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Copyright, 1919

BY

The Encyclopedia Americana Corporation

COMPOSITION, E LTCTROTVPING, PRESSWORK, BfNDINQ

J. B. LYON COMPANY, ALBANY, NEW YORK

PARTIAL LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS TO VOLUME XII

ANGELL, JAMES ROWLAND, Litt.D.

Dean of University Faculties, University of Chicago

FUNCTIONALISM ATRES, SAMUEL G., B.D.

Librarian, Garrett Biblical Institute

GENERAL CONFERENCE OF THE
METHODIST EPISCOPAL CHURCH

ASHE, SYDNEY W.

Educational Department, General Electric Com-
pany, Pittsfield. Mass.

GENERATORS
BENNETT, CHARLES E., Litt.D.

Professor of Latin, Cornell University

GALLIC WAR, CESAR'S COMMEN-
TARIES ON THE
GERMAN IA

BERTLING, K. O., Ph.D.

Amerika Institut, Berlin, Department of Education

GERMANY — GERMAN SCHOOLS

BESSEY, ERNEST A., Ph.D.

Professor of Botany, Michigan Agricultural College

FUNGI

BIGELOW, JOHN, LL.D.

Author of "The Complete Works of Benjamin
Franklin," etc.

FRANKLIN, BENJAMIN
BOTHNE, GISLE, A.B.

Professor of Scandinavian Languages and Literature,

University of Minnesota

FRITHJOF'S SAGA CALLAHAN, JAMES M., Ph.D.

Professor of History and Political Science, West

Virginia University

GERMANY — DIPLOMATIC RELA-
TIONS OF THE UNITED STATES
WITH

CANFD2LD, ARTHUR G., Ph.D.

Professor of Romance Languages, University of
Michigan

FROISSART'S CHRONICLES CARLTON, WILLIAM N. C, M.A., L.H.D.

Librarian, Newberry Library, Chicago

GARFIELD, JAMES ABRAM CARROLL, HENRY K., LL.D.

Author of "Religious Forces in the United States," etc.

GERMAN BAPTIST BRETHREN CASTLE, WILLIAM ERNEST, Ph.D.

Professor of Biology, Harvard University

GENETICS

CHAMBERLAIN, CHARLES J., Ph.D.

Professor of Morphology and Cytology, University of Chicago

GAMETOPHYTE

CHANDLER, FRANK W., Ph.D.

Professor of English and Comparative Literature,
University of Cincinnati

GIL BLAS

CORNYN, JOHN HUBERT, B.A., LL3.

Editorial Staff of The Americana
FRENCH REVOLUTION, THE

COUMBE, CLEMENT W.

Technical Art Expert

FRESCO PAINTING

FURNITURE, HISTORY OF ANCIENT

FURNITURE, MEDLEVAL

GAUNTLETS

CROSS, WILBUR L., Ph.D.

Professor of English, Yale University

FRANKENSTEIN
DAKE, CHARLES LAURENCE, A.M.

Professor of Geology, School of Mines and Metal-
lurgy, Univesity of Missouri

GEOLOGY

DARTON, NELSON H.

United States Geological Survey

GASES IN MINES AND COAL
GEOMORPHOLOGY

BERRY, JOSEPH T.

Author of "History of Georgia"

GEORGIA, STATE OF
DOLE, NATHAN HASKELL, A.B.

Author. Editor and Translator

FRUITS OF CULTURE
GANGHOFER

DOUGLAS, D. S.

Editorial Staff of The Americana

GEORGE, DAVID LLOYD
GLADSTONE, WILLIAM EWART

EGGER, CARL E., Ph.D.

Assistant Professor of German, University of
Michigan

GEORGE. STEFAN

EISELEN, FREDERICK CARL, Ph.D., D.D.

Professor of Old Testament Interpretation, Garrett
Biblical Institute

GENESIS, BOOK OF

ELROD, MORTON J., Ph.D.

Director of Biological Station, University of
Montana

GLACIER NATIONAL PARK

EMERSON, OLIVER FARRAR, Ph.D., Litt.D.

_ Professor of English, Western Reserve University

GIBBON, EDWARD

EMERTON, EPHRAIM, PhJ>.

Winn Professor of Ecclesiastical History, Harvard
University

GERMANY — HISTORY OF GERMAN

RELIGION

FERRIS, RICHARD, C.E., Sc.D.

Editorial Staff of The Americana

GAS

GLUCOSE

GAY, WILLIAM H.

President of Berkey 4 Gay Furniture Co., Grand

Rapids

FURNITURE INDUSTRY IN AMERICA,

THE

GENTHE, KARL WILHELM, Ph.D.

Formerly Assistant Professor of Natural History,
Trinity College

GENTHE, MARTHA KRUG, Ph.D.

GERMANY — PHYSIOGRAPHY

GLASSON, EDWIN J.

United States Department of Agriculture

FRUIT GROWING

GOEBEL, JULIUS, Ph.D.

Professor of Germanic Languages in the University

of Illinois

GERMANY — HISTORY OF LITERA-

TURE

HAMLIN, A. D. F., A.M., L.H.D.

Professor of Architecture, Columbia University
FRENCH ARCHITECTURE

HAUHART, WILLIAM F., Ph.D.

Assistant Professor of German, University of

Michigan

FRENSSEN, GUSTAV

FREYTAG, GUSTAV

FULDA

HENDERSON, ERNEST F., Ph.D.

Author of "Short History of Germany"' "Blucher

and the Uprising of Prussia against Napoleon,"

etc.

GERMANY — POLITICAL HISTORY
TO 1871

INGERSOLL, ERNEST

Zoologist, Editor and Author

FUR-BEARING ANIMALS

FUR TRADE

FURS

GAME BREEDING

GLYPTODONT

ISAACS, LEWIS M., Ph.B., LL.B.

Music Critic and Composer

FREISCHUTZ, DER
JAGEMANN, HANS CARL G. VON, Ph.D.

Professor of German Philology, Harvard University

GERMANY — HISTORY OF THE
GERMAN LANGUAGE

JELLIFFE, SMITH ELY, M.D., Ph.D.

Formerly Professor of Pharmacognosy, Columbia
University

FREUDIANISM, MEDICAL ASPECTS

OF

GENERAL PARESIS

KAINS, M. G., B.S., B.S.A., M.S.A.

Lecturer on Horticulture, Columbia University

FRUIT

FRUIT INDUSTRY

KALLEN, HORACE M., Ph.D.

Instructor in Philosophy, University of Wisconsin

FREUDIANISM

KASNER, EDWARD, Ph.D.

Professor of Mathematics, Columbia University

GEOMETRY, ELEMENTARY

KEYSER, CASSIUS J., Ph.D.

Adrian Professor of Mathematics, Columbia

University

GEOMETRY, CARTESIAN

GEOMETRY, LINE-, AND ALLIED

THEORIES
GEOMETRY, MODERN ANALYTICAL

KLEIN, HENRI F.

Editorial Staff of The Americana

GEDDES, SIR ERIC CAMPBELL

GEORGE V

KOESTER, FRANK, C.E.

Consulting Engineer, New York City

GERMANY — ECONOMIC ORGANIZA-
TION

GERMANY — NATIONAL WEALTH
GERMANY — INDUSTRIES

GERMANY — TRAFFIC AND TRANS-
PORTATION

GERMANY —THE ARMY

GERMANY —THE NAVY

KRUGER, FRITZ-KONRAD, Ph.D.

Author of "Government and Politics of the German

Empire"

GERMANY — PARTIES AND PARTY

POLITICS

GERMANY — THE GOVERNMENT

GERMANY —THE JUDICIARY

KUNZ, GEORGE F., Ph.D., Sc.D.

Gem Expert, Tiffany & Co., New York City

GEMS, ENGRAVING OF

LENNOX, PATRICK J., B.A., LittD.

Professor of English Language and Literature. The

Catholic University of America

GAELIC LEAGUE, THE

LICHTENBERG, BENJ.

Of J. Adler St Co., New York

GLOVE MANUFACTURE IN AMERICA

LUFFT, H.

Writer on German Economics and Finance

GERMANY — COMMERCE
GERMANY — MONEY, BANKING, EX-
CHANGE

MacMECHAN, ARCHIBALD, Ph.D.

Professor of English Literature, Dalhousie College,
Halifax, N. S.

FREDERICK THE GREAT
FRENCH REVOLUTION, THE

MACH, EDMUND VON, Ph.D.

Author of "Outlines of the History of Painting"
"The Art of Painting in the Nineteenth Century"

GERMANY — PAINTING
GERMANY — SCULPTURE
GERMANY — ARCHITECTURE

MASON, SIDNEY

President, Welsbach Company

GAS ILLUMINATION

MORE, PAUL ELMER, LL.D., Litt.D.

Author of "Life of Benjamin Franklin," etc.

FREEDOM OF THE WILL

MONROE, CHARLES E., S.B., Ph.D.

George Washington University, Washington, D. C.

FUSE

MUNSTERBERG, HUGO, Ph.D., LLJ>.

Late Professor of Psychology, Harvard University

GERMANY — HISTORY OF SCIENCE
AND PHILOSOPHY

GERMANY —THE GERMAN UNIVER-
SITY SYSTEM

NASON, ARTHUR H., Ph.D.

Professor of English, New York University

GODWIN, MRS. MARY WOLLSTONE-

CRAFT
GODWIN, PARKE

NOURSE, EDWARD E., D.D.

Professor Biblical Theology, Hartford Theological
Seminary

GALATIANS, EPISTLE OF PAUL TO
THE

PALMER, WALTER B.

Former Special Agent, Bureau of Foreign and
Domestic Commerce

GLASS MANUFACTURING IN
AMERICA

PANARONL ALFRED G., B.S.

Instructor in Romance Languages, College of the
City of New York

GIACOSA, GIUSEPPE

GINGILLINO

GIUSTI

RINES, IRVING E.

Editor of "History of the United States"

GALLATIN, ABRAHAM ALFONSE
ALBERT

RISTEEN, ALLAN D., Ph.D.

Director of Technical Research, The Travelers In-
surance Company, Hartford, Conn.

GASES

SCHEVILL, FERDINAND, Ph.D.

Professor of Modern History, University of Chicago

GERMANY AND THE WAR

SCHIERBRAND, WOLF VON, Ph.D., LL.D.

Author of "Germany: the Welding of a World
Power," etc.

GERMANY — POLITICAL HISTORY,

1871-1918
GERMANY — AGRICULTURE

SERVICE, JOHN A.

Authority on European Glass Manufacture,
Toronto, Canada

GLASS, DEFINITION AND HISTORY OF
GLASS, CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF
GLASS-MAKING

SHOREY, PAUL, Ph.D., LL.D.

Head of Greek Department, University of Chicago

FROGS, THE

SHOWERMAN, GRANT, Ph.D.

Professor of Latin Literature, University of Wis-
consin

FRERE'S TRANSLATION OF ARISTO-
PHANES
GEORGICS OF VIRGIL, THE

SMITH, DAVID EUGENE, Ph.D., LL.D.

Professor of Mathematics, Teachers College, Colum-
bia University, New York

GEOMETRY, HISTORY OF THE ELE-
MENTS OF

SOUTHALL, JAMES P. C, B.A., M.A.

Associate Professor of Physics, Columbia University

GEOMETRICAL OPTICS
SPALDING, WALTER RAYMOND, A.M.

Assistant Professor of Music, Harvard University

GERMANY — HISTORY OF GERMAN
MUSIC

TAAFFE, THOMAS GAFFNEY, A.M.

Professor of English, Fordham University

FULDA, ABBEY OF
GAELIC LITERATURE
GALL, ABBEY OF SAINT

THOMPSON, GEORGE FAYETTE

Bureau of Animal Industry, Washington, D. C.

GOAT, THE

VAN DOREN, CARL, Ph.D.

Associate in English, Columbia University

FRANKLIN'S AUTOBIOGRAPHY
WELLS, BENJAMIN W., PhJ>.

Author of "Modern French Literature"

GARGANTUA AND PANTAGRUEL
GENIUS OF CHRISTIANITY, THE

WIENER, NORBERT, Ph.D.

Editorial Staff of The Americana

GEOMETRY, NON-EUCLIDEAN

WILSON, EDWIN BID WELL

Professor of Mathematical Physics, Massachusetts
Institute of Technology

GEOMETRY, PURE PROJECTIVE
YERKES, ROBERT M., Ph.D.

Professor of Psychology, University of Minnesota

GENETIC PSYCHOLOGY

KEY TO PRONUNCIATION.

a far, father

a fate, hate

a or a at, fat
a air, care

a ado, sofa

a all, fall

ch choose, church

e eel, we

e or e bed, end

e her, over: also Fr. c, as in de;

eu, as in neuf; and ocu, as in bocuf, coeur; Ger. o (or oe), as in okonomie.

c befall, elope

e agent, trident

ff off, trough

g gas, get

gw anguish, guava

h hat. hot

h or H Ger. ch, as in nicht, wacht

hw what

I file, ice

i or I him, it

i between e and i, mostly in Oriental final syllables, as, Ferid-ud-din

j gem, genius

lew quaint, quite

n Fr. nasal m or n, as in embon

point, Jean, temps

a Span, it, as in canon (canyon), pinon (pen'yon)

ng mingle, singing

nk bank, ink

6 no, open

o or 6 not, on

6 corn, nor

6 atom, symbol

0 book, look

01 oil, soil; also Ger. eu, as in beutel 6 or oo fool, rule

ou or ow allow, bowsprit

S satisfy, sauce

sh show, sure

th thick, thin

fh father, thither

u mute, use

u or u but, us

li pull, put

u between u and e, as in Fr. sur, Ger. Miiller

v of, very

y (consonantal) yes, young

z pleasant, rose

zh azure, pleasure

'(prime),'(secondary) accents, to indicate syllabic stress

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