEAS FLETCHER. — 1584-1650. “ The Purple Island.”
GILES FLETCHER. “ Christ's Victory and Triumph."

Philip MASSINGER. — 1584-1640. Of his many plays, eighteen live; and “A New Way to pay Old Debts” is still acted.

WILLIAM DRUMMOND. – - 1585-1649. " The Flowers of Zion,” “ Tears on the Death of Mæliades," " The River of Forth Feasting,” and sonnets.

JOHN FORD. 1586 - 1639. “ Brother, and Sister,” “Love's Sacrifice," and “ The Broken Heart," deep tragedies; “ Perkin Warbeck,” historical play.

THOMAS CAREW.- 1589-1639. “ Cælum Britannicum,” and many lyrics. WILLIAM BROWNE. — 1590-1645. “Britannia's Pastorals," and other works.

ROBERT HERRICK. - 1591 -1674. "To Blossoms," "To Daffodils," “ Gather the Rosebuds while Ye may,” are some of the delightful lyrics from his graceful pen.


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FRANCIS QUARLES. 1592-1644. “Emblems,"

,” “Divine Fancies,” “Enchiridion."

GEORGE HERBERT. - 1593-1632. “The Temple," a collection of sacred poems.
JAMES SHIRLEY. 1596-1666. Writer of plays.
RICHARD CRASHAW. - ?- 1650. Religious poetry, and translations.
Sir John SUCKLING. 1609–1641. Lyrist. “Dallad on a Wedding."

THOMAS WILSON. Sys of Rhetoric and Logic," the first critical work upon the English language. WILLIAM CAMDEN. 1551-1623. Britannia,"

," narratives of Queen Elizabeth's reign, and the Gunpowder Plot, in Latin.

RICHARD HAKLUYT. — 1553-1616. "Voyages and Discoveries of the English Nation,” and translations of Leo's “ Africa,'' and Peter Martyr's - West Indies.”

SAMUEL PURCHAS. — 1577-1628. “ Purchas his Pilgrimes,” and “Purchas his Pilgrimeage.” KING JAMES I. - 1566-1625. Royal pedant. Dæmonologie,”

" " Basilicon Doron,” “ Counterblasts to Tobacco," and some English and Latin poems.

JOSEPH HALL. - 1574-1656. Contemplations on Historical Passages of the Old and New Testaments,” “Occasional Meditations,” sermons, and other writings.

ROBERT BURTON. — 1578-1640. Author of celebrated “ Anatomy of Melancholy."

THOMAS DEKKER. — 1638? “The Gull's Hornbook," satirical; and more than twenty plays.

Lord HERBERT. 1581 -1648. “De Veritate," “ Life and Reign of Henry VIII.,” and memoirs of his own life.

JAMES USSHER. - 1581-1656. “The Power of the Prince, and Obedience of the Subject;"

;” “Annals from the Creation to the Fall of Jerusalem;” and other works. JOHN SELDEN. — 1584-1654. "A Treatise on Titles of Honor," "History of Tithes." Called by Milton “the chief of learned men reputed in the land.”

THOMAS HOBBES. - 1588-1679.' " De Cive;"? " Human Nature;” “ De Corpore Politico;" his famous work, " Leviathan;" " A Translation of Homer;' " “ Elements of Philosophy;” and other works.

IZAAK WALTON. — 1593-1683. " The Complete Angler, or Contemplative Man's Recreation;" the Lives of Hooker, Donne, Wotton, and others.

JAMES HOWELL. — 1596-1666. “ Familiar Letters,” and about forty works.

Sir THOMAS MORE. 1480-1535. “ Life and Reign of Edward V.,” the first English history deserving the name, and earliest classical English prose. His most famous work is his “Utopia," describing a perfect republic. Several theological works.

WILLIAM TYNDALE. - 1477?-1536. Translated New Testament into English, “English Version of the Book of Jonah,” and other works.

THOMAS CRANMER. - 1489-1556. The compiling of “ The Book of Common Prayer" is chiefly due to Cranmer; “ Twelve Homilies,” and the “Great Bible.”

HENRY HOWARD (Earl of Surrey). — 1516–1547. Translation of the Second and-Fourth Books of the Æneid.” Is said to have written the first English sonnets.

- ROBERT HENRYSON. -- Died 1507? Poet. “Testament of Fair Cresseide," ballad of “Robin and Makyne," " The Moral Fables of Æsop,” “ The Garment of Gude Ladyes," and other works.

WILLIAM DUNBAR. — 1460-1520? “ The Thistle and the Rose," " The Golden Terge," "The Dance of the Seven Deadly Sins,” and other poems. Called by Sir Walter Scott“ the first of Scottish poets.”

GAWIN DOUGLAS. - 1474 ?-1522? The first translation, a Latin classic, Virgil's “Æneid,” into the Scottish dialect; “King Hart;” and “ The Palace of Honor."

ALEXANDER BARCLAY. - 1522. “The Ship of Fools,” a satirical allegory.
STEPHEN HAWES. “Pastime of Pleasure.” Favorite of Henry VII.
JOHN SKELTON. -?-1529. Satirist. Colin Clout."
JOHN HEYWOOD. “Interludes,” satires of the clergy.

Sir THOMAS WYATT. — 1503-1541.

Remarkable for his scholarship, wit, and


Sir David LINDSAY. — 1490 ?–1557. “Play of the Three Fstates," Squire Meldrum,” last of the metrical romances; “ The Monarchie,” and “ Complaynt of the King's Papingo."

NICHOLAS UDALL. – 1506 ?-1557. Anthor of “Ralph Royster Doyster,” the eariiest existing English comedy, written about 1550.

John FISHER.- 1459-1535. Sermons.
Lord BERNERS.- Translated the chronicles of “ Jean Froissart.”

ROBERT FABYAN. - ?-1512. “ Concordance of Stories,” a chronicle of English history.

EDWARD HALL. – 8-1547. “ History of the Houses of York and Lancaster.”

Sir THOMAS ELYOT. - ?-1546. “ The Castle of Health,” “ The Governor," and a Latin and English dictionary. His views on education were greatly in advance of his time.

John BELLENDEN. Translated (1536) Hector Boece's “History of Scotland," earliest existing Scottish prose literature; “ First Five Books of Livy;" besides letters and poems. The first original work in Scotch prose was published in 1548.

JOHN LELAND. - ?-1552. Itinerary” and “ Collectanea.” First English antiquary of note.

HUGH LATIMER. - 1472?-1555. Sermons and letters.

MILES COVERDALE. — 1487-1568. The first printed translation of the whole Bible; also assisted in Cranmer's and the Geneva translations.

JOHN BALE. - 1495-1563. “ Lives of Eminent Writers of Great Britain," in Latin, — first author, Japheth; “ Chronicle of Lord Cobham's Trial and Death;” scriptural dramas.

John Knox. - 1505-1572. “ History of the Scottish Reformation," himself the leader.

GEORGE CAVENDISH. — -1557. “Life of Cardinal Woolsey."
Sir John CHEKE. — 1514-1557. “ The Hurt of Sedition."

JOHN Fox. - 1517-1587. Author of the celebrated work, “ Acts and Monuments of the Church," or “Fox's Book of Martyrs."

WILLIAM CAXTON. - 1412-1491. At the age of fifty-nine, this remarkable man went to Cologne to learn the printer's trade; and there finished, in 1471, the translation of a French work by Raoul le Févre, " The History of Troy,” the first English book from any press. Soon after, having returned to England, was issued from the Westminster press its earliest work, “ The Game and Plave of the Chesse, translated ont of the French, fynysshed the last day of Marche, 1474."

The first English book with woodcut illustrations was a second edition of the same. Caxton wrote or translated and printed sixty-five works. The industry necessary to accomplish so much after an active life of threescore years is the more wonderful when we consider that he combined within himself the offices of author, ink-maker, compositor, pressman, proof-reader, binder, publisher, and bookseller.

WYNKYN DE WORDE, assistant and successor of Caxton, printed four hundred and eight works. RICHARD PYNson, another assistant, printed two hundred and twelve works.


1328 ?-1400.

Called "the morning-star of English poetry.”. Famous author of “The Canterbury Tales,” in which some thirty pilgrims to the tomb of Thomas à Becket are to tell two stories each, going and returning; the poems being planned like “ The Decameron ” of Boccaccio. Only twenty-four are told; two of which,“ The Tale of Melibeus” and “The Persones Tale,” are in prose; in which style of writing he also excelled. “ The Court of Love," \o Troilus and Cresseide," " Romaunt of Love," 6. The House of Fame,” “ The Legende of Goode Women," " The Flour and the Lefe,” and “The Testament of Love, ," in prose, are his principal pieces. Hallam ranks him one of the three great poets of the middle ages, with Dante and Petrarch.



A good man was ther of religioun,
And was a porë persoun of a toun;
But riche he was of holy thought and werk :
He was also a lerned man, a clerk,
That Cristës gospel truly woldë preche :
His parischens devoutly would he teche.
Benigne he was, and wondur diligent,
And in adversité ful pacient.
Wyd was his parisch, and houses fer asоndur ;
But he ne lafte not for reyn ne thondur,
In sicknesse ne in meschief to visite
The ferrest in his parische, moche and lite,
Uppon his feet, and in his hond a staf.
This noble ensample unto his scheep he gaf, -
That ferst he wroughte, and after that he taughte.
Out of the gospel he thoi wordës caughte,
That, if gold ruste, what schulde yren doo?
For, if a priest be foul on whom we truste,
No wondur is a lewid man' to ruste.
To drawë folk to hevën by fairnesse,
By good ensample, was his busynesse;
But it were eny persone obstinat,
What so he were of high or lowe estat,
Him wolde he snybbë scharply for the nones.*
A bettrë priest I trowe ther nowher non is.
He waytud after no pomp ne reverence;
Ne makëd him a spiced conscience :
But Cristës love, and his apostles twelve,
He taught; and ferst he folwëd it himselve!

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