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him ;

Rey.

Ghost. (Beneath.] Swear.

What company, at what expenso ; and finding) Ham. Hic ei ubique ! then we'll shift our ground:-- By this encompassment and drift of question, Come hither, gentlemen,

That they do know my son, come you more nearer And lay your hands again upon my sword : Than your particular demands will touch it: Swear by iny sword,

Take you, as 'twere, some distant knowledge of Never to speak of this that you have heard. Ghost. (Beneath.) Swear by his sword.

As thus,- I know his father, and his friends, Ham. Well said, old mole! canst work i' the And, in parl, him ;-Do you mark this, Reynaldo ? earth so fast?

Rey. Ay, very well, my lord. A worthy pioneer !-Once more remove, good Pol. And, in part, him ;-bul, you may say, na friends.

well : Hor. O, day and night, but this is wondrous But, if't be he I mean, he's very wild; strange!

Adilicted so and s0;-and there put on him Ham. And therefore as a stranger give it welcome. What forgeries you please; marry, none so rank There are more things in heaven and earth, Horatio, As may dishonour hím; take heed of that; Than are dreamt of in your philosophy.

But, sir, such wanton, wild, and usual stips,
But come;

As are companions noted and most known
Here, as before, never, so help you mercy! To youth and liberty.
How strange or odd soe'er I bear myself,

As garing, my lord.
As I, perchance, hereafter shall think meet

Pol. Ay, or drinking, fencing," swearing, quarTo pui an antic disposition on,

relling, That you, at such times seeing me, never shall,

Drabbing :-You may go so far. With arms encumber'd thus, or this head-shake, Rey. My lord, that would dishonour him. Or by pronouncing of some doubtful phrase, Pol. 'Faith, no; as you may season it in the As, Well, well, we know ;-or, We could, an if we

charge. would ;-or, If we list to speak ;-or, There bé, an You must not put another scandal on him, if they might ;

That he is open to incontinency; Or such ambiguous giving out, to note

That's not my meaning : but breathe his faults 80 That you know aught of me:-This not to do, quaintly, swear;'

That they may seem the taints of liberty; So grace and mercy at your most need help you! The flash and outbreak of a fiery mind; Ghost. (Beneath.) Swear.

A savageness' in unreclaimed blood, Ham. Rest, rest, perturbed spirit!? So, gentle- of general assault. men,

Rey.

But, my good lord, With all my love I do commend me to you:

Pol. Wherefore should you do this? And what so poor a man as Hamlet is

Rey.

Ay, my lord, May do, to express his love and friending to you,

I would know that. God willing, shall not lack. Let us go in together ;

Pol.

Marry, sir, here's my drift ; And still your fingers on your lips, I pray.

And, I believe, it is a fetch of warrant : The time is out of joint ;-0, cursed spite! You laying these slight sullies on my son, That ever I was born to set it right!

As ''were a thing a little soild i’ the working, Nay, come, let's go together.

(Eseunt. Mark you,

Your party in converse, him you would sound,

Having ever seen in the prenominate crimes,
ACT II.

The youth you breathe of, guilty, be assurd,
SCENE I. A Room in Polonius' House. Enter He closes with you in this consequence ;
POLONIUS and REYNALDO.

Good sår, or so; or friend, or gentleman, Pol. Give him this money, and these notes, Roy. Or man, and country.

According to the phrase, or the addition, naldo.

Rey.

Very good, my lord.
Rey. I will, my lord.
Pol. You shall do marvellous wisely, good Rey- What was I about

to say ?-By the mass, I was

Pol. And then, sir, does he this,-He doesnaldo, Before you visit him, to make inquiry

about to say something :-Where did I leave ?

Rey. Al, closes in the consequence. or his behaviour.

Pol. At, closes in the consequence,-Ay marry i Rey.

My lord, I did intend it.
Pol. Marry, well said : very well said. Look I saw him yesterday, or t'other day,

He closes with you thus :--I know the gentleman; you, sir,

Or then, or then ; with such, or such ; and, as you say, Inquire me first what Danskers' are in Paris ; And how, and who, what means, and where they There falling out al tennis : or, perchance,

There was he gaming ; there o'ertook in his rouse ; keep,

I saw him enter such a house of sale, numerous in our old writers, and Warburton has noticed it in Bartholinus De Causis Contempt. Moro Hamlet's late interview with the speesre must in par. apud Danos. Simon Maioli, in his very curious book ticular be regarded as a stroke of dramatic artifice. Dierum Canicularium, mentions that the ancient The phantom might have told his story in the presence Germans swore by the sword and death. Leonato, in of the officers and Horatio, and yet have rendered The Winter's Tale, Act ii. Sc. 3, says:

itself as inaudible to them as it alterwards did to tho · Strear by this sword,

queen. But suspense was the poet's object : and never Thou wilt perform my bidding.'

was it more effectually created than in the present in. I The quarto 1604 reads—this do swear.' The stance. Six times has the royal semblance appeared, construction of this passage is rather embarrassed, but but will now has been withheld from speaking. For the sense is sufficiently obvious without explanation. this event we have waited with impatient curiosity,

2 Shakspeare has riveted our attention to the ghost unaccompanied by lassitude, or remitted attention.”. by a succession of forcible circumstances : by the pre- Sleevens. vious report of the terrified sentinels,- by the solemnity 3 i. e. Danes. Warner, in his Albion's England, of the hour at which the phantom walks,--by its mar- calls Denmark Danske. tial stride and discriminating armour, visible only per 4 “The cunning of fencers is now applied to quar. incertam lunam, by the glimpses of the mooli,--by its relling : they thinke themselves no men, if for stirring long taciturnity, by its preparation to speak, when in. a straw, they prove not their valure uppon some terrupted by the morning cock,-by its mysterious re- bodies fleshe.:--Gosson's Schole of Abuse, 1579. serve throughout its first scene with Hamlet,-by his 6 'A wildness of untamed blood, such as youth is resolute departure with it, and the subsequent anxiety generally assailed by.' of his attendants,--by its conducting him to a solitary 6 So, for so forth, as in the last act :- Six French angle of the platform, by its voice from beneath the rapiers and poniards, with their assigns, as girdle, earth,- and by its unexpected burst on us in the closel. 'hanger, and so.'

move

13

(Vitelicet, a brothel,) or so forth.

Oph. No, my good lord; but, as you did comSee you now;

mand, Your bait of falsehood lakes this carp of truth : I did repel his letters, and denied And thus do we of wisdom and of reach,

His access to me. With windlaces, and with assays of bias,'

Pol.

That hath made him mad. By indirections find directions out;

I am sorry, that with better heed and judgment, So, by my former lecture and advice,

I had not quoted him : 1 fear'd, he did but trifle, Shall you my son: You have me, have you not ? And meant to wreck thee: but, beshrew my jealousy! Rey. My lord, I have.

It seems, it is as proper to our age Pol.

God be wi' you ; fare you well. To cast beyond ourselves in our opinions, Reg. Good my lord,

As it is common for the younger sort Pol. Observe his inclination in yourself.?

To lack discretion. Come, go we to the king : Reg. I shall, my lord.

This must be known; which, being kept close, migh
Pol. And lei him ply his music.
Reg.

Well, my lord. More grief to hide, than hate to utter love.
(Exit. Come,

(Ereunt. Enter OPHELIA.

SCENE II. A Room in the Castle. Enter King, Pol. Farewell !-How now, Ophelia? what's the Queen, RosenCRANTZ, GUILDENSTERN, and matter?

Attendants. Oph. O, my lord, my lord, I have been so af

King. Welcome, dear Rosencrantz, and Guilden frighted!

stern! Pol. With what, in the name of heaven? Moreover that we much did long to see you,

Oph. My lord, as I was sewing in my closet, The need, we have to use you, did provoke Lord Hamlet,- with his doublet all unbrac'd; Our hasty sending. Something have you heard No hat upon his head ; his stockings foulod, Of Hamlet's transformation; so I call it, Ungarter'd and down-gyved to his ancle ;, Since notio the exterior por the inward man Pale as his shirt; his knees knocking each other; Resembles that it was : What it should be, And with a look so piteous in purport,

More than his father's death, that thus hath pat him As if he had been loosed out of hell,

So much from the understanding of himself, To speak of horrors,- he comes before me. I cannot dream" of: I entreat you both, Pol. Mad for thy love?

That,-being of so young days brought up with him: Oph.

My lord, I do not know; | And, since, so neighbour'd to his youih and huBut, truly, I do fear it.

mour, Pol. What said he ?

That you vouchsafe your rest here in our court Oph. He took me by the wrist, and held me hard ; Some little time : so by your companies Then goes he to the length of all his arm; To draw him on to pleasures; and to gather, And, with his other hand thus o'er his brow, So much as from occasion you may glean, He falls to such perusal of my face,

Whether aught, to us unknown, afflicts him thus," As he would draw it. Long stay'd he so ; That, open'd, lies within our remedy. At last,-a little shaking of mine arm,

Queen. Good gentlemen, he hath much talk'd of And thrice his head thus waving up and down,

you ; He rais'd a sigh so piteous and profound,

And, sure I am, two men there are not living, As it did seem to shaher all his bulk,

To whom he more adheres. If it will please you And end his being : That done, he lets me go: To show us so much gentry,'* and good will, And, with his head over his shoulder turn'd, As to expend your time with us awhile, He seem'd to find his way without his eyes; For the supply and profit of our hope, For out o' doors he went without their help, Your visitation shall receive such thanks And, to the last, bended their light on me. As fits a king's remembrance. Pol. Come, go with me; I will go seek the king. Ros.

Both your majesties This is the very ecstacy of love;

Might, by the sovereign power you have of us," Whose violent property foredoes itself,

Put your dread pleasures more into conimand
And leads the will to desperate undertakings, Than to entreaty.
As oft as any passion under heaven,

Guil.

But17 we both obey That does afflict our natures. I am sorry,

And here give up ourselves, in the full bent, 10 What, have you given him any hard words of late ? To lay our service freely at your feet,

To be commanded. 1 i. e. by torhidus devices and side essays. "To assay, or rather essay, of the French word essayer, 7 This is not the remark of a weak man. It is always tentare,' says Baret.

the fault of a little mind made artful by long commerce 2 i. e. in your own person, personally add your own with the world. The quartos read, By heaven, it is as observations of his conduct to these inquiries respect proper,' &c. ing him.

8. This must be made known to the king, for (being 3 Hanging down like the loose cincture which con- kept secret,) the hiding Hamlet's love might occasion fines the letters or gyves round the ancles.

more mischief to us from him and the queen, than the 4 i.e. his breast. The bulke or brease of a man, thouttering or revealing it will occasion hatc and resent. rax, la poitrine.'-Baret. Thus in King Richard III. ment from Hamlet. Johnson, whose explanation this Act i. Sc. 4, Clarence says:

is, attributes the obscurity to the poet's 'ctation of but still the envious flood

concluding the scene with a couplet. are would Kept in my soul, and would not let it forth,

surely have been more affectation iu deviating from the But smother'd it within my panting bul'c.'

universally established custom.

9 Folio omits come. Malone cites this, and the following passage, and yet

10 Quarto--sith nor.

11 Folio-deem explains it all his body!

12 Quarto-haviour. her heart

13 This line is omitted in the rolio. Beating her bulk, that his hand shakes withal.:

14 Gentry for gentle courtesy. Gentlemanliness or Rape of Lucrece.

ventry, kindness, or natural goodness. Generositas.' 5 To foredo and to undo were synonymous. Thus Barei. in Othello :

13 Supply and profit is aid and adrantage • That either makes me or foredoes me quite.' 16 i. e. over us.

17 Folio omits but. 6 To quote, is tu nole, to mark. Thus in The Rape of 19 There is no ground for the assertion that this meta. Lucrece :

phorical expression is derived from bending a bow. Seo Yea, the illiterale

Much Ado About Nothing, Act ii. Sc. 3. Hamlet in. a Will quote my loathed trospass in my looks." future scene says: This word in the quarto is written coled, which was the • They fool me to the rery top of my bent." old orthography of quoted

1. e, to the utmost of my inclination or dispositlon

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Pol.

news.

NELIUS.

wine, &c. before it was drunk by princes and other great faculties, he loses the order of his ideas, and entangles

King. Thanks, Rosencrantz, and gentle Guilden- | That it might please you to give quiet pass stern.

Through your dominions for this enterprise ; Queen. Thanks, Guildenstern, and gentle Rosen- On such regards of safety, and allowance, crantz;

As therein are set down. And I beseech you instantly to visit

Kmg.

It likes us well: My 100 much changed son.-Go, some of you, And, at our more consider'd time, we'll read, And bring these gentlemen where Hamlet is. Answer, and think upon this business. Guil. Heavens make our presence, and our prac- Mean time, we thank you for your well-look labour : tices,

Go to your rest; at night we'll feast together : Pleasant and helpful to him!

Most welcome home!
Queen.
Ay, Amen!

(Eseunt VOLTIMAND and CORNELIVS. (Exeunt Ros. Guil. and some Attendants.

This business is well ended. Enter POLONIUS.

My liege, and madam, to expostulate Pol. The embassadors from Norway,my good lord, What majesty should be, what duty is, Are joyfully return'd.

Why day is day, night, night, and time is time, King. Thou still hast been the father of good Were nothing but to waste nighı, day, and time.

Therefore,-since brevity is the soul of wit, Pol. Have I, my lord ? Assure you, my good liege, And tediousness the limbs and outward flourishes, I hold my duty, as I hold my soul,

I will be brief: Your noble son is mad: Both to my God, and to my gracious king; Mad call I it: for, lo define true madness, And I do think (or else this brain of mine

What is't, but to be nothing else but mad: Hunts not the trail' of policy so sure

But let that

go. As it hath? us'd to do) that I have found

Queen. More matter, with less art. The very cause of Hamlet's lunacy.

Pol. Madam, I swear I use no art at all. King: o, speak of that; that do I long to hear. That he is mad, 'tis true: 'tis true, 'tis pity;

Pol. Give first admittance to the embassadors ; And pity 'uis, 'tis true : a foolish figure; My news shall be the fruit to that great feast. Bul farewell 'it, for I will use no art. King. Thyself do grace to them, and bring them Mad let us grant him, then: and now remains, in.

(Erit Polonius. That we find out the rause of this effect; He tells ine, my dear Gertrude, he hath found Or, rather say, the cause of this defect; The head and source of all your son's distemper. For this effect, defective, comes by cause :

Queen. I doubt, it is no other but the main; Thus it remains, and the remainder thus.
His father's death, and our o'erbasty marriage. Perpend.
Re-enter Polonius, with VOLTIMAND and COR- Who, in her duty and obedience, mark,

I have a daughter; have, while she is mine ;

Hath given me this: Now gather and surmise. King. Well, we shall sist him.-Welcome, my - To the celestial, and my soul's idol, the most good friends!

beautified Ophelia,Say, Voltimand, what from our brother Norway? That's an ill' phrase, a vile phrase; beautified is a

Vol. Most fair return of greetings and desires. vile phrase ; but you shall hear.Thus : Upon our first, he sent out to suppress

In her ercellent white bosom, these, &c.' His nephew's levies ; which to him appear'd

Queen. Came this from Hamlet to her ? To be a preparation 'gainst the Polack;

Pol. Good madam, stay awhile; I will be faithBut, better look'd into, he truly found

ful. It was against your highness: Whereat griev'de Doubt thou, the stars are fire ; [Reads. That so his sickness, age, and impotence,

Doubt, that the sun doth move : Was falsely borne in hand,'-sends out arrests

Doubl truth to be a liar; On Fortinbras; which he, in brief, obeys;

But never doubt I love. Receives rebuke from Norway; and, in fine, 0, dear Ophelia, I am ill at these numbers ; I have Makes vow before his uncle, never more

not arl to reckon my groans; but that I love thee best, To give the assays of arms against your majesty. O, most best, believe it. Adieu. Whereon old Norway, overcome with joy,

Thine evermore, most dear lady, whilst Gives him three thousand crowns in annual fee ;6

this machine is to him, Hamlet And his commission, to employ those soldiers, This, in obedience, hath my daughter shown me: So levied as before, against the Polack:

And more above, hath his solicitings, With an entroaly, herein further shown,

As they fell out by time, by means, and place,

(Gives a Paper. All given to mine eas. Ti. e. the trace or track. Vestigium. It is that ves. tal, the rest natural. Such a man is positive and confi. tige, whether of foolmarks or scent, which enables the dent, because he knows that his mind was once strong, hinter to follow the game.

and knows not that it is become weak. Such a man 2 Folio-as I have.

excels in general principles, but fails in particular ap3 Folio-neros. By fruit dessert is meant.

plication. He is knowing in retrospect, and ignorant 4 i. e. deluded, imposed on, deceived by false appear. I io foresight. While he depends upon his memory, and ances. It is used several times by Shakspeare ; Mac. can draw from his depositaries of knowledge, he utters beth, Act iii. Sc. 1; Much Ado about Nothing, Acı iv. weighty sentences, and gives useful counsel : but as the Se. 1 ; Cymbeline, Sc. ult.

mind in its enfeebled state cannot be kept long busy and 5 Malone refers to the custom of taking the assay of intent, the old man is subject to the dereliction of his persons, to ascertain tha: it was not poisoner. But the himself in his own thoughts, till he recover the leading expression in the text has nothing to do with that cus. principle, and fall into his former train. The idea of tom. To gine the assay of arms, is 'to attempt or es, dotage encroaching upon wisdom, will solve all the say any thimg in arms, or by force. Accingi armis.' 1 phenomena of the character of Polonius.: -Johnson. have to request the reader's patience for this superfluous 8 Vile as Polonius esteems the phrase, from its note, but it is really sometimes impossible to resist ex equivocal meaning, Shakspeare has used it again in posing such mistakes.

The Two Gentlemen of Verona :6. That is, the king gave his nephew a feud or fee in

Seeing you are beautified land of that annual value. The quartos read three

With goodly shape,' &e. score thousand.

Nash, in his dedication of Christ's Tears over Jerusa7 1. e. to inquire. • Polonius is a man bred in courts, lem, 1594 :--- To the most beautified Lady Elizabeth exercised in business, stored with observation, confident Cary? It is not uncommon in dedications and encoin his knowledge, proud of his cloquence, and declining miastic verses of the poet's age. into dotage. His mode of oratory is designed to ridi. 9 See note on The Two Gentlemen of Verona, Acm cule the practice of those times, of prefaces that made iii. Sc. 1. Formerly the word these was usually added 90 introduction, and of method that embarrassed rather at the end of the superscription of letters. The folio than explained. This part of his character is acciden. I reads : These in her excellent white boson these.

you think,

King.

But how hath she Let me be no assistant for a state,
Receiv'd his love?

But keep a farın, and carters.
Pol.
What do you think of me? King.

We will try it. King. As of a man faithful and honourable.

Enter HAMLET, reading. Pol. I fain would prove so. But what might

Queen. But, look, where sadly the poor wretch

comes reading. When I had seen this hot love on the wing,

Pol. Away, I do beseech you, both away; (As I perceiv'd it, I must tell you that,

I'll board' him presently :-0, give me leave.Before my daughter told me,) what might you,

[Ercunt King, QUEEN, and Attendants. Or my dear majesty your queen here, think,

How does my good Lord Hamlet? If I had play'd the desk or table-book;

Ham. Well, God-'a-mercy, Or given my heart a winking, mute and dumb;'

Pol. Do you know me, my lord ? Or look'd upon this love with idle sight;

Ham. Excellent well; you are a fishmonger. What might you think? no, I went round" to work,

Pol. Not I, my lord. And my young mistress thus did I bespeak;

Ham. Then I'would you were so honest a man. Lord Hamlet is a prince out of thy star ;)

Pol. Honest, my lord? This must not be ; and then I precepts gave her, Ham. Ay, sir ; to be honest, as this world goes, That she should lock herself from his resort,

is to be one man picked out of ten thousand. Admit no messengers, receive no tokens.

Pol. That's very true, my lord. Which done, she took the fruits of my advice;

Ham. For if the sun breed maggots in a dead And he, repulsed, (a short tale to make,)

dog, being a god, kissing carrion, -Have you a Fell into a sadness; then into a sast;

daughter ? Thence to a watch; thence into a weakness;

Pol. I have, my lord. Thence to a lightness; and, by this declension,

Ham. Let her not walk i' the sun : conception is Into the madness wherein now he raves,*

a blessing; but as your daughter may conceive,'And all we mourn for.

friend, look to't. King. Do you think, 'tis this?

Pol. How say you by that? (Aside.) Still harpQueen. It may be, very likely: Pol. Hath there been such a time, (I'd sain know he said, I was a fishmonger: He is far gone, far

ing on my daughter:-yet he knew me not at first; that,)

gone : and, truly, in my youth I suffered much exThat I have positively said, 'Tis 80,

tremity for love: very near this. I'll speak to him When it prov'd otherwise ?

again.-What do you read, my lord ? King. Not that I know.

Ham. Words, words, words. Pol. Take this from this, if this be otherwise:

Pol. What is the matter, my lord ? (Pointing to his Head and Shoulder.

Ham. Between who? If circumstances lead me, I will find

Pol. I mean the matter that you read, my lord. Where truth is hid, though it were hid indeed

Ham. Slanders, sir : for the satirical rogue" says Within the centre.

here, that old men have gray beards : that their King.

How may we try it further ? Pol. You know, sometimes he walks four hours anil plum-tree gum; and that they have a plentiful

faces are wrinkled; their eyes purging thick amber, together, Here in the lobby.

lack of wit, together with most weak hams: All of Queen. So he does, indeed.

which, sir, though I most powerfully and potently Pol. At such a time I'll loose my daughter to him: set down; for yourself, sir, should be as old as I

believe, yet I hold it not honesty to have it thus Be you and I behind an arras then; Mark the encounter: if he love her not,

am, if, like a crab, you could go backward.

Pol. Though this be madness, yet there's method And be not from his reason fall’n thereon,

in it. (Aside.) Will you walk out of the air, my

lord ? 1 Iri had play'd the desk, or table-book ;

Or given my heart a winking, mute and dumb.' what his actors say, but what they think.' This emen. That is . If I had acted the part of depositary of their dation, and the moral comment on it, delighted Dr. John. secret loves, or given my heart a hint to be mute about son, who says, that it almost sets the critic on a level their passion. The quartos read-'given my heart a with the author!' There was certainly much ingenuity working,' and the modern editors follow this reading in the emendation (which is unquestionably right) as I prefer the reading of the folio. ' Conniventia, a rink. well as in the argument, but the latter appears totally ing al; a sufferance: a feigning not to see or know.' irrelevant and strained, and certainly was rather intend The pleonasm, mute and dumb, is found in the Rape ed to show the skill and ingenuity of the critic than to of Lucrece >

raise the character of the poet, or display his true mean. And in my hearing be you mute and dumb.' ing. Warburton pointed out the same kind of expres. 2 Plainly, roundly, without reserve. Pulonius, in sion in Cymbeline :— Common-kissing Titan.' 'And the third act, says, be round with him.'

Malone has adduced the following passage from the 3 This was changed to sphere in the 4to. 1632, and play of King Edward III. 1596, which Shakspeare bad that reading is followed by the modern editions. Out certainly seen :of thy star,' is placed above thee by destiny, We 'The freshest summer's day doth soonest taint have fortune's star in a former scene. Aumerle in The loathed carrion that it seems to kiss.' King Richard III. say! :

7 The folio reads-Conception is a blessing, but not * Shall I so much dishonour my fair stars. as your daughter may conceive.' Steevens thinks that 4 'The ridicule of this character is here admirably there is a play upon words here, as in the first scene of sustained. He would not only be thought to bave dis. King Lear :covered this intrigue by his own sagacity, but to have ·Kent. I cannot conceire you,

sir. remarked all the stages of Hamlet's disorder, from his Glo. Sir, this young fellow's mother could." sadness to bis raving, as regularly as his physician But the simple meaning may be, though conception could have done ; when all the while the madness was in general be a blessing, yet as your daughter may oniy feigned. The humour of this is exquisite from a chance to conceive that it may be a calamily, every man who tells us, with a confidence peculiar to sipall thing being so corrupt or sinful in the world;' he there: politicians, that he could find

fore counsels Polonius not to let his daughter walk “Where truth was hid, though it were hid indeed i'the gun,' i. e. be too much exposed to the corrupting Within the centre."

Warburton. influence of the world. The abrupt transitions and on6 i. e. uccost, address him. See Twelfth Night, Act scurities of Hamlet's language are intended to give i. Sc. 3.

Polonius a notion of his insanity. 6 The old copies read-being a good kissing car. 8 By the satirical rogue Warburton will have it rion. The emendation is Warburton's, who has accom. that Shakspeare means Juvenal, and refers to a pagpanied it with a long comment, in which he endeavours sage on old age in his tenth satire. Dr. Farmer states io prove that Shakspeare intended the passage as a that there was a translation of that satire by Sir John vindication of the ways of Providence in permitting

evil Beaumont, but is uncertain whether it was printed in to abound in the world. He observes that Shakspeare Shakspeare's time. The defects of age were, however, bad an an not only of acquainting the audience with a common topic of moral reflection.

Ham. Into my grave?

shadows:- Shall we to the court ? for, by my fay,' Pol. Indeed, that is out o' the air.—How preg- I cannot reason. nant sometimes his replies are! a happiness that

Ros, Guil. We'll wait upon you. often madness hits on, which reason and sanity Ham. No such matter: I will not sort you with could not so prosperously be delivered of. I will the rest of my servants ; for, to speak to you like an leave him, and suddenly contrive the means of honest man, I am most dreadfully attended.) But, meeting between him and my daughter.-My hoin the beaten way of friendship, what make you at nourable loid, I will most humbly take my leave Elsinore ? of you.'

Ros. To visit you, my lord; no other occasion. Ham. You cannot, sir, take from me any thing Ham. Beggar ihat I am, I am even poor in thanks; that I will more willingly part withal; except my but I thank you; and sure, dear friends, my thanks life, except my life, except my life.

are loo dear, a halfpenny. Were you not sent for? Pol. Fare you well, my lord.

Is it your own inclining? Is it a free visitation ? Ham. These tedious old fools!

Come, come; deal justly with me : come, come ; Enter RosexcRANtz and GUILDENSTERN.

nay, speak.

Guil. What should we say, my lord ? Pol. You go to seek the Lord Hamlet; there he is.

Ham. Any thing-but to ihe purpose. You were kos. God save you, sir ! [To POLONIUs. sent for ; and there is a kind of confession in your

(Exit Poloxios. looks, which your modesties have not crast enough Guil. My honour'd lord !

to colour: I know, the good king and queen have Ros. My most dear lord !

sent for you. Ham. My excellent good friends! How dost Ros. so what end, my lord ? thou, Guildenstern? Ah, Rosencrantz! Good lads, Ham. That you must teach me. But let me conhow do ye both ?

jure you by the rights of our fellowship, hy tho Ros. As the indifferent children of the earth.

consonancy of our youth, by the obligation of our Guil. Happy, in that we are not overhappy ; ever-preserved love, and by what more dear a betOn fortune's cap we are not the very button.

ter proposer could charge you withal, be even and Hum. Nor the soles of her shoe?

direct with me, whether you were sent for, or no? Ros. Neither, my lord.

Ros. What say you ? [T. GUILDENSTERN. Ham. Then you live about her waist, or in the Ham. Nay, then I have an eye of you ;' (Aside. middle of her favours?

you love me, hold not off. Guil, 'Faith, her privates we.

Guil. My lord, we were sent for. Ham. In the secret parts of fortune? O, most Ham. I will tell you why; so shall my anticipatrue; she is a strumpet. What news?

tion prevent your discovery, and your secrecy to Rós. None, my lord ; but that the world is grown the king and queen moult nó feather. I have of late, honest,

(but wherefore, I know not,) lost all my mirth, Ham. Then is doomsday near: But your news forgone all custom of exercises: and, indeed, it goes is not true.? (Let me question more in particular : so heavily with my disposition, that this goodly What have you, my good friends, deserved at the frame, the earth, seems to me to be a steril promonhands of fortune, that she sends you to prison tory; this most excelleut canopy, the air, look you, hither?

this brave o'erhanging firmament, this majestical Guil. Prison, my lord!

roof fretted with golden fire, why, it appears no Ham. Denmark's a prison.

other thing to me, than a foul and pestilent congren Ros. Then is the world one.

gation of vapours. What a piece of work is a man! Ham. A goodly one ; in which there are many How noble in reason! how infinite in faculties! in confines, wards, and dungeons; Denmark being one form, and moving, how express and admirable! in of the worst.

action, how like an angel! in apprehension, how Ros. We think not so, my lord.

like a god! the beauty of the world! the paragon Ham. Why, then 'tis none to you; for there is of animals! And yet, to me, what is this quintesnothing either good or bad, but thinking makes it sence of dust ? man delights not me, no nor woman so: to me it is a prison.

neither ; though, by your smiling, you seem to say so. Ros. Why, then your ambition makes it one ; Ros. My lord, there is no such stuff in my thoughts. 'tis too narrow for your mind.

Ham. Why did you laugh, then, when I said, Ham. O God! I could be bounded in a nutshell, Man delights not me ? and count myself a king of infinite space; were it Ros. To think, my lord, if you delight not in not that I have bad dreams.

man, what lenten entertainment the players shall Guil. Which dreams, indeed, are ambition ; for receive from you: we cotedi" them on the way; the very substance of the ambitious is merely the and hither are they coming, to offer you service. shadow of a dream.

Ham. He that plays the king, shall be welcome; Ham. A dream itself is but a shadow.

his majesty shall have tribute of me: the adventu. Ros. Truly, and I hold ambition of so airy and rous knight shall use his foil, and target: the lover light a quality, that it is but a shadow's shadow. shall not sigh gratis ; the humorous man shall end

Ham. Then are our beggars, bodies; and our his part in peace : '(the clown shall make those monarchs, and outstretch'd heroes, the beggars' laugh, whose lungs are tickled o’the sere ;'') and

7 To have an eye of any one is to have an inkling of I This speech is abridged thus in the quartos > his purpose, or to be aware of what he ie about. It is

'I will leave him and my daughter. My lord, still a common phrase. The first quarto has :--'Nay, I will take my leave of you.'

then I see how the wind sets.' 2 All within crotchets is wanting in the quarto copies.

Look how the floor of heaven 3 Shakspeare has accidentally inverted the expres. In thick inlaid with palins of bright gold. sion of Pindar, that the state of humanity is the dream

Merchant of Venice, of a shadow. Thus also Sir John Davies:

9 See Twelfth Night, Act i. Sc. 5. Man's life is but a dreame, nay, less than so, 10 To code is to pass alongside, to pass hy :-' A shadow of a dreame.

Marry, presently coted and outstript them. 4.If ambition is such an unsubstantial thing, then

Remusn from Parnassus are our beggars (who at least can dream of greatness)

"With that Hippomenes cotrd her.' the only things of substance, and monarchs and hernes,

Golding's Orid, Metam. ii. though appearing to fiil such mighty space with their It was a familiar hunting term, and its origin tror ambition, but the shadows of the beggars' dreams.' a cote, French, is obvious. Johnson thought that Shakspeare designed ' a ridicule 11 The first quarto reads :-'The clown shall mako of those declamations against wealth and greatness, that them laugh chat are tickled in the lungs. The words seem to make happiness consist in poverty.'

as they now stand are in the folio. The meaning 5 See note on the Induction to Taming of a Shrew, appears to be, the clown shall mako even those laugh 6 See note on Love's Labour's Lost, Activ. Sc 3. whose lungs are tickled with a dry cough, or huskinens ;

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