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CHECK BY DISCOVERY is where check is given, not by the action of the piece itself, but by the removal of an intervening piece, which hitherto had cut off that infuence. -See general rule 17.
CHECK-MATE. When the adverse king is in a situation to be taken by you, you must say check to him; by which you give liim notice to defend himself, either by changing his position or covering himself with one of his own men, or by taking the man who assaults him: and if he is so placed as to be unable to effect any of tiese things, he is checkmated (from chahmet, the king is dead) and loses his game.
DOUBLED Pawn, is a pawn, which having made a capture, has left his original file, and moves in that of the captured.
DRAWN GAME. A drawn game originates from a variety of causes, as when neither party can give check-mate, either by reason of a perpetual check, or from particular moves being persisted in by both players. The position of stalemate also constitutes a drawn game; and when both parties have become reduced to so small a number of pieces, yet of equal strength, as to render it rather an obstinate contest for victory, than a game of interest, courtesy will dictate to one party to offer to draw the game.
EN PASSANT occurs where a pawn exercises the privilege of advancing two squares the first move, passing over a square commanded by a pawn of the enemy; in which case the adversary has the option of taking it en passant. Example.-Suppose the white king's rook's pawn at his fifth
square (32), and the black king's knight's pawn advances two squares (to 31); the white pawn is at liberty to capture the black pawn, entering the knight's file, and advancing one square (to 23'. Observe, in this case the white pawn departs from the general rule,- he does not go to the square which the captured pawn had occupied, but to the square he would have occupied if he had moved only one square.
En Prise. A piece in a position to be taken at the option of the opponent, is said to be en prise.
Exchange. To exchange, is to allow a piece to be taken with a view to reprisal. A player is said to win the exchange when he gains a superior for an inferior piece, as a rook for a bishop, &c.
Fork is a term applied to the circumstance where a piece has two of the adversary's men en prise at the same time.
GAMBIT. An opening attack, where a position is obtained by the sacrifice of a pawn). Distinguishing variations of the Gambit have derived names either from a move in the open. ing, or from the player who introduced it, as the king's or queen's Gambit, the Salvio or Muzio Gambit, &c.
J'ADOUBE, (I replace) a term of apology used upon touching a piece inadvertently.
Minor Piece. As the pieces are distinguished from tbc pawns, so the knights or bishops are called minor pieces to distinguish them from those of superior value.
Passep Pawn. A passed pawn is one standing unopposed by the enemy, cither in front, or the squares right and left of such front square, so that it may be pushed to queen.
Queen's Pawn. To queen a pawn, is to push it on to the eighth square, when it may be exchanged for any superior piece lost in course of the play; or it may assume the power and move of any superior piece, the king only excepted. A queen being the best piece, is the one most generally assumed, and hence its name.
Stale Mate. The king cannot change his square, if by so doing he goes into check; and when he has no man, whom he can play, and is not in check, yet so blocked up, that he cannot move without going into check, this position is termed stale mate, and constitutes a drawn game. Example.-Place the black king on 32, with pawns on 18 and 27 ; the white king on 38, a white bishop on 31, with pawns on 26 and 35; move the white king to 30, and the black king is stale-mated. He cannot move to 24 or 40 on account of the white bishop; nor to 23 or 39, on account of the wliite king, the rules of the game requiring the kings to be always one square at least distant from each other; and the black pawns being opposed by the wbite, they cannot be moved.
LAWS OF THE GAME.
1. If you touch your man, you must play it, except where it would expose your king to check, in which case, you are to move the king, when possible ; and so long as you keep hold, you may place it where you please; but if you have placed it, which is understood by having quitted your hold, you cannot then recal the move. Any men displaced by accident, or moved in error, may be restored to their positions, if the error be immediately acknowledged, by saying "j'adoube" I replace.
2. If you touch one of your adversary's men, or move it instead of your own, when it is your turn to play, you must instantly acknowledge the error by saying "j'adoube;" or he may compel you either to take the piece (if it be en prise) to replace it and prove your king, (provided it may be done without putting him in check) or—to leave it where you had wrongfully placed it; and in either case you cannot castle that move. 3. If
f you make a false move (whether by mistake or not, giving to a piece a movement not consistent with its laws, for example-moving a rook as if he were a bishop, &c. you may be compelled either to leave such piece where you had. placed it—to give it a natural move, or to replace it and move the king. And if by a false move you capture one of your adversary's men, he may oblige you either to take such
piece (if it be en prise of one of your men) or to move the piece touched. But if a false move remain unnoticed until after the adversary has played, neither party can recal it.
4. If you play two moves in succession, you must replace the second piece; or your adversary may insist that both moves shall remain; in which case the game is to proceed as if one man only had been played.
5. If your adversary gives check to your king, without warning, you are not obliged to notice it until he does; but if on his next move he warn you, each party must retract his last move, and the king be removed out of check. And if you find your king in check, without being able to ascertain how it occurred, you are at liberty to retract your last move and provide for the check.
6. If your opponent give you notice of a check without giving check, and you in consequence move your king, or
erpose a piece, you may retract, if you do so before the opponent has completed his next move.
7. You cannot check your adversary's king with any piece, which by moving would place your own king in check.
8. You cannot eastle after your king or the rook las moved; if you attempt it, the adversary may require you to move either the king or the rook, But your king having been in check, or the rook being at the moment under attack, does not prevent you from castling; and a player giving the odds of the rook, may still castle on that side of the board, as if the rook were at its square.