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II.

The mission of the Papacy-a great On the one side we have-as our only and holy mission, whatever the fanatics form and semblance of religion—the of rebellion at the present day, falsifying Papacy. .

history and calumniating the soul and I remember to have written more mind of humanity in the past, may say than thirty years ago, when none other to the contrary—is fulfilled. It was dared openly to venture on the prob- fulfilled six centuries ago ; and no lem; when the boldest contented power of genius nor miracle of will can themselves with whispering of reforms avail to revive it. Innocent III. was in church discipline, and those writers the last true Pope. He was the last who like Gioberti set themselves up as who endeavored to make the supremphilosophers, thought proper, as a matter acy of the moral law of the epoch over of tactics, to caress the Utopia of an the brute force of the temporal governItalian primacy entrusted to I know not ments, of the spirit over matter, of God what impossible revival of Catholicism over Cæsar, an organic social fact. - I remember to have written then, that And such was, in truth, the mission both the Papacy and Catholicism were of the Papacy, the secret of its power, things extinct; and that their death was and of the willing adherence and suba consequence of A QUITE OTHER DEATH. mission yielded to it by humanity for

I spoke of the dogma which was the eight hundred years. That mission was foundation of both.

incarnated in one of the greatest of Years have confirmed what I then Italians in genius, virtue, and iron declared : the Papacy is now a corpse strength of will, Gregory VII., and yet beyond all power of galvanization. It is he failed to prolong it. One hundred the lying mockery of a religion; a source and fifty years afterward the gigantic of perennial corruption and immorality attempt had become but the dim record among the nations, and most fatally such of a past never to return. With the to our own, upon whose very soul weighs successors of Innocent III. began the the incubus and example of that lie. initiative power of the Papacy; it But, at the present day, we either do ceased to infuse life into humanity. A know, or ought to know, the cause of this. hundred years later, and the Church

All contact with the Papacy is con- had become scandalously corrupt in the tact with death, carrying the taint

of its higher spheres of its hierarchy, persecutcorruption over rising Italy, and educat- ing and superstitious in the lower. A ing her masses in falsehood-not be- hundred years later it was the ally, and cause cardinals, bishops, and monks in one hundred moru the servant of traded in indulgences three centuries Cæsar, and had lost one-half of Europe. ago ;--not because this or that pope From that time forward it has unceastrafficked in cowardly concessions to ingly declined, until it has sunk to the princes, or in the matrimony of his own thing we now behold it; disinherited bastards with the bastards of dukes, of all power of inspiration over civilizapetty tyrants, or kings, to obtain some tion, the impotent negation of all movepatch of territory, or temporal domin- ment, of all liberty, of all development ion ;-not because they have governed of science or life, destitute of all sense of and persecuted men according to their duty, power of sacrifice, or faith in its arbitrary will—but because they cannot own destiny ; held up by foreign bayodo other, even if they would.

nets, trembling before the face of the These evils and these sins are not peoples, and forsaken by humanity which causes, but consequences. Even admit- is seeking the path of progress elsewhere. ting the impossible hypothesis that the The Papacy has lost all moral basis, guilty individuals should be converted, aim, sanction, and source of action at that the Jansenists or other reformers the present day. Its source of action in should recall the misguided popes to the the past was derived from a conception charity and humility of their ancient way of heaven since changed; from a notion of life, they could only cause the Papacy of life since proved imperfect; from a to die with greater dignity; it can never conception of the moral law, inferior to again be what once it was the ruler and that of the new epoch in course of ini. director of the conscience of the peoples. tiation; from a solution of the eternal

problem of the relation between man than the individual, it offered the inand God, since rejected by the human dividual a means of salvation in despite heart, intellect, conscience, and tradition. of the egotism, tyranny, and corruption

The dogma itself, which the Church by which he is surrounded on earth, once represented, is exhausted and con- and which no individual effort coula sumed. It no longer inspires faith, no hope to overcome; it came to declare longer has power to unite or direct the to him—the world is adverse to thee: human race. The dawn of a new dogma renounce the world and put thy faith in is approaching, which will relink earth Christ, this will lead thee to heaven. with heaven in a vaster synthesis, fruit- The new formula of life and its lawful of new and harmonious life.

unknown at that day, but revealed to It is for this that the Papacy expires. us in our own day by our knowlAnd it is a duty to declare this, with- edge of the tradition of humanity, out hypocritical reticence, or formulæ confirmed by the voice of individual of speech, which, feigning to attack and conscience, by the intuition of genius, venerate at one and the same time, do and the grand results of scientific rebut parcel out, not solve, the problem; search — may be summed up in the because the future cannot be fully re single word PROGRESS,* which we now vealed until the past is entombed, and know to be, by Divine decree, the by weakly prolonging the delay we inherent tendency of human nature, run the risk of introducing gangrene whether manifested in the individual or into the wound.

the collective being, and destined, more The formula of life and of the law or less speedily, but inevitably, to be of life from which the Papacy derived evolved in time and space. its existence and its mission, was that The logical consequences of the new of the fall of man and his redemption. formula, are: The substitution of the The logical and inevitable consequences idea of a laro for the idea of a mediator, of this formula were

of a continuous educational revelation The doctrine of the necessity of me- for that of an immediate, arbitrary revdiation between man and God:

elation, of the apostolate of genius and The belief in a direct, immediate, and virtue, and the grand collective inimmutable revelation, and hence, in a tuitions of the peoples when roused to privileged class-naturally destined to enthusiastic action in the service of centralize in one individual-the office truth, for the privilege of a priestly of which it was to preserve that revela- class; the sanctity of tradition as the tion inviolate:

depository of the progress already The inefficacy of man's own efforts to achieved, and the sanctity of individual achieve his own redemption, and the conscience, as alike the pledge and the consequent substitution of unlimited means of all future progress; works faith in the Mediator for works; hence sanctified by faith, substituted for mere grace and predestination, more or less faith alone, as the criterion of merit explicitly substituted for free-will, the and means of salvation. separation of the human race into the The new formula of life cancels the elect and the non-elect, the salvation of dogma of grace, which is the negation the one, and the eternal damnation of that capacity of perfectibility granted of the other; and, above all, the duality to all men, as well as that of predestinabetween earth and heaven, between the tion, which is the negation of free-will ; ideal and the real, between the aim set before man and a world condemned to * This sacred word, which sums up the dogma anathema by the fall, and incapable, of the future, has been uttered by every school, through the imperfection of its finite þut misunderstood by the majority. Materialists

have usurped the use of it to express man's elements, of affording him the means

ever-increasing power over the productive forces of realizing that aim.

of the earth; and men of science to indicate that In fact, the religious synthesis which accumulation of facts discovered and submitted to succeeded polytheism did not contem- analysis, which has led us to a better knowledge plate, nor did the historical succession

of secondary causes. Few understand it as the

expression of a Providential Concep:ion or Design, of the epochs allow it to contemplate, inseparable from our human life, and the foundaany conception of life embracing more tion of our moral law.

and that of eternity of punishment, attempt to recede toward slavery or which is the negation of the divine servitude, and presumptuously endeavor element existing in every human soul. to perpetuate the exclusion of the prole

The new formula substitutes the con- tarian from the rights and benefits of ception of the slow continuous progress the social organization, would prove of the human ego, throughout an indefi- himself the enemy of all civilization past nite series of existences, for the idea of and future, and a teacher of immorality. an impossible perfection to be achieved It is therefore the duty of all those in the course of one brief existence; it amongst us who have it at heart to win presents an absolutely new view of the the city of the future, and the triumph inission of man upon earth, and puts an of truth, to make war not only upon end to the antagonism between earth the temporal power—who should dare and heaven, by teaching us that this deny that to the admitted representaworld is an abode given to man wherein tive of God on earth ?—but upon the he is bound to merit salvation by his Papacy itself. It is therefore our duty own works; and hence enforces the ne- to go back to the dogma upon which cessity of endeavoring, both by thought, the institution is founded, and to show action, and sacrifice, to transform the that that dogma has become insufficient, world; the duty of realizing our ideal unequal to the moral wants, aspirations, here below, as far as in us lies, for the and dawning faith of humanity. benefit of future generations, and of re- They who at the present day attack ducing to an earthly fact, as much as the Prince of Rome, and yet profess to may be of the kingdom—the concep- venerate the Pope and to be sincere tion--of God.

Catholics, are either guilty of flagrant The religious synthesis, which is slow- contradiction, or are hypocrites. ly but infallibly taking the place of the They who profess to reduce the synthesis of the past, comprehends a problem to the realization of a free new term—the continuous collective life Church in a free State, are either influof humanity; and this alone is sufficient enced by a fatal timidity, or destitute to change the aim, the method, and the of every spark of moral conviction. moral law of our existence.

The separation of Church and State All link with heaven broken, useless is good as a weapon of defence against to the earth, which is ready to hail the the corruptions of a Church no longer dawn of a new dogma, the Papacy has worthy of the name. It is—like all the no longer any raison d'être. Once programmes of mere liberty - an imuseful and holy, it is now a lie, a source plicit declaration that the institution only of corruption and immorality. against which we are compelled to

Once useful and holy, I say; because, evoke either our individual or collective had it not been for the unity of moral rights, is corrupt and destined to perish. life in which we were held for more Individual or collective rights may than eight centuries by the Papacy, we be justly invoked against the authority should not now have been prepared to of a religious institution as a remedial realize the new unity to come; had it measure in a period of transition; just not been for the dogma of human equal- as it may occasionally be necessary to ity in heaven, we should not now have isolate a special locality for a given been prepared to proclaim the dogma time, in order to protect others from of human equality on earth. . And I de- infection. But the cause must be exclare it a lie and a source of immorality plicitly declared. By declaring it, you at the present day, because every great educate the country to look beyond the Institution becomes such, if it seeks to temporary measure; to look forward to perpetuate its authority after its mission a return to a normal state of things, is fulfilled. The substitution of the en- and to study the positive organic princislavement for the slaughter of the con- ple destined to govern that normal state. quered foe was a step toward progress, By keeping silence, you accustom the as was the substitution of servitude for mass to disjoin the moral from the poslavery; the formation of the bourgeoise litical, theory from practice; the ideal class was a progress from servitude; from the real ; heaven from earth. but he who at the present day should When once all belief in the past synthesis shall be extinct, and faith in governs all the aspirations of the epoch; the new synthesis established, the State and that its conception of divinity is initself will be elevated into a church; it ferior to that revealed by science, human will incarnate in itself a religious princi- conscience, philosophy, and the improved ple, and become the representative of conception of life acquired by the study the moral law in the various manifesta- of the tradition of humanity, unknown tions of life.

to men previously to the discovery of So long as it is separate from the the New World and of his Eastern State, the Church will always conspire origin. Therefore, in order--as they to reconquer power over it in the in- believe-to establish their moral free. terest of the past dogma. If separated dom radically, and forever, they reject from all collective and avowed faith by alike all idea of a church, a dogma, and a negative policy, such as that adopted a God. by the atheistic and indifferent French Philosophically speaking, the unreParliament, the State will fall a prey to flecting exaggerations of men who have the anarchical doctrine of the sovereign- just risen up in rebellion, do not portend ty of the individnal, and the worship of any serious danger to human progress. interest; it will sink into egotism and These errors are a mere repetition of the adoration of the accomplished fact, what has always taken place at the and hence, inevitably, into despotism, as decay and death of every dogma, and a remedy for the evils of anarchy. will-as they have always done-sooner

For an example of this among modern or later wear away. The day will come nations we have only to look at France. when our Italian youth will discover

that just as reasonably as they, not conIII.

tent with denying the Christian dogma,

proceed to deny the existence of God, On the other hand, in opposition to and the religious life of humanity, their the Papacy, but itself a source of no less ancestors might have proceeded from corruption, stands Materialism.

their denial and rejection of the feudal Materialism, the philosophy of all system, to the rejection of every form expiring epochs and peoples in decay, of social organization, or have declared is, historically speaking, an old phe-art extinct forever, during the transition nomenon, inseparable from the death of period when the Greek form of art had a religious dogma. It is the reaction ceased to correspond to those aspirations of those superficial intellects, which, in- of the human mind which prepared capable of taking a comprehensive view the way for the cathedrals of the Middle of the life of humanity, and tracing and Ages and the Christian school of art. deducing its essential characteristics Art, society, religion, all these are from tradition, deny the religious ideal faculties inseparable from human life ititself, instead of simply affirming the self, progressive as life itself, and eternal death of one of its incarnations, as life itself. Every epoch of humanity

Luther compared the human mind to has had and will have its own social, a drunken peasant, who, falling from artistic, and religious expression. In one side of his horse, and set straight every epoch man will ask of tradition on his seat by one desirous of helping and of conscience whence he came, and bim, instantly falls again on the other to what goal he is bound, he will ask side. The simile-if limited to periods through what paths that goal is to be of transition like our own—is most just. reached, and seek to solve the problem The youth of Italy, suddenly emancipat- suggested by the existence within him ed from the servile education of more of a conception of the infinite, and of an than three centuries, and intoxicated ideal impossible of realization in the with their moral liberty, find themselves finite conditions of his earthly existence. in the presence of a church destitute He will, from time to time, adopt a difof all mission, virtue, love for the peo- ferent solution, in proportion as the horiple, or adoration of truth or progress; zon of tradition is progressively enlarged, destitute even of faith in itself. They and the human conscience enlightened ; see that the existing dogma is in flagrant but assuredly it will never be a mere contradiction with the ruling idea that negation.

Philosophically speaking, materialism But Italy is not a nation. She is only is based upon a singular but constant in the way to become one; and the confusion of two things radically dis- present is therefore a moment of grave tinct: life, and its successive modes of importance; for, even as the first exmanifestation; the ego, and the organs amples set before infancy, so the first by which it is revealed in a visible form lessons taught to a people emerging to the external world—the non-ego. from a long past of error and corruption, The men who having succeeded in an- and hesitating as to the choice of its fualysing the instruments by means of ture, may be of serious import. The which life is made manifest in a series of doctrines of Federalism, which, if successive finite phenomena, imagine preached in France at the present day, that they have acquired a proof of the would be but an innocent Utopia, threatmateriality of life itself, resemble the ened the dissolution of the country durpoor fool who having chemically an- ing the first years of the Revolution. alyzed the ink with which a poem wås They laid bare the path for foreign conwritten, imagined that he had penetrat- quests, and roused the Mountain to ed the secret of the genius that compos- bloody and terrible means of represed it.

sion. Life,—thought,—the initiative power Such for us are the wretched doctrines of motion,—the conception of the infi- of which I speak. nite, of the eternal, of God, which is in. Fate has set before us a great and born in the human mind,- the aspira- holy mission, which, if we fail to accomtions toward an ideal impossible of plish it now, may be postponed for half realization in the brief stage of our a century. Every delay, every error earthly existence,—the instinct of free may be fatal; and the people, through will, all that constitutes the mysterious whom we have to work, are uneducated, link within us to a world beyond the liable to accept any error which wears a visible,- defies all analysis by a philoso- semblance of war to the past, and in phy exclusively experimental and impo- danger, from their long habit of slavery, tent to overpass the sphere of the sec- of relapsing into egotism. ondary laws of being.

Now the tendency of the doctrines If materialists choose to reject the of Materialism is to lead the mass to teachings of tradition, the voice of egotism through the path of interest. human conscience and intuition, to limit Therefore it grieves me to hear them themselves to the mechanism of analyti. preached by many worthy but inconsidcal observation, and substitute their nar- erate young men amongst us, and I conrow undirected physiology for biology jure them by all they hold most sacred, and psychology; it then, finding them to meditate deeply the moral conseselves unable by that imperfect method quences of the doctrines they preach, to comprehend the primary laws and and especially to study their effect in the origin of things, they childishly deny case of a neighboring nation, which the existence of such laws and declare carried negation to the extreme during all humanity before their time to have the past century, and which we behold been deluded and incapable; so be it. at the present day utterly corrupted by Nor should I, had Italy been a nation the worship of temporary and material for half a century, have regarded their interest—disinherited of all noble activdoctrines as fraught with any real dan- ity, and sunk in the degradation and ger. Humanity will not abandon its infamy of slavery. appointed path for them; and to hear Every error is a crime in those whose them in an age in which the discoveries duty it is to watch over the cradle of a naof all great thinkers combine to demon- tion. strate the existence of an intelligent pre- Either we must admit the idea of a ordained law of unity and progress, God, of the moral law which is an emanaspouting materialism in the name of tion from Him, and the idea of human science, because they have skimmed a duty, freely accepted by mankind, as the volume of Vogt, or attended a lecture practical consequence of that law; or by Moleschott, might rather move one we must admit the idea of a ruling force to amusement than anger.

of things, and its practical consequence,

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