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liable to this mode of attack : guard also against either a check by discovery, or a stale-mate.
16. When the kings have castled on adverse sides of the board, attack with the pawns you have on that side where the enemy-king has castled, advancing the pieces, especially the queen and rooks, to support them; and if the king that has castled has a line of three pawns in front, he should not stir them until compelled.
17. Endeavour to have a move in ambuscade; that is, place the queen, bishop, or rook, behind a pawn, or piece, in such a manner, that upon playing such pawn, or piece, you discover a check upon your adversary's king, and consequently oftentimes save a piece, or obtain some other advantage by it. This may be illustrated by placing the black king on 22, a white bishop on 50, and a pawn on 43; then move the pawn to 35, and the white bishop is discovered to check the black king.
18. Never guard an inferior piece, or pawn, with one of superior value, if you can do it with a pawn, because that better piece, in such a case is, as it were, out of play.
19. A pawn pushed on, and well supported, often costs the adversary a piece; but one isolated from his companions is seldom of any value. And when you are pushing to win the game, if you have gained a pawn, or other advantage, and are not in danger of losing the move, make as frequent exchanges as you can.
20. If each player has three pawns upon the board, and
no piece; and you have a pawn on one side of the board, and the other two on the other side, and your adversary's three pawns are opposite to your two, march with your king as soon as possible to take his pawns; and if he support them with his king, go on to queen, with your single pawn; and if he advance to prevent you, take his pawns and push your's to queen; that is, move a pawn into the eighth square of the file, in order to make a queen, when the original is lost.
21. Toward the latter end of a game, each party having only three or four pawns on opposite sides of the board, the kings are to endeavour to gain the move, in order to win the game. For example-place the white king on 54, and the black king on 37, white would gain the move by going to 53, and black would do so by going to 38; in both cases, the adverse king would be prevented from advancing.
22. When the adversary has only his king and one pawn on the board, and you have a king only, you cannot lose that game if you bring your king opposite to your adversary's, when he is immediately either before or on one side of his pawn, with only one square between the kings ; this will be a drawn game; and is the opponent draw you upon the first square, you will be stale-mated.
23. Never cover a check with a piece that a pawn pushed upon may take, for fear of getting only that pawn for it; as for example-a black rook on 7, and a pawn un 40; the white king on 63, and a knight on 61, the white king being in check to the rook; if the check is covered by the white knight being moved to 55, the black pawn moved to 48, would take the knight
24. Do not be afraid of losing a rook for an inferior piece: although a rook is better than any other, except the queen, yet it seldom comes into play, so as to operate, until the end of the game; and it is better to have an inferior piece in play, than a superior one out.
25. When you have moved a piece, which your adversary drives away with a pawn, it is a bad move, as your enemy gains the double advantage over you, of advancing himself and causing you to retire. Between good and equal players the first move may not be of so much consequence, yet the loss of one or two more, after the first, makes the game almost irretrievable; and if you have made such a move, that having the liberty to play again, you can make nothing of it, you may be sure your move was bad. At this game every move is important and demands consideration.
26. Do not be too much afraid of doubling a pawn; two in a direct line are not badly disposed, if surrounded by three or four others. Three pawns together are strong (as for instance, three white on 28, 35, 37) and a fourth (on 44) forming a square, with the help of other pieces well managed, create an invincible strength, and probably may prodụce you a queen; on the contrary, two pawns with an interval between (as on 35 and 37) are no better than one, and if you have three over each other in a line, (as on 26, 34, and 42) your game cannot be in a worse plight. Keep there
fore your pawns closely connected, and acting in unison, and your adversary must have great strength to overpower you.
27. When a piece is so attacked, that you cannot easily save it, give it up, and endeavour to annoy your enemy in another place; for it often happens, that whilst your adversary is pursuing a piece, you either get a pawn or two, or obtain such a position as ends in his discomfiture.
28. If your queen and another piece are attacked at the same time, and by removing your queen, you must lose the piece; in this situation if you can get two pieces in exchange for her, do that rather than retire; for it is the difference of three pieces, which is more than the worth of a queen; besides, you preserve your situation, which is often better than a piece: nay, so important is it to preserve your position, that it is sometimes better to sacrifice her for a piece, or what you can get; for when the attack and defence are formed, if he who plays first is obliged to retire, it generally ends in his losing the game. 29. Do not aim at exchanges without reason.
A good player will take advantage of it to spoil your situation, and mend his
own; but when you are strongest, especially by a piece, then every time you do exchange, your advantage increases. Again, when you have played a piece, and your adversary oppose one to you, exchange directly, for it is clear he wants to remove you; prevent him therefore, and do not lose the move.
30. At the latter end of the game (especially when both
queens are off the boarul) the kings are capital pieces; do not Ict your's be idle, it is by this means, generally, you must get the move and obtain victory.
31. Remember also, that as the queen, rooks, and bishops, operate at a distance, it is not always necessary in your attack to have them near your adversary's king; they act better at a distance, which leaves space for other operations.
32. Always play your knights (unless you have good cause for the contrary) towards the centre of he board, they have then a right of action all around them. A knight on the rook's file possesses only half his power, having only half his number of squares to play upon.
33. Wben yon have a piece en prise, that cannot escape, do not hurry; see where you can make a good move elsewhere, and take the piece at leisure.
34. It is not always right to take your adversary's pawni with your king, for it often happens that it is a safeguard and protection to him: as for instance, a black rook on 7, a pawn on 47, and the white king on 56; the king is here sheltered by the black pawn from the attack of the rook.
35. When you can take a man with different pieces, do it not hastily, but well consider with which you can best take it.