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Duty on Alum Salt.

[Feb. 8, 1831.

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only means that the Postmaster General bas put them so able, faithful, and efficient, as he is. Their aim is aside, and removed them a distance from him, as unfit to higher; through him they wish to reach the man who be associates with him in the administration of his depart- keeps them out of power and place; but in this they will ment, then he may have acted in good taste and no fur- fail. “The gods take care of Cato," and a just Provitherance of the public interest.

dence, and an honest people will protect and defend the The Senate will not expect me to notice the poetry of defender of his country against all unjust assaults of his the gentleman from Maine. My business is with dollars eneinies. and cents--post offices, and post roads, and this is a poor subject for poetical display. It requires the imagination

TUESDAY, FEBRUARY 8. and genius of the gentleman from Maine to strew flowers over post roads at this inclement season of the year. I

DUTY ON ALUM SALT. will, however, notice his delicate and classical story re- Mr. BENTON rose to ask leave to introduce a bill to specting the public “meat cellar,” and make the true ap- repeal the duty on alum salt. He said that this kind of plication. As I understand it, this “cellar" belongs to the salt was not manufactured in the United States; that it people of the United States; the gentleman and his friends was indispensable in curing provisions, and had to be were once placed in it to take care of it; the people were bought at whatever price it might cost. He said that the of opinion that they were not faithful sentinels; they uses of salt, and the injury done to the community by turned them out, and have placed others in, who they be- taxing it, had commanded the attention of the British lieved were more faithful, and the gentleman and his Parliament, and occasioned a committee to be appointed friends are now endeavoring to break in, but the people in the year 1818, whose labors were a monument to their will not let them. The gentleman further remarks, that honor, and a title to the gratitude of their country. They when men are seeking for power, any means are resorted had taken the examinations in writing of more than seto for the accomplishment of their object. Did the gen- venty witnesses, comprehending men of the first charactleman recollect that it might be said that he was illustrat. ter in every walk of life, of whom he would mention Lord ing the truth of his doctrine by his own example, and Kenyon, Sir Thomas Bernard, Sir John Sinclair, Arthur that the tendency of his whole conduct in this whole pro-Young, and Sir John Stanley, whose testimony, with the ceeding went to show that there were no morals in poli- reports of the committec, extended to four hundred folio tics? The gentlemen exclaim there will be no report made pages. He would read some parts of their testimony, and by this committee. If there be none, the fault shall be believed that the Senate would perform a great service to theirs, not ours. I hope a report will be made, one that the American people if they would direct a committee to will silence calunny and seal the lips of slander. I have make an abstract of the whole, and publish some thousand admitted that by means of misrepresentation some men copies for distribution among the people. have been removed, whom it would have been better to Mr. B. then began to read a part of the extracts which have retained, and the gentleman from Maine may have he had made, when he was interrupted by Mr. Foot, of known some one instance of that kind; and such is his Connecticut, who made several points of order, one of imagination, that whenever he hears of a removal, let the which was, that Mr. B.'s motion was not seconded.

The cause of removal be what it may, he supposes that it has Vice President said that it was not usual to have motions been done improperly, and from a spirit of proscription. seconded in the Senate; that the rule was a formality He reasons like the medical student; he was taken by his which had not been attended to in practice; but, if any preceptor to sec a sick patient; the patient had become Senator made it a point, the rule must be enforced. Mr. worse, and the doctor charged the family with their having B. then appealed to the Senators from the south of Mason given him eggs to eat, which had increased his illness; and Dixon's line to furnish him a second.

Several rose, the fact was admitted; the doctor again prescribed and and, observing among them Mr. Wood BURY, of New returned home; the student was curious to know how his Hampshire, he gave him the preference, because he was preceptor had come to the knowledge of the fact that his from the north of Mason and Dixon's line, and because patient had eaten eggs; the preceptor told him he had he had been the first to open the campaign against the seen the shells under the bed. On the next day the stu- salt tax several years ago. He said that the report and dent was sent to see the same patient, and found the man speeches of the Senator from New Hampshire against the dying, and informed his preceptor that the man had eaten salt tax would remain as monuments to his honor when a horse; the preceptor said that was impossible; the stu- his own poor exertions were forgotten; and he took pride dent persisted in it, and upon being asked the reason why and pleasure in paying this tribute to him, and making it he thought so, he said he had seen a bridle under the bed; more fully known in the West, that he was only the foland whenever the gentleman from Maine sees a bridle, or lower of that distinguished and patriotic Senator, so justly a change of postinaster, a horse or a Yankee, in his imagi- dear to the whig republicans of all quarters of the Union, nation, has been devoured.

in waging a war of determined hostility against the salt The gentleman charges this administration with finch. tax. ing. He who is now at the head of this Government The other objections of Mr. Foor being disposed of, never learned the art of flinching, nor will he permit Mr. B. went on to read, or state, the extracts to which he those who act under him, either in the field or cabinet, referred. to do so; and the gentleman will learn this, should the Chief Magistrate entertain the same opinion I do in rela- 1. From Sir John Sinclair's evidence.--I was once at tion to the call made on the Postmaster General to assign the farm of a great farmer in the Netherlands, a Mr. Mes the causes which have produced the removals of postmas- selman, at Chenoi, near Havre, where I was surprised to ters. I have said that I thought that neither the Senate see an immense heap of Cheshire rock salt, which he said nor the committee have the constitutional right to make he found of the greatest use for his stock. He said, first, this demand. Should the Chief Magistrate think so, of that, by allowing his sheep to lick it, the rot was effectual. one thing I am certain, that he who never suffered his ly prevented; secondly, that his cattle, to whom he gave own private rights, or the rights of his country, to be in- lumps of it to lick, were thereby protected from infecvaded, will not permit an encroachment upon the rights tious disorders; and the cows being thus rendered more of his official station.

healthy, and being induced to take a greater quantity of Sir, we cannot mistake the object which gentlemen liquid, gave more milk. And I saw lumps of this salt, to have in view; they cannot desire to sacrifice the Post- which the cows bad access, in the place where they were master General, a man so amiable and honest, an officer kept. He also said, that a small quantity pounded was

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found very beneficial to the horses when new oats were accelerates and promotes the quantity of milk given by given them, if the oats were at all moist.

He milch cows. [In another place Mr. C. says that the use gare them great lumps, that they (the cattle) might lick of salt prevents the ill taste which the feeding on certain when they chose. • One of the most important weeds and vegetables imparts to the milk.] It prevents uses of salt

, as connected with agriculture, is, that it pre- the rot in sheep, and the effect of hoving, when stock are serves seed, when sown, from the attacks of the grub.” fed on turnips or clover.

Salt renders daIn a communication to me from Sweden, by maged bay palatable and nutritious; and, if applied in difBaron Schultz, he says, the salt destroys the different sort ficult seasons, prevents an undue fermentation and heat in of worms found in the bodies of sheep, but in particular the stack. Chaff and straw would be rendered available the liver worm.

to a much greater extent than at present by the applica

tion of salt. It would be a most valuable ingredient in 2. Arthur Young's Testimony.--Did you ever try salt the preparation of warm food for stall-fed cattle in the imin the feeding of your cattle?

proved system of soiling; and, from my experience of its Yes; but chiefly with sheep; and I found the sheep as- salutary effects, I should consider the free use of it, as a tonishingly fond of it.

condiment, the greatest boon the Government could be. Do you think that it would be beneficial in preventing stow on the husbandman.

I consider the rot in sheep?

the advantage from salt, in feeding my stock, on a farm of I found it so in the years when my neighbors' sheep eight hundred acres, worth about one thousand pounds were generally affected with the rot: my sheep escaped, per annum, would exceed three hundred pounds per anand my land was quite as wet as my neighbors'. num! (that is, add a third to the annual value of the

Do you think, considering the advantages in health, farm.) fattening, and the power of using inferior food in the feed- The probable consumption of salt for sheep and cating of cattle and stock in general, that the free use of tle may be taken as follows, to wit: salt would be an advantage equivalent to seven shillings a bead to the farmer?

14 lbs. the stone. I should think it would be worth a great deal more.

Per annum.

Stones.

I think it is invaluable. In short, let my answer be what it would, it would be under the mark.

Dr. Young then gave his opinion that the stock in Eng- 30,000,000 sheep, 2 stone each, 60,000,000 land would be increased in value above three millions 1,421,000 cows,

6 do.

8,526,000 sterling, nearly fifteen millions of dollars, by the free use 2,000,000 young cattle, 4 do.

8,000,000 of salt. He estimated the stock in England to be-- 1,100,000 fatting beasts, 6 do.

6,600,000 Horses, 1,500,000 head 1,200,000 draught cattle, 4 do.

4,800,000 Cattle,

4,500,000 do. 300,000 colts and sad. Sheep,

30,000,000 do.
dle horses,
3 do.

900,000

1,200,000 horses, not estimated, 3. Testimony of Willium Glover, superintendent of the cat

88,826,000 ile of the Hon. Mr. Curwen, M. P.

N. B. 14 pounds 1 stone, 4 stones 1 bushel, 4 bushels 1 This deponent began to give salt to the cattle under cwt. his care the 19th November, 1817, and from that time till of The English bushel of salt is 56 lbs. t now the cattle have had salt, as follows: 40 milch cows

and breeding heifers, each 4 ounces per day; 30 oxen, 4 6. Lord Kenyon's evidence before the committee.-By ounces each per day; 27 young cattle, each 2 ounces per the information which I have been able to collect, I am day; 26 calves, 1 ounce each per day; 48 horses, each 4 induced to consider salt, when sparingly applied, as an ounces per day; 444 sheep, 2 ounces each per week. admirable manure, especially for fallows and arable land; The advantage of salt for sheep appears to this deponent and, when mixed up with soil out of gutters, or refuse to be great; as he says none of the stock have died in the dirt or ashes, to be very valuable also on grass lands. My sickness since they commenced giving salt; and they have own experience convinces me that it is very powerful in had none in the rot; in other years they lost some of the destroying vegetation if laid on too thick, having put a ewes and wethers in the sickness. And this deponent large quantity of refuse salt on about one-fourth of an acre says that he has now kept the cattle at Schoose farm ten of land, which, after two years, still remains quite bare. Fears, and they were never so long without sickness.

A land surveyor of high character in my neighborhood, 4. The affidavit of thirty-two farmers.

considers that the use of salt would be likely to be very We, the undersigned, being farmers, and the owners valuable in destroying the slug, wire worm, snail, &c. of land in the neighborhood of Workington, do hereby which often destroy whole crops. He also remembers certify, that we are acquainted with and witnesses to the that salt was used largely in the neighborhood of the fact of Mr. Curwen giving salt to his cattle and horses, Higher and Lower Wiches in Cheshire, before the duties with their food, at the Schoose farm and at Workington; were raised to their present height. With respect to its and that we are desirous of using the same for our live value for cattle, horses, and sheep, I am informed that it stock if we could obtain it without difficulty, and at a is very highly thought of, both as nutriment, and as used

medicinally, internally and externally. Its value also is

extremely well known for rendering bad and ill-gotten 5. Testimony of Mr. Curwen, M. P.--In regard to hay more nourishing and more palatable to cattle than cattle, I have under-estimated the quantity, because, if even good hay. salt could be had at a moderate price there is no animal I would give less than six stone, (14 pounds to the 7. Evidence of Mr. Kingston.--In reply to your que. stone,) each per annum.

I ries, as an agriculturist, I have no hesitation in saying that believe if salt were in general use for cattle it would salt, if freed from duty, would become one of the most amount to 340,000 tons--about 14,000,000 bushels-- useful and general articles of manure that ever was thought

" The importance of the free use of salt to agri- of, if properly composed, by mixing it with mud of any culture can scarcely be estimated too lhighly. Salt con- kind--the cleanings of ditches and ponds, the surface of tributes not only to the health of cattle and sheep, but coarse ground thrown into heaps to rot, blubber, &c. I

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am also persuaded, that if it could be afforded to be use of salt was to be ascribed the circumstance of four sprinkled on the layers of hay, when making into the rick, times the number of sheep having been reared on a stein catching weather, it would prevent its heating and rile common, than would otherwise have subsisted on it; getting mouldy. I had once some small cattle tied up to and that the wool of these flocks is not only the finest in fatten, which did not thrive, owing, as the bailiff said, to the whole country, but bears the highest price of any in the badness of the hay, of which they wasted more than France. The fineness of the wool of the Spanish sheep they ate; but, by sprinkling it with water in which some is also attributed, in a great measure, to the free use of salt had been dissolved, they returned to eat it greedily. salt. It is not, therefore, I presume, an extraordinary poI am free to say, a proper quantity of salt would prevent sition to say, that, by a proper use of common salt, the cattle from being hoven by an excess of green food. same quantity of forage might, on many occasions, be

made to go twice as far as it could have done, in feeding 8. Mr. Thomas Bourne's examination.--The commit. animals, had the salt been withheld from them? tee understand you are a merchant, residing at Liverpool?

10. Mr. Charles G. Cothill, examined.--What is your Can you speak as to the probable effect of the repeal profession? of the salt duties on your trade?

Answer. A bacon and provision merchant, residing in It would be a good thing, in my opinion, for the coun-Judd street, Brunswick square. try at large, and also the manufactures.

What is the nature and amount of your business, and Have you any knowledge of its being used in food for how far has it been affected by the salt duties? animals?

Answer. About fifty years ago my father established a Yes, to horses in particular.

inanufactory in Vine street, and expended £10,000 in Hlas it a good effect?

adapting the premises for the curing of bacon and the Yes.

salting of pork. Our annual returns were about £50,000: Then do you not suppose, if the restrictions were taken it is now diminished to less than £1,000 annually, in conoff, it would come into more general use among the farm- sequence, as I apprehend, of the very high duties on salt, ers, for stock of all kinds?

as our trade has diminished progressively as those duties It would in that instance; we used to have five horses have increased. in our rock salt mine, and those horses always appeared in Do you not consider that the breed of hogs has also good condition, though very much worked.

diminished, in consequence of this increase of duty on Were they liable to less disorders than those out of the salt? mine?

Answer. Very materially; and, as a further proof of Yes; much less.

what I state, we had a very extensive trade of £200,000 a you happen to know whether they were in the prac- year in hogs; now not £10,000. tice at that time of receiving salt with their food?

What effect, in your opinion, would a great reduction Yes; to my knowledge they were.

of the salt duties produce in your business? In what quantity?

Answer. I conceive it would restore our trade: we About a handful to a quartern of oats.

should then be able to supply the West India markets, and

other colonies, with salted pork, cheaper and better than 9. Evidence of Mr. W. Horne. --There are very few any other country. farmers who are not aware of the importance of salt in

What is the quantity of salt used upon 100 weight of preserving hay, and restoring it when damaged; many of pork, to make bacon? those whom I have conversed with on the subject, have

Answer. In a manufactory of bacon, about 12 pounds; used it for these purposes, and it would generally be re

to cure a small quantity, about 17 or 18. sorted to, to the extent of ten or fifteen pounds to the ton of hay, if the duties on salt were repealed. Lord Somer

11. Testimony of Sir Thomas Bernard.--I ventured ville has furnished most satisfactory information on this to suggest that a tax on salt was fundamentally wrong in subject; and I know, from respectable authority, that it principle, because it presses most on the class least able to is a common practice in the United States of America to bear the weight---because of its immoral tendency--and sprinkle salt upon hay when forming it into ricks. We because it deprives the nation of benefits, beyond measure also learn from Lord Somerville, that Mr. Darke, of Bree. greater than the whole produce of the impost. The salt don, one of the most celebrated graziers in the kingdom, duties are about a million and a half sterling per annum, mixed salt with his flooded mouldy hay, and that his Here-|(about seven millions of dollars.) The poor use most salt ford oxen did better on it than others on the best hay he in proportion to their wealth; a cottager in the country ten had; and he was convinced the hay had all its good effects to one in proportion to a nobleman in town. But the befrom the salt.

I have learnt from nefits of which the nation is deprived by the salt duties, Mr. Sutton, of Eaton, in Cheshire, that he would give are not easily appreciated, or even numbered. In agrithirty tons (120 bushels, of 56 pounds each,) of salt a culture and rural economy alone, the loss in feeding catile, year to his cattle, being fifty cows, if the duty were re-sheep, and hogs--in restoring damaged provender-in pealed.

In many parts of the United manure, and in the effect on wages, may, without extravaStates of America, salt is generally given to cattle. gance, be supposed to exceed the whole value of the tax.

The excellent condition of the horses Equal, perhaps, would be the gain to our manufacturers in the rock-pits of Cheshire, may be adduced in favor of of woollen, linen, glass, earthenware, soap, &c. &c. &c. its benefit in fattening cattle and keeping them in health.” by the unrestrained use of muriate and carbonate of soda Many counted that they can attribute the longevity of their and muriatic acid, of which our salt mines and ocean afford horses to the good effects of salt. Mr. Hadfield, of Li-supplies absolutely inexhaustible. verpool, furnishes an instance in his horse, thirty years Mr. B. having read, or stated, these extracts, to show old; he constantly gave it rock salt to lick, placing it in the use of salt in agriculture, said there were many other

Mr. Young has furnished us, in the annals witnesses examined, to prove that alum salt, which the of agriculture, with a most interesting and satisfactory English usually called bay salt, because it was made by statement (obtained from the Memoirs of the Royal Acade- solar evaporation, out of sea water in the bay of Biscay, my of Sciences at Paris) on the effect of salt in fattening and other bays, was indispensable to the curing of provi. cattle. From this report it appears, that to the unlimited sions, for long keeping, or for exportation, other articles

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connected with agriculture, as cheese, butter, bacon, more without encroaching too much on the time of the pickled beef, and pickled pork; and that the English Go- Senate, he said he would introduce the testimony of some vernment permitted alum salt, under the name of bay salt, American witnesses to the same points. He had seen the to be imported both into England and Ireland duty free, statements of the English witnesses last winter; and, being for these purposes, even when the domestic manufacture desirous to hear what Americans would say on the same of common salt in England far exceeded the home de- subject, he had, in the course of the last summer, admand, and furnished millions of bushels for exportation. dressed certain queries to some friends and acquaintances He also stated that the committee of the House of Com- in the Western States, and had received from many of mons had examined the first physicians of Great Britain, them communications of so much interest and value, that to prove the effect of a deficiency of salt in the provisions he should lay them before the Senate; and, first, would of the poor on their health, and that these physicians uni- exbibit the queries for the better understanding of the formly testified that many diseases of the poor, and espe- answers. The names of his correspondents, he said, cially in children, were the effect of using vegetables not would be known to the members of the Senate from the sufficiently salted, and fish and meat not sufficiently cured. States in which they reside; some will be known to the He also stated that the committee had extended their Senators from many States; and some to the whole body examination to the use of salt in various manufactories, of the Senate. and had established, by proof, that a variety of useful Queries on the state of the salt trade in the Western States. manufactures required the abolition of the salt duty. this point, he read extracts from the examination of Samuel

1. Whether the trade in salt is monopolized? and, if so, Parkes, Esq. an eminent chemist of London, as follows: at what works? and over how many States do the sales of

these monopolists extend?

2. The practices of the monopolists, if any, to enhance 12. Examination of Samuel Parkes. --What is your the price of salt, and to prevent competition profession?

3. The prices of domestic and foreign salt in your I am proprielor of the chemical works in Goswell neighborhood, and the freight of foreign salt from New street, London, and of other chemical works in Maiden Orleans? lane, Islington.

4. Whether the monopolists have established depots of Can you acquaint the committee what are the manu- salt in different States, and appointed agents to sell their factures most affected by the salt laws?

salt, and restricted the sales of each depot to its district' The manufactures of mineral alkali, crystalized soda, How far are the depots apart in your State? muriatic acid, hard soap, distinguished from soft soap, 5. Whether the salt manufacturers have entered into Glauber salt, Epsom salt, magnesia, and sal ammoniac, are agreements with the monopolizers to restrict the quantity all materially affected by the duty on salt; but as common of salt made at the works to confine the sales to the mosalt, or one or other of the component parts of common nopolists and to stop working wells and furnaces for salt, is made use of in the composition of a great variety pay? The meaning of the phrase “dead wells,” and the of articles that are employed in our manufactures, it is rent of such wells? difficult to answer that question with precision.

6. Whether salt is sold in your neighborhood by weight Respecting soap, I have only to observe, that common salt or measure? If by weight, how many pounds are allowed is absolutely necessary for the manufacture of hard soap; to the bushel? and how much a weighed bushel measures? for however plentifully potash may be produced, large 7. In selling by the barrel, is due allowance made for quantities of common salt must be employed with it, or the weight of the barrel, and for the loss of salt in drying? the soap will be only temporarily hard; it will have no last. If not, what is the difference between the real and nomiing consistence. Salt is employed largely in the nal quantity in the barrel? preparation and manufacture of a great number of other 8. Whether the monopolists sell for money, or country articles that might be enumerated; and in a short time I produce? for ready pay, or upon credit? and whether the have no doubt they would all be benefited by the reduc- price is higher or lower since the monopoly? tion of the duty on salt.

9. Do the monopolists rise and fall in their prices acHow does the price of salt affect the soap boilers? cording to the presence or absence of competition and As it affects all other trades in which salt is employed. what salt competes with them? State the way in which it affects them.

10. Do they realize great gains? The cheaper it is, the cheaper they will have it if they 11. Whether the domestic salt is fit for pickling beef buy it.

and pork, for curing bacon, and preserving butter, for Do you know any other (manufacturing) purposes for exportation, or consumption in the South, or long keep

ing? Yes: it is used in very large quantities by dyers, when 12. Whether beef and pork, put in common salt, will it can be had cheap; and in a great variety of other ways. be received for the use of the army or navy? With respect to the salting of hides, I le from fur

13. The necessity and expense of repacking beef and ther inquiry, that the butcher usually applies five pounds pork in alum salt, in New Orleans, which has been put up of salt to every ox or cow hide which he bas occasion to in domestic salt? lay by, or to send to the tanner at a distance.

14. The necessity and advantage of giving salt to Crystalized soda (made of salt,) is much used in horses, cattle, sheep, and hogs? Whether salt is not in. washing. Four hundred tons are annually made at the dispensable to stock in the Western States? Whether there Long Benton works only.

is not a great difference between inland and maritime You have stated tkat, during the last six or seven States in this respect? The reason of that difference? years, it has increased from one to four hundred tons. How much salt per head, and how often per week or Yes.

month ought it to be given to each kind of stock? and This at the Long Benton works only?

whether the farmers in your section of the country are Yes.

prevented, by the high price and scarcity of salt, from Which is made from salt duty free?

giving as much to their stock as they need? Yes. They have an exclusive privilege.

15. The use and advantage of salt in preserving hay, When Mr. B. had finished reading these extracts, and fodder, and clover? In restoring them, after being daespressed his regret that, out of seventy witnesses and maged by wet? four hundred folio pages of testimony, he could read no St. Louis, July, 1830.

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Communication from G. T. C. McCLANNAHAN, Esq. of ally; but I am further informed that the lease is out, and

Jackson county, North Alabama, October, 1830. the works are to go into active operation to compete with Your first query-the trade of salt is entirely monopo. White, he having let them lie idle heretofore; these are lized here by James White, of the Holston salt works,

“dead wells," but the number of dead wells he has I am in Virginia. 'I cannot exactly tell to what States these unable to inform you. works furnish salt, but it is to be supposed to the western

6. Salt is sold here by weight, fifty pounds to the parts of Virginia, eastern part of Tennessee, a part of bushel; and fifty pounds (the bushel) of the salt which I North Carolina, the northern part of Georgia, North Ala- tried, (without pressing,) measured 1,188; solid bama, and some in South Alabama, &c. &c.

Query 2d-Colonel J. White has a depot at this place, which is but very little over half a measured bushel. a mile and a half from Tennessee river, down which Therefore, when salt is two dollars the fifty pounds, we stream he boats his salt. And if any person else brings have to pay at the rate of three dollars and sixty-six and salt here to sell, they immediately undersell that person a half cents the measured bushel. This is oppression in a and ruin him. The people sometimes get their salt from free country--this is the fruit of the tariff. Nashville, when they have a convenience of doing so, and 7. In selling by the barrel, the weight of the barrel, it comes much cheaper, after paying land carriage one and the net weight of salt, is sometimes, and most comhundred and thirty miles, than White's salt; but no per- monly, placed on the barrel; but the weight of the barson dares to compete wit! him here; because he can, rel is marked much less than its real weight. at his will, undersell any person who pays a lanıl carriage They make no deduction for the drying of the sals. of one hundred and thirty miles; and therefore instantly One barrel particularly weighed out, and it lost twenty break them up. One thing is yet to be told, which will pounds; and I am credibly informed that some have lost convince any man of the sin and oppression of this mo- as much as fifty. nopolizing system. This same James White will carry his 8. The monopolists here sell for money, or cotton at salt by us down to Ditto's landing, ten miles below Hunts- the cash price, which is the same thing as money. They ville, haul it out to Winchester, Tennessee, which is fifty- do not credit their salt. There is always two prices for five miles of land carriage, and sell it there so much lower cotton here--a cash and discount price. Merchants

, in than he will here on the river take it out of his boats, taking in cotton for their accounts, give more for it than that some of the planters, who are able to take their they will in money; and this is called the discount price. wagons and cross a very bad mountain, (part of the Cum. The salt gentlemen sell their salt for cotton, at the cash berland,) haul their salt over from Winchester, which price. The remaining part of the query I know nothing is forty-five miles from this place. Is this not oppressive about. to the poor? Would not this governmental monopolist 9. The monopolists have fallen here, since they fin! wring from the distressed orphan, widow, and war-worn that people would go to Nashville for their salt, if they soldier, all their earthly sustenance? And yet the Con- did not. But they know at what price to keep it up; gress of the United States--this boasted - land of liberty they know the planters cannot take the trouble to go one and equal laws, countenances such oppressive acts. Why hundred and thirty miles to Nashville, to get a little salt; does Mr. White not sell as low here on the river as at and they knowthat no person dares to compete with them, Winchester, after carrying his salt one hundred and twen- as they could instantly reduce the price of their salt, and ty miles, fifty-five by land, and that, too, the very same thereby ruin their competitor. salt? The answer is obvious. At Winchester there is 10. They certainly must realize great gains, or they some competition; it is not so far from Nashville, where would not give nine or twelve thousand dollars annually for foreign salt may be obtained. And this is why he sells it one manufactory, to let it lic idle. Why does not conlower there than at this place.

gress lease all the salt works in the United States, and We are here fenced in with almost impassable moun- let them lie idle, and then knock the duty off of salt, if tains, at a great distance from any commercial depot, and they wish to encourage the manufacture of salt, by filling without the means of shunning the exorbitant exactions of the pockets of the manufacturers? It would be much these vampyres, who take the bread from the mouths of better for the people. They would be great gainers by our children with the calculating coldness of an Arab; purchasing the sali works, and demolishing them, or letand these acts are legalized by a Congress of freementing them out at a small rate, and then striking the duty We are glad to hear the stern voice of indignation at this from salt. oppression, uttered by some of the patriotic republicans The remaining queries, I am in lopes, will find abler of that body; and we should glory in being among the persons to answer them than I. most persecuted victims, if by that means this most per Communication from a menting of the citizens of Madison nicious system of monopoly could be overturned.

Query 3d--We have no foreign salt here for sale; two county, Alabama, 8th of Norember, 1830, the subject proyears ago some gentlemen brought a few bushels from posed by Dr. William II. Glasscoch, and authenticated Nashville, and sold it for one dollar and eighty-seven and ly, the signatures of Thomas Miller, President, and a half cents per fifty pounds, underselling the salt gentle

Charles A. Jones, Secretary. men here at that time. The domestic salt has got lower Answer to 1st. The salt consumed here is almost exthan it was four years ago. Then it was two dollars and clusively obtained from Col. James Wbite's manufactory, fifty cents, now one dollar and eighty-seven cents to two of Virginia, and sold by his agents in East Tennessee, a dollars.

part of North Alabama, und West Tennessee. The freight from New Orlcans to Nashville is one cent To the 2:1. We can give no definitive answer. per pound, as I am informed by a merchant of this place, 3d. The price of domestic salt is one dollar and twenty: and from Nashville to this place one and a quarter cents five cents per bushel, by the barrel, or one dollar and per pound.

seventy-five cents by the single bushel. Foreign salt sells at 4. There is a depot here, and another at Ditto's landing, about the same. The freiglit of salt, from New Orleans to as I am told, for selling salt. These places are about fifty- Huntsville, is about one cent and three-fourths per pound. five miles apart by land. The remaining part of the ques. 41h. Colonel White has salt deposited in different parts tion I do not know any thing about.

of this State, and others, at various distances from each 5. Colonel White, as I have been informed by good au- other, say ten to fifteen miles. thority, Jeased the Preston salt works, in what is called! 5th. Preston's works were for some time discontinued New Virginia, for nine or twelve thousand dollars annu-for--say ten thousand dollars per annum.

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