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fortune upon every little check he receives in the pursuit of it.
That we may therefore be induced more frequently to choose this beneficial amusement, in preference to others, which are not attended with the same advantages,' every circumstance which may increase the pleasure of it should be regarded ; and every action or word that is unfair, disrespectful, or that in any way may give uneasiness, should be avoided, as contrary to the immediate intention of both the players, which is to pass the time agreeably.
Therefore, first, if it is agreed to play according to the strict rules of the game; then those rules are to be exactly observed by both parties, and should not be insisted on for one side, while deviated from by the other--for this is not equitable.
Secondly, if it is agreed not to observe the rules exactly, but one party demands indulgencies, he should then be as willing to allow them to the other.
Thirdly, no false move should ever be made to extricate yourself out of a difficulty, or to gain an advantage. There can be no pleasure in playing with a person once detected in such unfair practices.
Fourthly, if your adversary is lony in playing, you ought not to hurry him, or to express uneasiness at his delay. You should not sing nor whistle, nor look at your watch, nor take up a book to read, nor make a tapping with your foot on the floor, or with your fingers on the table, nor do any thing that may disturb his attention. For all these things displease; and they do not shew your skill in playing, but your craftiness or rudeness.
Fifthly, you ought not to endeavor to amuse and deceive your adversary, by pretending to have made bad moves, and saying you have now lost the game, in order to make him secure and careless, and inattentive to your schemes; for this is fraud and deceit, and not skill in the game.
Sixthly, you must not, when you have gained a victory, use any triumphing or insulting expression, nor shew too much pleasure; but endeavour to console your adversary, and make him less dissatisfied with himself, by every kind of civil expression that may be used with truth: such as, • You understand the game better than I, but you are a little inattentive; or, you play too fast; or, you had the best of the game, but something happened to divert your thoughts, and that turned it in my favor.'
Seventhly, if you are a spectator while others play, observe the most perfect silence. For if you give advice, you offend botii parties; him against whom you gave it, because it may lead to the loss of his game; and him in whose favor you gave it, because though it be good, and he follows it, he loses the pleasure he might have had, if you had permitted bim to think until it had occurred to himself. Even after a move or moves, you must not, by replacing the pieces, shew how it might have been placed better; for that displeases and may occasion disputes and doubts about their true situation. All talking to the players lessens or diverts their attention, and is therefore uppleasing. Nor should you give the least hint to either party, by any kind of noise or motion. If you do, you are unworthy to be a spectator. If you have a mind to exercise or show your judgment, do it in playing your own game, when you have an opportunity, not in criticising, or meddling with, or counselling the play of others.
Lastly, if the game is not to be played rigorously, according to the rules above-mentioned, then moderate your desire of victory over your adversary, and be pleased with one over yourself. Snatch not eagerly at every advantage offered by his unskilfulness or inattention ; but point out to him kindly, that by such a move he places or leaves a piece in danger and unsupported; that by another he will put his king in a perilous situation, &c. By this generous civility (so opposite to the unfairness above forbidden) you may, indeed, happen to lose the game to your opponent, but you will win what is better; his esteem, his respect, and his affection; together with the silent approbation and good-will of impartial spectators.
GAME OF CHESS,
The Game of Chess is the most ancient and scientific in the known world. It has been played time immemorial in Hindostan, by the name of Chaturanga, or the four members of an army, (elephants, horsemen, chariots and foot soldiers); afterwards in Persia, styled Chatrang (the game of king); and Shatranj (the king's distress), by the Arabians; which word undergoing various other changes, in different lan. guages, ultimately formed the English appellation of Chess.
A beautiful illuminated MS, among the Harleian Collec. tions in the British Museum, (from which our frontispiece has been copied) attributes the invention of the Game of Chess to Ulysses, and the painting is intended to represent that chieftain engaged with some other' Grecian hero, who had come to play the game with him. This MS. was written at the close of the fourteenth century, and appears to have been the copy presented to Isabella of Bavaria, queen of Charles VI. of France.
Pietro Carrera, who published his history of the game of Chess in 1617, cites a number of celebrated names from antiquity, who have spoken in praise of the game; amongst others he cites Herodotus, Euripides, Sophocles, Philostratus, Homer, Virgil, Aristotle, Seneca, Plato, Ovid, Horace, Quintilian, Martial, &c. &c. Most of them attribute the invention of the game to Palamedes; others assign it to a period much more remote. Some pretend that the philosopher Sersa, counsellor to Ammollin, king of Babylon, invented this game for the diversion of that prince, with a view to engage his attention from the natural propensity he had for, cruelty.
Whatever may be said of the origin of Chess, it is certain that it has served for the amusement of heroes both antient and modern. Euripides, in his tragedy of Ipbegena, tells us that Ajax and Protisilaus played at Chess in the presence of Merion, Ulysses, and other famous Greeks. Horace in the first book of the Oddessy, says that the rival princes, lovers of Penelope, played a game of Chess before the gate of that Princess.
The Emperor Charles XII, although he abhorred gaming, and forbad it in þis army under most severe visitations, made an exception of the game of Chess, at which he always,