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8.-The Knight can give checkmate, when the adverse King is shut up and surrounded.

Another advantage of the Knight against a novice, is, the difficulty of keeping in view the nature of his move.

THE PAWN.

A pawn (pedone, foot soldier) moves in a straight line forward, one square at a time, and takes the enemy angularly. A Pawn may be moved two squares the first move, subject however to being taken en passant by a pawn of the adversary, but not with a piece. He never moves backward, nor must he quit his own file, except to make a capture, when he takes the square of the captive, and moves forward in that file. For example-If a white pawn is placed upon 37, and a black pawn on 28, either of them could take the other; but if the white pawn on 37 be opposed by a black rook on 29, a black bishop on 28, and a black knight on 30, the pawn then could not take the rook, but might take either the bishop or the knight.

A pawn pushed on to the eighth square of the file, (which is called going to queen) immediately assumes the rank and power of any piece, short of a king-(an assumption which would be derogatory to the divine right of monarchs)--s0 that you may have as many queens, bishops, &c. on the board at once, as you can create; or be may be exchanged for any piece lost in the course of the play, and is always to be placed on the square at which the pawn had arrived. This privilege is peculiar to the pawns.

obot na DIAGRAM,

Shewing the moves of the Pieces :--Jude ai

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Recapitulatory explanation, shewing-
The eight moves of the knight-radiating from the white

king's bishop's third square.
The move of the bishop-diagonally across the board, back-
ward or forward, on the same coloured squares as origin.
ally placed.

The move of the rook-at right angles.
The move of the pawn-a direct line forward through the file.

He captures angularly forward, either way—as represented by the dotted lines.

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The men being placed upon the board as represented in the previous page, the players either agree or draw lots for the first move (see Laws 9 & 10) and the game is continued by each player moving alternately. The first move, as it gives the choice of the opening, is considered of the advantage attached to that circumstance, which however, opposed to a good player, is only advantageous for a few moves.

If the road lies open to them, the men can take the adversary's men who stand in their way, or they may refuse it, if they think proper.

No piece can move to a square already occupied, unless to take the piece, and then he must be placed on the square

which that piece had occupied, and not the square on the further side, as at draughts. Example.-Suppose the white queen on 60, and a black knight on 42, the queen can take the knight, who must then be removed from the board, and the queen takes the place, 42; but if the knight is on 43, the queen cannot take him, though he can take the queen, who must then be removed, and the knight placed on 60; a white rook also on 58, can take a black bishop on 10.

It has before been observed, that the king cannot be taken, or removed from the board ;* the object of the game of either party, is to blockade the monarch of the opposite color, and he who succeeds in doing so, wins the game.t-See checkmate.

* Charles I. of England, and Louis XVI. of France, were the last monarchs actually removed from the Board ; James II, and Louis XVIII. were checkmated.

+ This is the science of politics--the outs always get in by giving check to the ruling power.

EXPLANATION OF TERMS. CASTLING is a compound movement of the king and the rook, allowed once only in the game. It cannot be done if there is a piece between him and the rook; nor after that rook has been moved; nor after the king has been moved ; nor when the king is in check; nor when the square over which he means to leap, is viewed by an adverse man, who would check him on his passage. Under these provisions it is effected as follows:-The king castles on his own side, by moving from his square (5 or 61), to the king's knight's square (7 or 63) placing the rook (8 or 64), on the king's bishop's square (6 or 62); and he castles on his queen's side, by moving to the queen's bishop's square (3 or 59), and placing the rook (1 or 57), on the queen's square (4 or 60). In both cases the king is moved two squares, and the rook being brought over him, is placed in the square adjoining.

CHECK. The king at Chess is never removed from the board, like the pieces of inferior value, or pawns; but when he happens to get in such a situation that would subject an inferior piece to be taken, he is said to be in check. The king cannot be taken, and this is the homage au Roi, equivalent to the non-responsibility of the legitimates. A DOUBLE Check is when two pieces give check at the same time.

It was formerly customary to give notice of the queen being in danger, by saying, check to the queen, but it is not now done at the clubs.

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