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Tic. I will be here again, even with a thought. Why didst thou send mo forth, brave Cassius ?
(Erit. Did I not meet thy friends ? and did not they Car. Co, Pindarus, get higher on that hill;" Put on my brows this wreath of victory, My sight was ever thick; regard Titinius,
And bid me give 't thee? Didst thou nui hear their And tell me what thou not'st about the field.
[Exit Pisdar.us. Alas, thou hast misconstrued every thing. This day I breathed first : time is come round," But hold thee, take this garlaud on thy brow; And where I did begin, there shall I end ; Thy Brutus bid me give it thee, and I My life is run his compass.-Sirrah," what news? Will do his bidding, -Brutus, come apace, Pin. (Above.) 0, my lord!
And see how I regarded Caius Cassius.-Cas. What news?
By your leave, gods :- This is a Roman's part: Pin. Titinius is enclosed round about
Come, Cassius' sword, and find Titinius' heart. With horsemen, that make to him on the spur ;
[Dies. Yet he spurs on-Now they are almost on him; Alarum. Re-enter MESSALA, with BRUTUS, young Now, Titinius !--now some 'light:-Oh, he 'lights too :-he's ta'en ;
Cato, STRATO, VOLUMnius, and Lucilius. And hark! (Shout) they shout for joy.
Bru. Where, where, Messala, doth his body lie? Cas. Come down, behold no more.
Mes. Lo, yonder; and Titinius mourning ít. 0, coward that I am, to live so long,
Bru. Titinius' face is upward.
Cato, To see my best friend ta'en before my face!
He is slain, Enter PINDARUS.
Bru. O, Julius Cæsar, thou art mighty yet!
Thy spirit walks abroad, and turns our swords Come hither, sirrah :
In our own proper entrails, (Low Alarums. In Parthia did I take thee prisoner;
Brave Titinius! And then I swore thee, saving of thy life,
Look, whe'r he have not crown'd dead Cassius! That whatsoever I did bid thee do, [oath! Bru. Are yet two Romans living such as these ? Thou should'st attempt it. Come now, keep thine The last of all the Romans, fare thee well !® Now be a freeman; and with this good sword, It is impossible, that ever Rome
That ran through Cæsar's bowels, search this bosom. Should breed thy fellow.–Friends, I owe more tears Stand not to answer: Here, take thou the hills; To this dead man, than you shall see me pay. And, when my face is cover'd as 'tis now,
I shall find time, Cassius, I shall find time.Guide thou the sword.—Cæsar, thou art reveng'd, Come, therefore, and to Thassos send his body; Even with the sword that kill'd thee. (Dies. His funeral shall not be in our camp,
Pin. So, I am free ; yet would not so have been, Lest it discomfort us.-Lucilius, come ;Durst I have done my will. O, Cassius!
And come, young Cato; let us to the field. Far from this country Pindarus shall run,
Labeo, and Flavius, set our battles on :Where never Roman shall take note of him. (Exit. | 'Tis three o'clock;'and, Romans, yet ere night
Re-enter TITINIUS, with MESSALA. We shall try fortune in a second fight. [Ereunt. Mes. It is but change, Titinius; for Octavius SCENE IV. Another Part of the Field. Alarum. Is overthrown by noble Brutus' power,
Enter, fighting, Soldiers of both Armies ; then As Cassius' legions are by Antony.
BRUTUS, Cato, Lucilius, and others. Tit
. These udings will well comfort Cassius. Mes. Where did you leave him ?
Bru. Yet, countrymen, o, yet, hold up your
heads ! Tit.
All disconsolate, With Pindarus his bondman, on this hill.
Cato. What bastard doth not? Who will go with
I am the son of Marcus Cato, ho !
A foe to tyrants, and my country's friend :
(Charges the Enemy. As in thy red rays thou dost sink to night,
Bru. And I am Brutus, Marcus Brutus, I; So in his red blood Cassius' day is set; The sun of Rome is set! Our day is gone ; (done! Brutus, my country's friend: know me for Brutus. Clouds, dews, and dangers come ; our deeds are
[Erit, charging the Enemy. Cato is over.
powered, and falls. Mistrust of my success hath done this deed. Mes. Mistrust of good success hath done this Why, now thou diest as bravely as Titinius ;
Luc. O, young and noble Cato, art thou down? deed,
And may'st be honour'd, being Cato's son.
1 Sold. Yield, or thou diest.
Only I yield to die : The things that are not ? o, error, soon conceiv'd, There is so much that thou wilt kill me straight; Thou never com'st unto a happy birth,
[Offering Money. But kill'st the mother that engender'd thee. Tit. What, Pindarus ; Where art thou, Pindarus? Kill Brutus, and be honour'd in his death.
1 Sold. We must not.-A noble prisoner! Mes. Seek him, Titinius : whilst I go to meet The noble Brutus, thrusting this report
2 Sold. Room, bo! Tell Antony, Brutus is ta'en.
I Sold. I'll tell the news.-Here comes the geInto his ears: I may say, thrusting it;
neral :For piercing steel, and darts envenomed, Shall be as welcome to the ears of Brutus,
Enter ANTONY. As tidings of this sight.
Brutus is ta'en, Brutus is ta'en, my lord. Tit.
Hie you, Messala, Ant. Where is he? And I will seek for Pindarus the while.
Luc. Safe, Antony; Brutus is safe enough :
[Exit Messala. I dare assure thee, that no enemy 1 The same expression occurs in Antony and Cleo 5
populumque potentem patra :
In sua victrici conversum viscera dextra, That which was a horse, even with a thought,
Lucan, lib. i. The rack dislimns.'
6 So when he (Brutus) was come thither, after he 2 Cassius is now on a hill : he therefore means a had lamented the death of Cassing, calling him the last hillock somewhat higher than that on which he now is. of all the Romans, being impossible that Rome should 3 So in King Lear, the Bastard, dying, says : ever breed againe so noble and valiant a man as he, ho "The roheel is come full circle.'
caused his body to be buriell,- North’s Plutarch. 4 Sırrah, as appears from many of the old plays, was · Objectum est Historico (Cremutio Cordo. Tacit Ann, the usual address in speaking to servants and children. hb. iv. 34,) quod Brutum Cassiumque ultimos RomanoSee note on Macbeth, Act iv. Sc. 2.
rum dixisset.'--Suet. Tiber lib. iii. c. 61.
Shall ever tako alive the noble Brutus :
Strato, thou hast been all this while asleep; The gods defend him from so great a shame! Farewell to thee, too, Strato.-Countrymen, When you do find him, or alive, or dead,
My heart doth joy, that yet, in all my life,
I found no man, but he was true to me.
By this vile conquest shall attain unto.
Hath almost ended his life's history :
Night hangs upon mine eyes; my
bones would rest, How every thing is chanc'd.
(Ereunt. That have but labour'd to attain this hour.
(Alarum Cry within; Fly, fly, fly SCENE V. Another Part of the Field. Enter Cli. Fly, my lord, tly. Brutus, DARDANIUS, Clitus, Strato, and Bru.
Hence; I will follow. VOLUMNIUS.
(Ereunt Clitus, DARDANIUS, and Vo-
I pr’ythee, Strato, stay thou by thy lord :
Bru. Sit thee down, Clitus : Slaying is the word; Hold then my sword, and turn away thy face,
[Whispering. Stra. Give me your hand first : Fare you well, Cli, What, I, my lord? No, not for all the world.
my lord. Bru, Peace, then, no words.
Bru. Farewell, good Strato.-Cæsar, now bo
(He runs on his Sword and dier. Cli, 0, Dardanius!
Alarum. Retreat. Enter OCTAVIUS, ANTONY,
MESSALA, Lucilius, and their Army.
Oct. What man is that?
Mes. My master's man.-Strato, where is thy
master? Bru. Come hither, good Voluranius : list a word.
Stra. Free from the bondage you are in, Messala; Vol. What says my lurd ?
The conquerors can but make a fire of him; Bru.
Why, this, Volumnius: For Brutus only overcame himself, The ghost of Cæsar hath appear'd to me
And no man else hath honour by his death. Two several times by night: at Sardis, once ;
Luc. So Brutus should be found. I thank thee, And, this last night, here in Philippi's fields.
That thou hast prov'd Lucilios' saying true.
Oct. All that servd Brutus, I will entertain
them." Thou seest the world, Volumnius, how it goes ;
Fellow, wilt thou bestow thy time with me? Our enemies have beat us to the pit :
Stra. Ay, if Messala will prefer* me to you. It is more worthy to leap in ourselves,
Od. Do so, good Messala. Than tarry till they push us. Good Volumnius,
How died my master, Strato ? Thou know'st that we two went to school together;
Stral. I held the sword, and he did run on it. Even for that our love of old, I pray thee,
Mes. Octavius, then take him to follow thee, Hold thou my sword-hilts, a whilst I run on it.
That did the latest service to my master. Vol. That's not an office for a friend, my lord.
Ant. This was the noblest Roman of them all :
(Alarum still. All the conspirators, save only he, Bræ. Farewell to you ;—and you ;-and you, And common good to all
, made one of them. Cli. Fly, fly, my lord; there is no iarrying here. Did that they did in envy of greai Cæsar;
He, only, in a general honest thought,
His life was gentle; and the elements
ame to Volumnius him selfe, and speaking to him in - A naked sword he had,
Oct. According to his virtue let us use him, been strongly agitated in perusing it ; and I think it someWith all respect and rites of burial.
what cold and unaffecting, compared with some other of Within my tent his bones to-night shall lie,
Shakspeare's plays : his adherence to the real story, Most like a soldier, order'd honourably.
and to Roman manners, seem to have impeded the Kacura, vigour of his genius.
JOHNSON So, call the field to rest : and let's away,
Gildon has justly ubserved that this tragedy ought to To part the glories of this happy day. (Eseunt. have been called Murcus Brutus, Cæsar being a very
inconsiderable personage in the scene, and being killed OF this tragedy many particular passages deserve re. in the third act. gard, and the contention and reconcilement of Brutus and Cassius is universally celebrated ; but I have never
As all did govern, yet did all obey ;
His lively temper was so absolute,
That seem'd, when hearen his modell first began,
In him it show'd perfection in a man.'
The poem originally appeared under the title of "Mor. As that it seem'd when nature him began,
timeriados,' in 1506; but Malone says, there is no trace She meant to show all that might be in man.'
of the stanza in the poem in that form. He is wrong He afterwards revised the poem, which was, I believe, in 1603, as the following title-page of my copy will
in asserting that the Barons' Wars were first published firse published, under the title of the Barons' Wars, in show : The Barons' Wars, in the raigné of Edward 1603; and the stanza is thus exhibited in that edition :- the Second, with England's Heroicall Epistles, by Mi.
"Such one he was (of him sve boldly say,). chaell Drayton. At London, printed by J. R. for N In whose rich goule all soveraigne powers did sute; Ling, 1603.' So that, if Malone be righe in placing the In arvono in piace the elements all lay
date of composition of Julius Cæsar in 1607, Shakspeare So mir e, as none could soveraigntie impute;
ANTONY AND CLEOPATRA.
AFTER a perusal of this play, the reader will, I Warburton has observed that Antony was Shak
doubt not, be surprised when he sees what John. speare's hero; and the defects of his character, a son has asserted :-That its power of delighting is lavish and luxurious spirit, seem almost virtues when derived principally from the frequent changes of the opposed to the heartless and narrow-minded littleness scene;'—and ihat no character is very strongly dis- of Octavius Cæsar. But the ancient historians, his criminated.' If our great poet has one superemi. natterers, had delivered the latter down ready cut and nent dramatic quality in perfection, it is that of being dried for a hero; and Shakspeare has extricated him able to go oui of himself at pleasure to inform and self with great address from the dilemma. He has animate other existences.' It is true, that in the number admitted al those great strokes of his character as he or characters many persons of historical importance found them, and yet has made him a very unamiabla are merely introduced as passing shadows in the character, deceitful, mean-spirited, proud, and rescene ; but the principal personages are most empha. vengeful. tically distinguished by lineament and colouring, and Schlegel attributes this to the penetration of Sbak. powerfully arrest the imagination. The character of speare, who was not to be led astray by the false glitter Cleopatra' is indeed a masterpiece : though Johnson of historic fame, but saw through the disguise thrown pronounces that she is only distinguished by feminine around him by his successful fortunes, and distin. arts, some of which are too low. It is true that her guished in Augustus a man of little mind. seductive arts are in no respect veiled over ; but she is Malone places the composition of this play in 1608. still the gorgeous Eastern Queen, remarkable for the No previous edition to thai of the folio of 1623 has been fascination of her manner, if not for the beauty of her hitherto discovered; but there is an entry of ' A Aeron; and though she is vain, ostentatious, fickle, Booke called Antony and Cleopatra,' to Edward and luxurious, there is that heroic regal dignity about Blount, in 1608, on the Stationers' books. her, which makes us, like Antony, forget her defects : Shakspeare followed Plutarch, and appears to have Age cannot wither her, nor custom stale
been anxious to introduce every incident and every Her infinite variety. Other women cloy
personage he met with in his historian. Plutarch men. Th' appetites they feed; but she makes hungry tions Lamprias his grandfather, as authority for some Where most she satisfies.'
of the stories he relates of the profuseness and luxury The mutual passion of herself and Antony is without of Antony's entertainments at Alexandria. In the moral dignity, yet it excites our sympathy :-hey seem stage-direction of Scene 2, Act i. in the old copy, formed for each other. Cleopatra is no less remark. Lamprius, Ramnus, and Lucilius are made to enter able for her seductive charms, than Antony for the with the rest; but they have no part in the dialogue, splendour of his martial achievements.
nor do their names appear in the list of Dramatis
Personæ. 100, redeems one part of her character, and obliterates all faults.
Attendants on Cleopatra.
Ant. How, my love!
Cleo. Perchance,-nay, and most like,
Is come from Cæsar; therefore hear it, Antony.
Where's Fulvia's process ? Cæsar's, I would say ? Nay, but this dotage of our general's
-Both ? O'ertlows the measure : those his goodly eyes, Call in the messengers.-As I am Egypt's queen, That o'er the files and musters of the war
Thou blushest, Antony; and that blood of thine Have glow'd like plated Mars, now bend, now turn, Is Cæsar's homager: else so thy check pays shame, The office and devotion of their view
When shrill-tongu'd Fulvia scolds.—The messenUpon a tawny front: his captain's heart,
gers. Which in the scuffles of great fights hath burst Ant. Let Rome in Tyber melt! and the wide arch The buckles on his breast, reneges' all temper;
of the rang'd' empire fall! Here is my space ; And is become the bellows, and the fan,
Kingdoms are clay: our dungy earth alike To cool a gipsy's lust. Look where they come! Feeds beast as man: the nobleness of life Flourish. Enter Antony and Cleopatra, with is, to do thus; when such a mutual pair, their Trains; Eunuchs fanning her.
And such a twain can do't, in which, I bind,
On pain of punishment, the world to weet,
Excellent falsehood! Cleo. If it be love indeed, tell me how much.
Why did he marry Fulvia, and not love her ? Ant. There's beggary in the love that can be r'll seem the fool I am not; Antony reckon'd.
Will be himself. Cleo. I'll set a bourn how far to be belov'd.
Butii stirr'd by Cleopatra.Ant. Then must thou needs find out new heaven, Now, for the love of Love,12 and her soft hours, new earth.
Let's not confound is the time with conference harsh : Enter an Attendant.
There's not a minute of our lives should stretch Ant. News, my good lord, from Rome.
Without some pleasure now: What sport to-night?
Cleo. Hear the ambassadors.
Fie, wrangling queen! Fulvia, perchance, is angry; Or, who knows
Whom every thing becomes, '* to chide, to laugh, If the scarce-bearded Cæsar have not sent
To weep; whose's every passion fully strives His powerful mandate to you, Do this, or this :
To make itself, in thce, fair and admir'd! Take in that kingdom, and enfranchise that;
No messenger, but thine and all alone, Perform'l, or else we damn thee.
To-night, we'll wander through the streets, and note 1 i. e. renounces. The metre would be improved by
9 Process here meang summons, Lawyers call reading reneyes, or reneies, a word used by Chaucer that the processe by which a man is called into the and other of our elder writers : but we have in King court, and no more. To serve with processe is to cile, Lear, renege, affirm, &c. Stanyhurst, in his version w summon.'-- Minsheu. of the second book of the Æneid, has the word :
9 The rang'd empire is the tell arranged, well or * To live now longer, Troy burnt, he flatly reneageth.” dered empire. Shakspeare uses the expression again
2 Triple is here used for third, or one of three ; one of in Coriolanus :the Triumvirs, one of the three masters of the world.
bury all which yet distinctly ranges, To sustain the pillars of the earth is a scriptural phrase. In heaps and piles of ruins.' Triple is used for third in All's Well that Ends Well: 10 To weel is to know.
• Which, as the dearest issue of his practice ; 11 I think that Johnson has entirely mistaken the He bade me store up ag a triple eye.'
meaning of this passage, and believe Mason's explana. 3 So in Romeo and Juliet :
lion nearly correct. Cleopatra means to say thai. An: • They are but beggars that can count their worth. tony will act like himself,' (i. e. nobly,) without regard And in Much Ado about Nothing :
to the mandates of Cæsar or the anger of Fulvia. To • I were but little happy, if I could say how much.' which he replies, ' But stirr d by Cleopatra,' i. e. ‘Add, • Basia pauca cupit, qui numerare potest.'
is mored to it by Cleopatra. This is a compliment to
Martial, vi. 36. her. Joonson was wrong in supposing but to be usce 4' Then must you get the boundary at a distance here in its exceptive sense. greater than the present visible universe afforde.'
12 That is, 'for the sake of the Queen of Love." 5 Be briel, sum thy business in a few words.'
13 To confound the time, is to consume it, to Inse it 6 i. e. the neirs; which was considered plural in 14 'Quicquid enim dicir, seu facit, omne decet.' Shakespeare ume. See King Richard III. Act. iv.
Murellus, lib. ii. Sc. +
See Shakspeare's 150th Sonnet. 7 Take in, it has before bzen ubserved, signifies sub 15 The fólio reads, who, every, &c. : corrected by due, conquer.
I'm full sorry,
The qualities of people. Come, my queen;
Aler. We'll know all our fortunes.
(Ereunt Ant. and Cleo. with their Train shall be drunk to bed.
Phi. Sir, sometimes, when he is not Antony, thing else. He comes too short of that great property
Char. Even as the o'erflowing Nilus presageth Which still should go with Antony.
has. Go, you wild bedfellow, you cannot soothThat he approves the common liar," who
say. Thus speaks of him at Rome : But I will hope Char. Nay, if an oily palm be not a fruitful progOr better deeds to-morrow. Rest you happy! nostication, I cannot scratch mine ear.-Pr’ythee,
(Exeunt. tell her but a worky-day fortune. SCENE II. The same. Another Room. Enter
Sooth. Your fortunes are alike. CHARMIAN, IRAS, ALEXAS, and a Soothsayer.
Iras. But how, but how? give me particulars.
Sooth. I have said. Char. Lord Alexas, sweet Alexas, most any Iras. Am I not an inch of fortune better than she ? thing Alexas, almost most absolute Alexas, where's
Char. Well, if you were but an inch of fortune the soothsayer that you praised so to the queen? better than I, where would you choose it? 0, that I knew this husband, which, you say, must Iras. Not in my husband's nose. charge his horns with garlands !"
Char. Our worser thoughts heavens mend !Aler. Soothsayer.
his fortune, bis fortune.-0, let him Sooth. Your will ? Char. Is this the man ?-Is't you, sir, that know seech thee! And let her die, too, and give him a
marry a woman that cannot go, sweet Isis, I bethings ?
worse! and let worse follow worse, till the worst Sooth. In nature's infinite book of secrecy, of all follow him laughing to his grave, fifty-fold a A lille I can read.
cuckold ! Good Isis, hear me this prayer, though Aler. Show him your hand.
thou deny me a matter of more weight; good Isis,
I beseech thee!
Iras. Amen. Dear goddess, hear that prayer of
handsome man loose-wived, so it is a deadly sor.
row to behold a foul knave uncuckolded : Therefore, Sooth. I make not, but foresee. Char. Pray then, foresee me one.
dear Isis, keep decorum, and fortune him accordSooth. You shall be yet far fairer than you are.
Alex. Lo, now! if it lay in their hands to mako
me a cuckold, they would make themselves whores, Aler. Vex not his prescience; be attentive.
but they'd do't.
Eno. Hush! here comes Antony. Char. Hush!
Char, Sooth. You shall be more beloving, than beloved.
Not ho, tho queen. Char. I had rather heat my liver with drinking. *
Enter CLEOPATRA. Aler. Nay, hear him.
Cleo. Saw you my lord ? Char. Good now, some excellent fortune! Let Eno.
No, lady. me be married to three kings in a forenoon, and
Was he not here?
approaches. Than that which is to approach.
Enter ANTONY, with a Messenger and Attendants. Char. Then, belike, my children shall have no
Cleo. We will not look upon him: Go with us. names : Pr'ythee, how many boys and wenches
(Exeunt CLEOPATRA, ENOBARBUS, ALEXAS, must I have Sooth. If every of your wishes had a womb,
Iras, CHARMIAN, Soothsayer, and Al
tendants. And fertile' every wish, a million.
Mess. Fulvia thy wife first came into the field
Ant. Against my brother Lucius ?
Mess. Av: to your wishes.
But soon that war had end, and the time's stato Char. Nay, come, tell Iras hers.
at such power and dominion that the proudest and 1 Sometime also when he would goe up and down fiercest monarchs of the earth may be brought under his the city disguised like a slave in the night, and would yoke. Il should be remembered that Herod of Jewry peere into poor mens windows and their shops, and
was a favourite character in the mysteries of the old scold and brawl with them within the house ; Cleopatra stage, and that he was always represented a fierce, would be also in a chambermaid's array, and amble up | haughty, blustering tyrant. and down the streets with him.'
6 That is, prove bästards. Thus in the Rape of Lu Life of Antonius in North': Plutarch. ? That he proves the common liar, Fame, in his
Thy issue blurr'd with nameless bastardy.' case to be a true reporter.' Shakspeare usually uses And Launce, in the third act of The Two Gentlemen of approve for prode, and approof for proof.
Verona :-- That's as much as to say bustard virtues, The old copy reads, change his horns,' &c A that indeed know not their fathers, and therefore have similar error of change for charge is also found in Co. no names.' A fairer fortune means a mare scene or riolanus.
more prosperous fortune. 4 The liver being considered the seat of love, Char. 7 The old copy reads, foretel. Warburton has the mian says she would rather heat her liver with drink; merit of the emendation. ing than with love's fire. A heated liver was supposed 8 This has allusion to the common proverbia) saying, to make a pimpled face.
You'll never be burnt for a witch, spoker to a silly Á This (says Johnson) is one of Shakspeare's natu- person, who is indeed no conjuror. ral touches. Few circ tances are more flattering to 9 This prognostic is alluded to in Othello :the fair sex, than breeding at an advanced period of
This hand is moist, my lady :life., Chumian wishes for a son too who may arrive This argues fruitfulness a id liboral heart.'