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The chess-board is assumed to be divided into two equal portions, the territory of either party, No. 1 to 32 for the black; 33 to 64 for the white.

The squares are denominated from the pieces, as the king's square, queen's square, &c. The squares in a direct line before the king, are called the king's file, and the other files are named from their respective pieces, as the king's bishop's file, the queen's rook's file, &c.

'The squares on which the pawns stand, do not receive names from them, but are called relatively, the king's second square, the king's bishop's second square, the queen's knight's second square, &c.; and the squares are named in like manner to the opposite side of the board, as the king's third square, the king's bishop's fourth square, the queen's knight's fifth square, the king's rook's seventh square, the queen's bishop's eighth square, &c., so that every square has an opposite denomination to each player, the white king's fourth square being the black king's fifth square ; the white king's bishop's seventh square, is the black king's bishop's second square; and so on with all the others, according to the scheme laid down at page 18.*

• A ready knowledge of the names of the squares, as they respect each player, is the frøt object of the Student, and will be found most easily acquired by the use of the “ Self-instructing Chess-boaid," an accompaniment to this trea. tise; aud tu be bad of the same Publistres.


When a piece has not been moved, it is said to be " at ils square."


The king (stiled Chah by the Orientals) moves every way but only one square at a time, except in the case of castling,

The kings cannot approach each other within the interval of one square.

The king may leap once in the game, either on his own side or on the side of his queen (called castling), for which see explanation of terms, p. 29.

The relative value of the king cannot readily be ascertained: being invested with the attribute of royalty, his person is sacred; and he cannot be taken: he is rather the object of the game, than a working piece.


The queen (originally pherz general) combines the move of the rook and the bishop, She can move in a straight line, and also angularly across the board; as from 37 to 1, 5, 16, 33, 40, 58, 61, 64, or to any of the intermediate squares in those directions. Having thus the power of traversing any number of squares at oue move, and of capturing at any dis


tance, she is the most valuable piece on the board; being estimated as equal to two rooks and a pawn, and superior to three minor pieces. Towards the close of the game however, when 'the board has become cleared, her power is somewhat intrenched upon, by the increased value of the rooks.


The rook or castle (formerly rath, an armed chariot, afterwards rokh, a hero) can at one more be played over any number of squares in a right line, cither forward, backward, or sideway; and can stop at any square, or take at any distance, when no other picce intervenes. A rook is equal in value to a minor piece and two pawns; and a rook and two pawns are equal to two minor pieces. When the board is sufficiently thinned to assord scope for action, the rook is the rival of the qucen; being possessed of equal power, with a different field of action, the queen acting diagonally, and the rook at right angles.


The bishops (originally fil an elepliant) move over any number of squares, but angularly only, on the same coloured squares as at first placed, backward or forward; as from 36 to 8, 9, 57 or 63, or any of the intervening squares; and can take at any distance, provided the road is open to them. A bishop is equal in value to three pawns, and may be exchanged for a knight, to which however, in the opinion of many, he is somewhat superior.


The movement of the knights (horse soldiers) consists of a double action, first through the adjoining square in a direct line every way, and then obliquely to the adjoining square either way likewise; or it may be accomplished by moving in the first instance obliquely, and concluding by a movement in a direct line either way; both proceeding to the same d'estination ( see diagram p. 26). The knight thus possesses eight points of movement, always to the third square 'distant (including that upon which he stands) in every direction, from black to wbite, and from white to black. He may move from 36 to 19, 21, 30, 46, 51, 53, 26, 42, passing over any men on the intermediate squares, which no other piece is allowed to do.

The relative value of the Bishop and the Knight, is a subject of nice calculation with expert players, as may be seen in the works of Lewis and Walker, who have collected the observations of most of their predecessors on the subject. The following chief points of the superiority of each piece, will be useful to the student.

Advantages of the Bishop over the Knight. 1.-A Bishop can at one move, be played to a greater distance.

2.--The Bishops, acting in concert, form a barrier, impassable to the adverse King, which the Knights cannot.

! 3.-Two Bishops can oppose the power of the Queen more efficiently than can two Knights.

4.--A Bishop supported by à Pawn, mutually guard each other. A Knight similarly placed, does not guard the Pawn.

5.-A Bishop covering an oblique check, attacks at the same time; not so the Knight.

6.-A Bishop in a corner square, is not so easily invested by the King, as is the Knight.

9.-The Bishops with the King alone, can give checkmate; as also can a Bishop and Knight. The Knights with the King alone, capnot give checkmate.

8.-By discovering the check of the Bishop, double check is given; which is not the case with the Knight.

Advantages of the Knight over the Bishop. 1.–The Knight can leap over any piece.

2.-The Knight may be played to a square, from whence he may command an attack on eight pieces at the same time.

3.-Thé move of the Knight cannot be averted by any piece.

4.- When the Knight checks, no piece can interposc.

5.--The Knight moves on both colours, and thus commands the sixty-four squares. The Bishop commands only thirtytwo squares.

6.-Two Knights mutually support each other, not so the Bishops.

7.-The Knight can frequently enter the adverse army with greater facility than the Bishop.

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