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"To call a present court of parliament. Saint Albans' battle, won by famous York,
Let us pursue him, ere the writs go forth : Shall bo eterniz'd in all age to come.
• What says Lord Warwick ? shall we after them ? Sound, drums and trumpets :-and to London all :

War. After them! nay, before them, if we can. And moro such days as these to us befall!
Now by my faith, lords, 'twas a glorious day:





, of St. Albans [May 23, 1455,) wherein the York printed by T. P. no date, but ascertained to have been faction carried the day; and closes with the murder of printed in 1619. King Henry VI. and the birth of Prince Edward, after. The present historical drama was altered by Crown, wardy King Edward V. (November 4, 1471.) so that and brought on the stage in 1680, under the title of The this history takes in the space of full sixteen years. Miseries of Civil War. Surely the works of Shak.

The utle of the old play, which Shakspeare altered speare could have been little read at that period; for and improved, is 'The True Tragedie of Richard Duke Crown, in his prologue, declares the play to be entirely of Yorke, and the Death of good King Henry the Sixth: his own composition : with the whole Contention between the Two Houses of Lancaster and Yorke: as it was sundrie times acted by

"For by his feeble skill 'uis built alono, the Right Honourable the Earle of Pembroke his Ser. The divine Shakspeare did not lay one stone." vants. Printed at London by P. S. for Thomas Milling. Whereas the very first scene is that of Jack Cade, ton, and are to be solde at his Shoppe under 8c Peter's copied almost verbatim from the Second part of King Church in Cornewal, 1593. There was another edi. Henry VI. and several others from this Third Part, with tion in 1600 by the same publisher : and it was repro- I as little variation.


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Sir John MORTIMER, Uncles to the Duko of EDWARD, Prince of Wales, his Son.


York. Lewis XI. King of France.

HENRY, Earl of Richmond, a Youth. Duke of SOMERSET,

LORD RIVERs, brother to Lady Grey. Sır WilDUKE OF EXETER,


Lords on King SIR JOHN SOMERVILE. Tutor to Rutland. EARL of NORTHUMBERLAND, Henry's side. Mayor of York. Lieutenant of the Tower. A EARL of WESTMORELAND

Nobleman. Two Keepers. Å Huntsman, A LORD CLIFFORD,

Son that has killed his Father. A Father that has RICHARD PLANTAGENET, Duke of York.

killed his Son. EDWARD, Earl of March, afterwards King Edward IV.


his Sons. LADY GREY, afterwards Queen to Edward IV. GEORGE, afterwards Duke of Clarence,

Bona, Sister to the French Queen.
RICHARD, afterwards Duke of Glocester,

Soldiers, and other Attendants on King Henry and MARQUIS of MONTAGUE,

King Edward, Messengers, Watchmen, foc.
EARL of WARWICK, of the Duke of York's

SCENE, during part of the third act, in Franco ; LORD STAFFORD,

during all the rest or the olay in Eugland.


Whose warlike ears could never brook retreat, SCENE I. London. The Parliament House. Lord Clifford, and Lord Stafford, all abreast,

• Cheer'd up the drooping army; and hiinsell, Drums. Some Soldiers of York's party break in. · Chargʻd our main battle's front; and, breaking in, Then, enter the Duke of York, EDWARD, " Were by the swords of common soldiers slain. RICHARD, NORFOLK, MONTAGUE, WARWICK,

Edw. Lord Stafford's father, duke of Buckingand others, with white Roses, in their Hats.

ham, Warwick.

• Is either slain, or wounded dangerous : I WONDER, how the king escap'd our hands.

I cleft his beaver with a downright blow; York. While we pursu'd the horsemen of the That this is true, father, behold his blood. north,

(Showing his bloody Sword. He slily stole away, and left his men:

Mont. And, brother, here's

the earl of Wiltshire's Whereat the great lord of Northumberland,


(To YORK, showing his.

Whom I encounter'd as the battles join'd. 1 This play is only divided from the former for the convenience of exhibition; for the series of action is continued without isterruption, nor are any two scenes 2 See the former play, p. 256. Shakspeare has faller of any play more closely connected than the first scene into this inconsistency by following the old plays in of this play with the last of the former.-Johnson. the construction of these dramas.


will ;

Rich. Speak thou for me, and tell them what I My gracious lord, here in the parliament did,

Let us assail the family of York. (Throwing down the Duke of SOMERSET'S North. Well hast thou spoken, cousin; be it so. • Head.

K. Hen. Ah, know you not, the city favours them, : * York. Richard hath best deserv'd of all my And they have troops of soldiers at their back ?

Ere. But when the duke is slain, they'll quickly What, is your grace dead, my lord of Somerset ?

fly. Norf. Such hope have all the line of John of K. Hen Far be the thought of this from Henry's Gaunt!

heart, Rich. Thus do I hope to shake King Henry's To make a shambles of the parliament-house ! head.

Cousin of Exeter, frowns, words, and threats, War. And so do 1.- Victorious prince of York, Shall be the war that Henry means to use. Before I see thee sealed in that throne Which now the house of Lancaster usurps,

Thộú factious duke of York, descend my throne,

(They advance to the Duke. I vow by heaven, these eyes shall never close. And kneel for grace and

mercy at my feet : This is the palace of the fearful king,

I am thy sovereign. And this the regal seat: possess it, York:


Thou art deceiv'd, I am thine. For this is thine, and not King Henry's heirs'. Exe. For shame, come down; he made thee duke York. Assist me then, sweet Warwick, and I

of York.

York. 'Twas my inheritance, as the earldom was.' For hither we have broken in by force.

Exe. Thy father was a traitor to the crown, Norf. We'll all assist you; he, that flies, shall die.

War. Exeter, thou art a traitor to the crown,!' York. Thanks, gentle Norfolk.–Stay by me, my In following this usurping Henry. lords;

Clif. Whom should he follow, but his natural king? • And, soldiers, stay, and lodge by me this night. War. True, Clifford; and that's Richard, duke of War. And, when the king comes, offer him no

York. violence,

K. Hen, And shall I stand, and thou sit in my • Unless he seek to thrust you out by force.

throne ?

(They retire. York. It must and shall be so. Content thyself. * York, The queen, this day, here holds her


War, Be duke of Lancaster, let him be king. liament,

West. He is both king and duke of Lancaster : * But little thinks we shall be of her council: And that the lord of Westmoreland shall maintain. * By words, or blows, here let us win our right.

War. And Warwick shall disprove it. You forget, Rich. Arm’das we are, let's stay within this house. That we are those, which chas'd you from the field,

War. The bloody parliament shall this be call’d, And slew your fathers, and with colours spread Unless Plantagenet, duke of York, be king;

March'd through the city to the palace gates. And bashful Henry depos'd, whose cowardice North. Yes, Warwick, I remember it to my Hath made us by-words to our enemies.

grief; * York. Then leave me not, my lords; be resolute; And, by his soul, thou and thy house shall ruo it. I mean to take possession of my right.

West. Planiagenet, of thee, and these thy sons, War. Neither the king, nor he that loves him best, Thy kinsmen, and thy friends, I'll have more lives · The proudest he that holds up Lancaster,

Than drops of blood were in my father's veins. Dares stir a wing, if Warwick shake his bells." Clif. Urge it no more ; lest that, instead of words, I'll plant Plantagenet, root him up who dares : I send thee, Warwick, such a messenger, Resolve thee, Richard; claim the English crown.

As shall revenge his death, before I stir, (WARWICK learls York to the Throne,

* War, Poor Clifford ! how I scorn his worthless who seals himself.


York. Will you, we show our title to the crown ? Flourish. Enter KING HENRY, CLIFFORD, NOR

If not, our swords shall plead it in the field. THUMBERLAND, WESTNORELAND, Exeter,

K. Hen. What title hast thou, traitor, to the and others, with red Roses in their Hats.

crown ? K. Hen. My lords, look where the sturdy rebel sits, Thy father was, as thou art, duke of York ; Even in the chair of state ! belike, he means Thy grandfather, Roger Mortimer, earl of March : (Back'd by the power of Warwick, thai false peer,) I am ihe son of Henry the Fifih, To aspire unto ihe crown, and reign as king: - Who made the Dauphin and the French to stomp, Earl of Northumberland, he slew thy father ; And seiz'd upon their towns and provinces. And thine, Lord Clifford; and you both have vow'd War. Talk not of France, sitha thou hast lost revenge

it all. On him, his suns, his favourites, and his friends. K. Hen. The lord protector lost it, and not I;

North. If I be nor, heavens, be reveng'd on me! When I was crown'd, I was but nine months old.. Clis. The hope thereof makes Clifford mourn in Rich. You are old enough now, and yet, methinks steel.

you lose :West. What; shall we suffer this ? let's pluck him Father, tear the crown from the usurper's head. down :

Edu. Sweet father, 'o so; set it on your head. • My heart for anger burns, I cannot brook it. Mont. Good brother (To YORK,) as thou lov'st K. Hen. Be patient, gentle carl of Westmoreland.

and honour'st arms, Clif. Patience is for poltroons, and such as he; Let's fight it out, and not stand caviling thus. He durst not sit there had your father liv'd.

Rich." Sound Grunts and trumpets, and the king

will fly. 1. Shakspeare was also led into this anachropism by the old plays. At the time of the first badle of si. line only exhibits the same meaning more obscurely. Albans, where Richard is represented to have fought-in York means that the dubodom was his inheritance froin the last scone of the preceding play, he was not one his father, as the earldom of March, was his inheritance year old; having been born at Fotheringay Castle, Oc. from his inother. His title to the crown was nie as duke tober 21, 1454. At the time to which the third scene of of York, but as earl of March, and boy naming that he the present act refers, he was but six years old; and in covertly asserts his right to the crown. the fifth act, in which Henry is represented as having 4 Another roistake of the author of the old play. been killed by him in the Tower, not more than sixteen York's father was earl of Cambridge, and was beheaded and eight ronths.

in the lifetime of his elder brother, Edward duke of 2 The allusion is to falconry. Hawks had sometimes York. liule bells hung on them, perhaps-to dare che birds ; that 5 The military reputation of King Henry V, is the is, to fright them from rising.

sole support of his son. The name of King Henry the 3 The old play reads as the kingdom is.' Why Fifth uspersed the followers of Cade. Shak speare altered it, it is not easy to say, for the new 6 Since. A contraction of sithence,



York. Sons, peace!

* West. Farewell

, faint-hearted and degenerate K. Hen. Peace thou ! and give King Henry leave king, to speak.

* In whose cold blood no spark of honour bides. War. Plantagenet shall speak first :-hear him, North. Be thou a prey unto the house of York, lords ;

• And die in bands for this unmanly deed ! And be you silent and attentive too,

Clif. In dreadful war may'st thou be overcome! For he, inat interrupts him, shall not live. Or live in peace, abandon'], and despis'd! · K.' Hen. Think'st thou, that I will leave my (Exeunt NORTHUMBERLAND, CLIFFORD, kingly throne,

and WESTMORELAND. Wherein my grandsire, and my father, sat? * War. Turn this way, Henry, and regard them No: first shall war unpeople this my realm;

not. Ay, and their colours-often borne in France; Exe. They seek revenge, and therefore will not And now in England, to our heart's great sorrow,

yield. Shall be my winding-sheet.'-Why faint you, lords? K. Hen. Ah, Exeter! . My title's good, and better far than his.


Why should you sigh, my lord ? War. But prove it, Henry, and thou shalt be king. K. Hen. Not for myself, Lord Warwick, but my K. Hen. Henry the Fourth by conquest got the


Whom I unnaturally shall disinherit. York. 'Twas by rebellion against his king: But, be it as it may :--I here entail

K. Hen. I know not what to say, my title's weak. The crown to thee, and to thine heirs forever ; Tell me, may not a king adopt an heir ?

Conditionally, that here thou take an oath, York. What then ?

To cease this civil war, and, whilst I live, K. Hen. An if he may, then am I lawful king: To honour me as thy king and sovereign; For Richard in the view of many lords,

* And neither by treason, nor hostility, Resign'd the crown to Henry the Fourth;

* To seek to put me down, and reign thyself. Whose heir my father was, and I am his.

York. This oath I willingly take, and will perform. York. He rose against him, being his sovereign,

Coming from the Throne. And made him to resign his crown perforce.

War. Long live King Henry!-Plantagenet, emWar. Suppose, my lords, he did it unconstrain'd,

brace him. Think you, 'iwere prejudicial to his crown ?? K. Hen. And long live thou, and these thy forExe. No; for he could not so resign his crown,

ward sons ! But that the next heir should succeed and reign. York. Now York and Lancaster are reconcil'd.

K. Hen. Art thou against us, duke of Exeter? Exe. Accurs'd be he, that seeks to make them Ere. His is the righi, and therefore pardon me.

foes! (Senet. The Lor:ls come forward. York. Why whisper you, my lords, and answer York. Farewell, my gracious lord ; I'll to my not?

castle. Ere. My conscience tells me he is lawful king. . And I'll keep London, with my soldiers. K. Hen. All will revolt from me, and turn to him. Norf. And I to Norfolk, with my followers, North. Plantagenet, for all the claim thou lay'st, Mont. And I unto the sea, from whence I came. Think not, that Henry shall be so depos'd.

(Eseunt YORK, and his Sons, WARWICE, 'War. Depos'd he shall be, in despite of all.

NORFOLK, MONTAGUE, Soldiers, and North. Thou art deceiv'd : ''tis noi thy southern

Altendants. power,

* K. Hen. And I, with grief and sorrow, to the of Essex, Norfolk, Suffolk, nor of Kent,Which makes thee thus presumptuous and proud,- Enter QUEEN MARGARET and the Prince of Wales. Can set the duke up, in despite of me. Clif. King Henry, be thy uitle right or wrong,

Exe. Here comes the queen, whose looks bewray Lord Clifford vows to fight in thy defence :

her anger : May that ground gape, and swallow me alive,

I'll steal away. • Where I shall kneel to him that slew my father!

K. Hen. Exeter, so will I. (Going. K. Hen. O Clifford, how thy words revive my Q. Mar. Nay, go not from me, I will follow thee. heart!

K. Hen. Be patient, gentle queen, and I will stay. York. Henry of Lancaster, resign thy crown : Q. Mar. Who can be patient in such extremes ? What mutter you, or what conspire you, lords ? Ah, wretched man! 'would, I had died a maid, War. Do right unto this princely duke of York;

* And never seen thee, never borne thee son, Or I will fill the house with armed men,

* Seeing thou hast prov'd so unnatural a father! And, o'er the chair of state, where now he sits, * Hath he deserv'd 'to lose his birthright thus ? Write up his title with usurping blood.

* Hadst thou but lov'd him half so well as I ; (He stamps, and the Soldiers show themselves. * Or felt that pain which I did for him once ; K. Hen. My lord of Warwick, hear me but one

* Or nourish'd him, as I did with my blood;

* Thou would'st have left thy dearest heart-blood for this my life time, reign as king.

there, York. Confirm the crown to me, and to mine heirs, * Rather than have made that savage duke thino And thou shalt reigu in quiet wbilst thou liv'st.

heir, K. Hen. I am content: Richard Plantagenet,

* And disinherited thine only son. Enjoy the kingdom after my decease.

* Prince. Father, you cannot disinherit me: Clif. What wrong is this unto the prince your son? * If you be king, why should not I succeed ? War. What good is this to England, and himself?

* K. Hen. Pardon me, Margaret ;-pardon me, West. Base, fearful, and despairing Henry!

sweet son ; *Clif. How hast thou injur'd both thyself and us ?

* The earl of Warwick, and the duke, enforc'd me. West. I cannot stay to hear these articles.

* Q. Mar. Enforc'd thee! art thou king, and wilt North. Nor I.

be forc'd? Clif. Come, cousin, let us tell the queen these I shame to hear thee speak. Ah, timorous wretch!

quered, and seek to be revenged. They are not influ

enced by principle but passion.'—Johnson, 1 Perhaps Gray had this passage in mind when he 4 Malone asserts that neither, either, brother, and

many similar words, were used by Shakspeare as mo* Weave the warp, and weave the wool,

nosyllables. Steevens doubts this, with seeming pro. The winding-sheet of Edward's race.' priety, and observes that the versification of this and ? i. e. detrimental to the general rights of hereditary the preceding play, has many lines as unmetrical and royalty.

irregular as this. 3. They go away, not because they doubt the justice 5 Sandal Castle, near Wakefield, in Yorkshiro, of this determination, but because they have been con 6 Betray, discover


word; Let me,



and us;

thee gone.

me ?

her son,

Thou hast undone thyself, thy son, and me,

Enter Yokr. . And given unto the house of York such head,

• York. Why, how now, sons and brother, at a * As thou shalt reign but by their sufferance.

strife? * To entail hinn and his heirs unto the crown,

• What is your quarrel ? how began it first ? * What is it, but to make thy sepulchre,'

. Edw. No quarrel, but a slighi contention. * And creep into it far before thy time?

York, About what ? *Warwick'is chancellor, and the lord of Calais ; · Rich. About that which concerns your grace, Stern Faulconbridge? commands the narrow seas; The duke is made protector of the realm ;

· The crown of England, father, which is yours. * And yet shalt thou be safe ? *such safety finds

• York. Mine, boy? not till King Henry be dead. * The trembling lamb, environed with wolves.

* Rich. Your right depends not on his life, or " Had I been there, which am a silly woman,

death. · The soldiers should have toss'd me on their pikes, * Edw. Now you are heir, therefore enjoy it now: • Before I would have granted to that act.

* By giving the house

of Lancaster leave to breathe, * But thou preferr'st thy life before thine honour :

* It will outrun you, father, in the end. And seeing thou dost, I here divorce myself,

York. I took an oath that he should quietly · Both from thy table, Henry, and thy bed,

reign. • Until that act of parliament be repeald,

Edw. But, for a kingdom, any oath may be • Whereby my son is disinherited.

broken: The northern Iords, that have forsworn thy colours, r'a break a thousand oaths, to reign one year. Will follow mine, if on they see them spread: Rich. No; God forbid, your grace should be • And spread they shall be ; to thy foul disgrace,

forsworn. . And utter ruin of the house of York.

York. I shall be, if I claim by open war. · Thus do I leave thee :-Come, son, let's away ;

' Rich. I'll prove ihe contrary, if you'll hear me • Our army's ready: Come, we'll after them.

speak. K. Hen. Stay, gentle Margaret, and hear me • York. 'Thou canst not, son; it is impossible. speak.

Rich. An oath is of no moment, being not took Q. Mar. Thou hast spoke too much already ; get · Before a true and lawful magistrale,

" That hath authority over him that swears'; K. Hen. Gentle son Edward, thou wilt stay with

Henry had none, but did usurp the place;

Then, seeing 'twas he that made you to deposo, Q. Mar. Ay, to be murder'd by his enemies. Prince. When I return with viciory from the field, Therefore, to arms.

' Your oath, my lord, is vain and frivolous,

* And, father, do but think, I'll see your grace: till then, I'll follow her.

* How sweet a thing it is to wear a crown Q. Mar. Come, son, away; we may not linger * Within whose circuit is Elysium,

thus. [Ereunt QUEEN MARGARET, and the Prince. * Why do we linger thus ? I cannot rest,

* And all that poets feign of bliss and joy. K. Hen. Poor qucen! how love to me, and to

* Until the white rose, that I wear, be dyed

* Even in the lukewarm blood of Henry's heart. • Hath made her break out into terms of rage!

York, Richard, enough ; I will be king or die.• Reveng'd may she be on that hateful duke;

• Brother, thou shalt to London presently, * Whose haughty spirit, winged with desire, • And whet on Warwick to this enterprise.*Will coast my crown, and, like an empty eagle,

Thou, Richard, shalt unto the duke of Norfolk, * Tire on the flesh of me, and of my son! * The loss of those three lords torments my heart :

And tell him privily of our intent.

You, Edward, shall unto my Lord Cobham, * I'll write unto them, and entreal them fair ;

With whom the Kentishmen will willingly rise: * Come, cousin, you shall be the messenger.

"In them I trust; for they are soldiers, * Ere. And I, I hope, shall reconcile them all.

• Witty and courteous, liberal, full of spirit.

(Exeunt. While you are thus employ'd, what resteth more, SCENE II. A Room in Sandal Castle, near

. But that I seek occasion how to rise ; Wakefield in Yorkshire. Enter EDWARD, Rich.

And yet the king not privy to my drift, ARD, and MONTAGUE.

' Nor any of the house of Lancaster? Rich. Brother, though I be youngest, give me

Enter a Messenger.' leave.

· But, stay; What news ? Why com'st thou in Edw. No, I can better play the orator.

such post ? Mont. But I have reasons strong and forcible. " Mess. The queen, with all the northern earls

and lords, o | The queen's reproach is founded on a position long received among politicians, that the loss of kingly power any thing. The old form of the word appears to havo is soon followed by loss of life.

been costoye, or costoie, from the French costoyer, to 2 The person here meant was Thomas Nevil, bastard pursue a course alongside an object, to watch it. son to the Lord Faulconbridge, "a man (says Hall) of no 4 To tüc is to tear; to feed like a bird of prey. lesse corage than audacitie, who for his cruel condi. 5 i. e. or Northumberland, Westmoreland, and Clifcions was such an apte person, that a more meter ford, who had left him in disgust. could not be chosen to set all the world in a broyle, and 6 Shakspeare seems to have thought York and Mon. to put the estate of the realme on an ill hazard. He had lague brothers-in-law. But Montague was brother to been appointed by Warwick, vice-admiral of the sea, Warwick; Warwick's daughter was married to a son of and had in charge so to keep the passage between Do-York, but not during the life of York. Steevens thought ser and Calais, that none which either favoured King that as Shakspeare uses the expression brothers of ihe Henry or his friends, should escape untaken or un war in King Lear, something of the kind might be drowned: such, at least, were his instructions with re meant here. speci to the friends and favourers of King Edward after 7 The obligation of an oath is here eluded by a very the rupture between him and Warwick. On Warwick's despicable sophistry. A lawful magistrate alone has the death, he fell into poverty, and robbed, both by sea and power to exact an oath, but the vaih derives no part of land as well friends as enemies. He once brought his ils force from the magistrate. The plea against the ob ships up the Thames, and with a considerable body of ligation of an oath obliging to maintain a usurper, taken the men of Kent and Essex, made a spirited assauli on from the unlawfulness of the oath itself, in the forego the city, with a view to plunder and pillage, which was ing play, was rational and just---Johnson. not repelled but after a sharp conflict, and the loss of g'or sonind judgment. many lives; and, had it happened at a more critical pe. 9 The foljo reads · Enter Gubriel.' It was the namo riod, might have been attended with fatal consequences of the actor, probably Gabriel Singer, who played this to Edward. After roving on the sea some little tiine lon. insigniticant part. The emendation is from the old play, ger, he ventured to land at Southampton, where he was and was made by Theobald. Laken and beheaded. See Hall and Holinshed.-Ritson. 10 I know not (says Johnson) whether the author in.

3 To coast is, apparently, to pursue, to hover about tended any moral instruction, bul he that reads this has

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• Intend here to besiege you in your castle : Rut. Then let my father's blood open it again; \ • She is hard by with iwenty thousand men ; He is a man, and, Clifford, cope with him. " And therefore fortify your hold, my lord.

Clif. Had I thy brethren here, their lives, and * York. Ay, with my sword. What! think'st thine, thou, that we fear them?

Were not revengo sufficient for me ; · Edward and Richard, you shall stay with me; No, if I digg'd up thy forefathers' graves, . My brother Montague shall post to London! And hung their rotten coffios up in chains, * Let noble Warwick, Cobham, and the rest, It could not slake mine ire, nor ease my heart. * Whom we have left protectors of the king, The sight of any of the house of York * With powerful policy strengthen themselves, Is as a fury to torment my soul ; * And trust not simple Henry, nor his oaths. • And till I root out their accursed line,

* Mont. Brother, I go; I'll wiu them, fear it not :: And leave not one alive, I live in hell. * And thus most humbly I do take my leave. (Erit. Therefore

(Lifting his hand. Enler Sir John and Sir Hugh MORTIMER.

Rut. O, let me pray before I take my death :York. Sir John, and Sir Hugh Mortimer, mine

To thee I pray; sweet Clifford, pity me! uncles!

Clif. Such pity as my rapier's point affords.

Rut. I never did thee harm: Why wilt thou • You are come to Sandal in a happy hour;

slay me?
The army of the queen mean to besiege us.
Sir John. She shall not need, we'll meet her in

Clif. Thy father hath.

But 'twas ere I was born.“ the field.

Thou hast one son, for his sake pity me; York. What, with five thousand men ? Rich. Ay, with five hundred, father, for a need. Lest, in revenge thereof, --sith God is just,

He be as miserably slain as I. A woman's general ; What should we fear?

(A March afar off And when I give occasion of offence,

Ah, let me live in prison all my days; Edw. I hear their drums; let's set our men in Then let me die, for now thou hast no cause. order ;.

Clif. No cause ? • And issue forth, and bid them battle straight. * York. Five men to twenty !--though the odds Thy father slew my father ; therefore, die.

(CLIFFORD stabs him. • I doubt not, uncle, of our victory.

Rut. faciant, laudis summa sit ista tuæ !

(Dies. • Many a battle have I won in France,

Clif. Plantagenet! I come, Plantagenet ! • When as the enemy hath been ten to one;

And this thy son's blood cleaving to my blade, • Why should I not now have the like success ?

(Alarum. Exeunt. Congeald with thís, do make me wipe off both.

Shall rust upon my weapon, till thy, blood, SCENE III. Plains near Sandal Castle. Ala

[Exil. rums: Excursions. Enter RUTLAND, and his Tutor.'

SCENE IV. The same. Alarum. , Enter York. Rut. Ah, whither shall I fly to 'scape their York. The army of the queen haih got the field. hands?

. My uncles both are slain in rescuing me;' Ah, tutor! look, where bloody Clifford comes ! ' And all my followers to the eager foe

Enter CuirrORD, and Soldiers. · Turn back, and fly, like ships before the wind, Clif. Chaplain, away! thy priesthood saves thy. My sons--God knows, what hath bechanced

• Or lambs pursu'd by hunger-starved wolves. life.

them : As for the brat of this accursed duke, Whose father slew my father, he shall die.

But this I know,-they have demean'd themselves Tul. And I, my lord, will bear him company.

Like men born to renown, by life, or death.

“ 'Three times did Richard make a lane to me; Clif. Soldiers, away with him. Tut. Ah, Clifford! murdei not this innocenti And full as oft came Edward to my side,

And thrice cried, -Courage, father ! fight it out! child, « Lest thou be hated both of God and man.

With purple falchion painted to the hilç

* In blood of those that had encounter'd him (Erit, forced off by Soldiers. Cliff. Ho: now! is he dead already? Or, is it Richard cried, --Charge! and give no foot of

. And when the hardiest warriors did retire, fear, That makes him close his eyes ?—I'll open them.

ground! Rut. So looks the pent-up lion o'er the wretch

' And cried, -A crown, or else a glorious lomb! • That trembles under his devouring paws ::

A sceptre, or an earthly sepulchre ! And so he walks, insulting o'er his prey;

With this we charg'd again: but, out, alas! • And so he comes to rend his limbs asunder.

• We bodg’dø again; as I have seen a swan " Ah, gentle Clifford, kill me with thy sword,

· With bootless labour swim against the tide, And not with such a cruel threat'ning look.

* And spend her strength with overmatching waves. Sweet Clifford, hear me speak before I die;

(A short Alarum within. I am too mean a subject for thy wrath,

"Ah, hark! the fatal followers do pursue ; Be thou reveng'd on men, and let me live.

* And I am faint, and cannot fly their fury: Clif. In vain thou speak'st, poor boy; my


And, were I strong, I would not shun their fury: blood

* The sands are number'd, that make op my life; Hath stopp'd the passage where thy words should

• Here must I stay, and here my life must end.



a striking admonition against precipitancy, by which

5 Since. we often use unlawful means to do that which a little 6 This line is in Ovid's Epistle from Phillis to Demo. delay would put honestly in our power. Had York phoon. The same quotation is in Nash's Have with stayed but a few moments, he had saved his cause from you to Saffron Walden, 1596. the stain of perjury:

7 These were two bastard uncles by the mother's 1. A priest called Sir Robert Aspall.' Hall, fo. 99. side, Sir John and Sir Hugh Mortimer. See Grafton's, ,2 i. e. the father of which brat, namely the duke of Chronicle, p. 649. York.

9 Bodged is probably the same as budged, from 3 Steevens

remarks that the epithet derouring, which bouger, French. Steevens thought that it was the same might well have characterized the whole animal, is as boggled, i. e. made bad, or bungling work of the oddly enough bestowed on his paws.

attempt to rally. But the following passage, in which 4 Rutland was born in 1443; or at latest, according Coriolanus speaks of his army who had fled from their to Hall, in 1443, and Clifford's father was slain at the adversaries, seems decisive : buule of St. Albans, in 1456. Consequently Rutland The mouse ne'er shunnd the cat, as they did bridge. was then at least seven years old, more probably twelve. From rascalo worse than they?

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