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9. It is customary to draw lots for the first move of the first game, and in every fresh game, the players are entitled to the first move alternately; but where any advantage is given, the player giving that advantage, is entitled to the first move. A player giving odds may also choose which coloured men he will use; but where no odds are given, such question is to be settled by lot, and the players are to use the same coloured men during the sitting.
10. A drawn game is no game, and the player who began that game is entitled to the first move in the next.
11. No irregularity or false move committed in the play is subject to penaltyếnor can any such be retraced, after the adversary has moved a piece.
12. If at the commencement of a game the board be wrongly placed, or the pieces be placed wrongly upon the board, or any omitted to be placed, the mistake may be rectified, provided neither party have played four moves; but if they have done so, the game must be played out.
13. In giving odds, a player engaging to give the rook, or knight, may give which rook or knight he please ; but if he engage to give a pawn, the king's bishop's pawn is always understood.
14. In giving odds, if a player omit to take off the piece or pawn agreed to be conceded, until four moves on each side have been played, it cannot then be repioved, 'bät the game must be played with all the pieces as they stand; and if he should give check-mate, he cannot take advantage of it, but the game is to be considered as drawn. If the error be noticed before four moves have been played, the game is to be re-commenced,
15. A player receiving the odds of the pawn, and three or more first moves, must confine those moves to his own territory, otherwise he might give check-mate before the adversary bad moved a piece, as thus: suppose the black king's bishop's pawn being given; if white inove
1st, king's pawn one square;
to rook's fifth square(32), he checks the black king. 16. A player giving the odds of the rook, may nevertheless castle on that side, as if the rook was at its square.
17. The position of stale-mate constitutes a drawn game.
18. In no case where the penalty of moving the king would place him in check, can it be enforced.
19. With the view of putting an end to useless contestsIn any game where the number of pieces are reduced to the king and queen against the king: the rook and bishop against the rook, or two bishops; or a knight and bishop against the king only, the adversary may give notice that he intends to count the moves, in which case you must checkmate in not exceeding fifty moves for each player (to be computed from the notice given) or it will be a drawn game.
20. If any dispute arise as to points of the game, for which the laws have not provided, the matter is to be referred to a third person, whose decision is to be final.
GENERAL RULES FOR THE PLAY. 1. Move your pawns before your pieces, and afterwards bring out the pieces to support them. To open your game well, the king's, queen's, and bishop's pawns should be first played.
2. Do not, therefore, play out any of your pieces early in the game, because you thereby lose moves, in case your adversary should have it in his power, by playing a pawn, to make them retire, which also opens his game at the same time. Always avoid playing your queen out, till your game is tolerably well opened.
3. Avoid giving useless checks, and never give any unless some advantage is to be gained; because you may lose the move if the adversary can either take or drive your piece away.
4. Do not crowd your game by having too many pieces together, so as to impede the advance or retreat of your men as occasion may require.
5. If your game gets crowded, endeavour to free it by making exchanges of pieces or pawns, and castle your king as soon as possible; then bring forward your pieces, and attack the adversary in his weakest part.
6. It is your object, on the contrary, to endeavor as much as possible to crowd the game of your adversary; and when he plays out his pieces before his pawns, attack them with your pawns as early as possible.
7. Never attack your adversary's king without a sufficient force; and if he attack your king, and you cannot retaliate, offer exchanges with him; and if he retire when you present a piece to exchange, he may lose a move, and you gain an advantage.
8. Play your men in guard of one another, so that if any be taken, the enemy may be captured by the piece which guarded your's; and with this view have as many guards to your piece, as your adversary advances upon it; and, if possible, let them be of less value than those he attacks with. When you cannot well support your piece, probably by attacking one of his of equal or better value, you may thereby save your's.
9. Do not attack unless well prepared, for you thereby open your adversary's game and prepare him to pour in a strong attack upon you, as soon as your weak one is defeated.
10. Never play till you have examined whether you are free from danger by your adversary's last move; nor offer to attack till you have considered the consequence of the situation you are about to assume, and how your adversary's next move may affect it.
11. In your attack, when its prospect is favorable, do not be diverted from your main object, by taking any piece, or any other seeming advantage, which your adversary may purposely throw in your way, with the view of diverting your attention.
12. When you are pursuing a well directed attack, and
find it necessary to force your adversary's defence with the loss of a few pieces; if, upon calculating as many moves forward as you can, you find a prospect of success, sacrifice a piece or two to gain your end: these bold attempts make the finest games.
13. Never let your queen stand so before the king, as that your adversary, by bringing forward a rook or a bishop, might check your king if she was not there ; you might thus hardly have a chance to save her, or perhaps be obliged to sacrifice her for an inferior piece; as for example, if the white king is on 61, the queen on 53; the black king on 4, and the rook on 16: the last, if moved to 13, must be taken by the white queen, who in return would be taken by the black king, because she could not be moved without putting the king on check to the black rook.'
14. Let not your adversary's knight (particularly if duly guarded), fork your king and queen, or your king and rook, or your queen and rook, or your two rooks, at the same time; for in the two first cases, the king being compelled to go out of check, the queen or the rook must be lost; and in the two last cases a rook must be lost, at best, for a worse piece. As for example, if the black queen be on 21, the rook on 23, and a white knight on 53; the knight, if moved to 38, will fork the queen and rook, and consequently one of them must be lost.
15. Observe, that no guardeil pawn of your adversary fork two of your pieces; knights and rooks are particularly