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XXXIX. TOMENTOSE, DOWNY, NAPPY, FLOCKY, CorTONY (tomentosus), covered with soft hairs so interwoven, as scarcely to be discernible, as Verbascum thapзus.


TOMENTOSUS, from tomentum, down, nap, @otton, or flocks, from TEMNO, to cut, being the fine cuttings or shavings, or as others think from TUMEO, to swell, being used to stuff pillows and beds. Strictly speaking, tomen

tum is short wool that is not carded and spun.

1. Villis intertextis vix conspicuis tegitur, ergo sæpius albidus; uti plantæ marinæ et campestres ventis expositæ.-LINN ÆUS.

2. Tomentose, which if translated, is downy, nappy, cottony, or flocky, is applied to stems, when they are covered with hairs so interwoven as scarcely to be discernible, and is a species of pubescence, usually white, as found on sea plants, and such as grow in exposed situations.-MARTYN.

3. Covered with whitish down, whose hairs are interwoven, and hardly distinguishable.BERKENHOUT.

4. Downy, very soft to the touch.-SMITH. 5. Drapée, les poils forment une couverture semblable à du drap.-BRISSEAU-MIR


XL. WOOLLY (lanatus), cover ed with still finer hairs, which appear curled, as in Salvia Ethi opica.


LANATUS, from lana, wool.

1. Quasi tela araneæ indutus.-LINNEUS. 2. Woolly, having a covering resembling a spider's web, composed of hairs curling spon taneously.-MARTYN.

3. Covered as with a spider's web.-BER


4. Woolly.-SMITH.

5. Laineuse, lanugineuse; les poil sont semblable a de la laine.-BRISSEAU-MIRBEL.

XLI. VILLOSE, VILLOUS (vil losus), covered with soft hairs, a less degree than the last.


VILLOSUS, from villus, wool, and this fro velare, to conceal.

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1. Pilis mollibus pubescens.-IANNAUS 2. Pubescent, or covered with soft hairs. MARTYN.

3. Covered with pubes, one of the seven kinds of fulera. It includes pili, lana, barba, tomentum, striga, setæ, hami, glochides

3. Woolly, covered with distinct, but soft glaudule, utriculi, viscositas, and glutinohairs.-BERKENHOUT. sitas. In the Philosophia Botanica, stimuli, aculei, furce, and spine, are also numbered among the pubes, but Linnæus has since ranged them under arma.-BERKENHOUT. 4. Pubescente, couverte d'un léger duvetBRISSEAU-MIRBEL.

4. Shaggy.-SMITH.

5. I find no such term in BRISSEAU-MIR


XLII. PUBESCENT (pubescens), covered with any of the foregoing armour, as Linnæus calls


1. HAIRS (pili.), hairs not so stiff as the next term. Vide No. XXXII.

2. BRISTLES (sete), or strong found hairs. Vide No. XXXIII

3. BEARD (barba), parallel hair.

4. FLOCK (tomentum), interwoven villous hairs not individually distinct. Vide No. XXXIX.

5. Wool (lana), the finest curled hairs. Vide No. XL.

6. Hooks (hami), sharp crooked points. Vide No. XXXIV.

7. BARBS (glochides), sharp straight points. Vide No. XXXIV.

8. GLANDS (glandula), having the structure of glands. Vide No. XXXVIII.


PUBESCENS, from pubes, down.

1. Pubescentia est armatura plante quâ ab externis injuris defenditur--LINNEUS.

2. Covered with some sort of pubescence. Glands seem to be improperly enumerated by Linnæus as a sort of pubescence.--MARTYN.

LXX. PRICKLY (aculeatus), armed with prickles, the eighth species of armature, which arises from the bark.


ACULEATUS, from aculeur, a prickle.
1. Prickly.-MARTYN.

2. Beset with stiff sharp prickles, between hispidus and spinosas, furnished with aculei BERKENHOUT.

3. Pourvue d'acquillon.-BRISSEAU-MAR


5. Aculeus is a prickle like a thorn, but arising from the bark only; mucro pungens cortice tantum affixus.-LINNUS.

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"OBSERVE and mark, as well as you may, what is the temper and disposition of those persons, whose speeches you hear, whether they be grave, serious, sober, wise, discreet persons; if they be such, their speeches commonly are like themselves, and will deserve your attention and observation. But if they be light, impertinent, vain, passionate persons, their speech is, for the most part, according; and the best advantage that you will gain by their speech, is but thereby to learn their dispositions, to discern their failings, and to make yourselves the more cautious, both in your couservation with them, and in your own speech and deportment, for, in the unseemliness of their speech, you may better discern and avoid the like in yourselves.

"If any person, that you do not very well know to be a person of truth, sobriety, and weight, relate strange stories, be not too ready or easy to believe them, nor report them after him; and yet (unless he be one of your familiar acquaintance) be not too forward to contradict him; or if the necessity of the occasion require you to declare your opinion of what is so reported, let it be modestly and gently, not too bluntly or coarsely; by this mcaus, on the one side, you shall avoid being abused by your too much credulity; on the other side, you shall avoid quarrels, and distaste.

"If any man speak any thing to the disad vantage or reproach of one that is absent, be not too ready to believe it, only observe and remember it; for it may be, it is not true, or it is not all true, or some other circumstances were mingled with it, which might give the business reported a justification, or at least an allay, an extenuation, or a reasonable excuse: in most actions, if that which is bad alone, or seems to be so, be reported, omitting|| that which is good, or the circumstances that accompany it, any action may be easily misrepresented; be not too hasty therefore to believe a reproach, till you know the truth, and the whole truth.

"If any person report unto you some injury done you by another, either in words or deeds, do not be over hasty in believing it, uor suddenly angry with the person so accused; for possibly it may be false or mistaken; and, how unseemly a thing will it be, when your credulity and passion, shall perchance carry you, upon a supposed injury, to do wrong to him that hath done you none; or, at least, when the bottom and truth of the accusation is known, you will be ashamed of your passion? believe not a report till the party accused be heard; and if the report be true, yet be not transported either with passion, hasty anger, or revenge, for that will be your own torment and perturbation; ever, when a person is accused, or reported to have injured you, before you give yourself leave to be angry, think with yourself, why should I be angry before I am certain it is true? or, if it be true, how can I tell how much I should be angry till I know the whole matter? though, it may be, he hath done ine wrong, yet possibly it is not so much as it is represented, or it was done by mistake, or, it may be, he is sorry for it: I will not be angry till I know there be cause, and if there be cause, yet I will not be angry, till I know the whole cause, for till then, ifI must be angry at all, yet I know not how much to be angry; it may be it is not worth my anger, or, if it be, it may be it deserves but a little. This will keep your mind and carriage, upon such occasions, in a due temper and order; and will disappoint malicious or officious tale bearers.

"If a man, whose integrity you do not very well know, makes you great and extraordinary professions and promises, give him as kind thanks as may be, but give not much credit to it: cast about with yourself what may be the reason of this wonderful kindness; it is twenty to one but you will find something that he aims at besides kindness to you: it may be he hath something to beg or buy of you, or to seli to you, or some such bargain that speaks out, at least, his own advantage, and not yours; and if he serve his turn upon you, or


if he be disappointed, his kindness will grow cool.

"If a man flatter and commend you to your face, or to one that he thinks will tell you of it, it is a thousand to one, either he hath deceived or abused you some way, or means to do so: remember the fable of the fox, commeading the singing of the crow, when she had somewhat in her mouth that the fox liked.

"If a person be choleric, passionate, and give you ill language, remember rather to pity him than to be moved into anger and passion with him; for most certainly that man is in a distemper and disorder; observe him calmly, and you shall see him in so much perturbation and disturbance, that you will easily believe he is not a pattern to be imitated by you; and therefore return not choler nor anger, for angry words; for you do but put yourself into a kind of frenzy, because you see him so. Be sure you return not railing, reproaching, or reviling for reviling, for it doth but kindle more heat, and you will find silence, or, at least, very gentle words, the most exquisite revenge of reproaches that can be; for either it will cure the distemper in the other, and make him see and be sorry for his passion, or it will torment him with more perturbation and disturbance. But howsoever it keeps your innocence, gives you deserved reputation of wisdom and moderation, and keeps up the serenity and composure of your mind; whereas passion and anger do make a man unfit for any thing that becomes him, as a man or a Christian.

"Now as concerning your own speech, and how you are to manage it; something may be collected out of what goes before, but I shall add some things else.

"Let your speech be true, never speak any thing for a truth which you know, or believe, to be false: it is a great sin against God, that gave you a tongue to speak your mind and not to speak a lie; it is a great offence against humanity itself, for where there is no truth there can be no safe society between man and mau: and it is an injury to the speaker; for, besides the base disreputation it casts upon him, it doth in time bring a man to that baseness of mind, that he can scarce tell how to tell truth, or to avoid lying, even when he hath no colour of necessity for it; and in time he comes to such a pass, that as another man caunot believe he tells a truth, so he himself scarce knows when he tells a lie: and, observe it, a lie ever returns with discovery and shame at the last.

"As you must be careful not to lie, so you must avoid coming near it; you must not equivocate, you must not speak that absolutely which you have but by hearsay, or relation; you must not speak that as upon knowledge, which you have but by conjecture or opinion only.

"Some men are excellent in knowledge of husbandry; some of planting, some of gardening, some in the mathematics, some in one kind, some in another: in all your conversation, learn as near as you can, wherein the skill and excellence of any person lies, and put him upon talk of that subject, and observe it, and keep it in memory or writing; by this means you will glean up the worth and excellence of every person you meet with, and at an easy rate put together that which may be for your use upon all occasions.

"Converse not with a liar, or a swearer, or a man of obscene or wanton language; for either he will corrupt you, or at least it will hazard your reputation to be one of the like making; and, if it do neither, yet will fill your memory with such discourses that will be troublesome to you in aftertime, and the returns of the remembrance of the passages which you long since heard of this nature, will haunt you when your thoughts should be better employed.

No. III. Vol. L-N. 5.

"Let your words be few, especially when your betters, or strangers, or men of more experience, or understanding, are in place; for you do yourself at once two great mischiefs. 1. You betray and discover your own weakness and folly. 2. You rob yourself of that opportunity which you might otherwise have to gain knowledge, wisdom, and experience, by hearing those that you silence by your impertinent talking.

"Be not over earnest, loud, or violent in talking, for it is unseemly; and earnest and loud talking makes you over-shoot and lose your business; when you should be considering and pondering your thoughts, and how to express them significantly to the purpose, you are striving to keep your tongue going, and to silence an opponent, not with reason, but with noise.

"Be careful not to interrupt another in his talk, hear him out, you will understand him the better, and be able to give him the better answer; it may be, if you will give him leave, he will say somewhat more than you have yet heard, or well understood, or that which you did not expect.

"Always before you speak, especially where the business is of moment, consider before hand, weigh the sense of your mind, which you intend to utter, think upon the expres


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