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appeared to take great interest. Voltaire says that when this great Monarch was at Bender, he played at Chess daily, with the general Poniatowski, or with his treasurer Grothusen. Voltaire, himself, played at Chess with Adam-the Jesuit, not, adds our french authority, “ le premier homme du monde."
J. J. Rosseau was the frequent antagonist of the musician, Philidor, author of the celebrated Treatise on Chess, which bears bis nanie, still the great authority. Napoleon Buona. parte made Chess one of his relaxations from more serious occupation, but he is stated not to have been so successful on the checkered plain as in the more enlarged field of sanguinary warfare.
It is impossible to say at what period the game of Chess was first brought into England; but we have good reason to suppose it to have been well known here at least a century anterior to the Conquest, and it was then a favorite pastime among persons of the highest rank. Camute, the Dane, who ascended the throne of England, A. D. 1017, was partial' to this pastime." The following story is told of William, döke' of Normandy, afterwards king of England." When a young man, he was invited to the court of the French king, and during his residence there, being one day engaged at Chess with the King's eldest son, a dispute arose concern. ing the play, and William, exasperated at 'something his antagonist had said, struck him with the chess-board; which obliged him to make a precipitaté retreat from France, in
order to avoid the consequences of so rash an action. A similar circumstance is said, by Leland, to have happened in England. John, the youngest son of Henry II., playing at Chess one day with Fulco Greville, a nobleman of Shropshire, a quarrel ensued, and John broke the head of Greville with the chess-board, who in return struck the prince such a blow that he almost killed him. It seems however, that Fulco found means of making his peace with king Henry, by whom he was knighted, with three of his brethren, a short time afterwards. John did not so easily forgive the affront; but on the contrary, showed his resentment long after his accession to the throne, by keeping him from the possession of Whittington Castle, to which he was the rightful heir. It is also said of this monarch, that he was engaged at Chess when the deputies from Rouen came to acquaint him that the city was besieged by Philip, king of France, but he would not hear them until he had finished the game. In like manner, Charles the first, was playing at Chess when he was told that the final resolution of the Scots was, to sell him to the parliament; and he was so little discomposed by the alarming intelligence, that he continued the game with great composure.
The Kenilworth inventory furnishes us with a description of the magnificent Chess-board, the property of the Earl of Leicester, with which probably, the maiden Queen amused a vacant hour. The Chess-board was of “ Ebony, with Checkers of Chrystall and other stones, inlaid with silver,
• Strutt's Sports and Pastimes.
garnished with Bears and Ragged Staves (the Supporters of the Earl of Leicester's Coat of Arms) with cinquefoils of silver. The men were likewise of Chrystall and other stones sett, the one sort in silver white, the other gilt, in a case gilded and lined with green cotton.” Previous to the French Revolution, at the Abbey of St. Denis, they were wont to shew the Chess-men with which Charlemagne recreated dur. ing hours of relaxation.
MODE OF PLAY.
Chess is played by two persons, on a board with thirty-two pieces, of different forms, denominations and powers, divided into two parties distinguished by colours, usually white and black, or white and red. The chess-men are known by the following names :
The chess-board, like the draught-table, is divided into sixty-four squares, checkered white and black. The king,
queen and their officers, being cight pieces, are placed on the first line of the board, the while corner of it being towards the right hand of each player, thus:-
8 Q.R. 8h QKt.Sub G. B. sth Q. 7th K. 8th K B. 8th K.Kt 8ih K.R. stb
The white king is placed on the fourth (black) square, (No. 61) at one end of the board, counting from the right hand; the black (or red) king upon the fifth (white) square, (No. 5) at the other end of the board; opposite to each other.
The white queen is placed upon the fifth (white) square, (No. 60) on the left of her king; the black queen upon the fourth (black) square, (No. 4) on the right of her king: the two queens are thus likewise opposite to each other.
The bishops are placed on each side of their king and queen, 59 and 62 for the white, 3 and 6 for the black; the knights on each side of the bishops, the white on 38 and 63, the black on 2 and 7; and the rooks (or castles) in the four corners.
The eight pawns (or common men) are placed upon the eight squares of the second line, in the front of their respective colours.
The pieces, and pawns, on the side of the king, take their names from him, as those on the side of the queen do from her, and are called the black or white king's bishops, 6 and 62; the king's knights, 7 and 63; the king's rooks, 8 and 64: the black or white king's pawns, 13 and 53; the king's bishop's pawns, 14 and 54; the king's knight's pawns, 15 and 55; the king's rook's pawns 16 and 56; the black or white queen's bishops, 3 and 59; the queen's knights, 2 and 58; the queen's rooks, 1 and 57 ; the queen's pawns, 12 and 52 ; the queen's bishop's pawns, 11 and 51; the queen's knight's pawns, 10 and 50; and the queen's rook's pawns, 9 and 49: