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nades. By the Author of "MARY POWELL." ^. highly interesting dissertation about the origin, W. Dodd.
development, and extension of the Hindoo characMiss Manning is among the most charming of ters, a chapter we must indeed recommend to living female writers. The first of these volumes the attention of any one who looks upon the philowas published several years since by Messrs. sophic element as an integral part of his studies. Scribner & Co., but it lias been out of print for We know that Professor Müller, who has publishsome time, and Mr. Dodd has done well to repro- ed very valuable memoirs on Himiaritic Inscripduce it in a very neat style, for it is a book of re- tions in the Proceedings of the Imperial Academy markable interest, and a great favorite with the of Science, has for a long time paid much attention public. Jacques Bonneval is a graphic sketch of to all different systems of writing in general, and the persecutions which the Protestants of France' intends in due time to edit the result of his resuffered some two centuries ago, written in that searches on the subject, under the title, “History autobiographic form which gives such life and of Writing.” The idioms of the Australian conti. reality to the writings of this author. A healthful pent, together with those in Tasmania, are relativemoral tone pervades all her writings.
ly the poorest part of the book, but it must be conThe Confessions of Gerald Estcourt. By FLOR- fessed that but very little is known of them. The ENCE MARRYAT. Boston: Loring, Publisher, 1867. Malayo-Polynesian languages, on the other hand, Price 75 cents. This belongs to “Loring's Rail. forming the fourth part of the work, are treated of way Novels," and will doubtless command a good at great length. We need not say that the Malayly number of readers, for the author is a favorite an exceeds in interest the idioms of Polynesia by with multitudes. It is written in the autobio far. We have no wish to anticipate the judgment graphical form, and takes for its motto, “The gods of leading scholars, but must say that in our opiaare just, and of our pleasant vices make instru- ion the work will occupy a high place in science. ments to punish us." This we believe is Miss The explanatory text is clear, distinct, and devoid Marryat's fifth novel, and it shows progress in the of rhetorical flourishes. But to any one who is high art to which she devotes herself. Her style not a stranger in linguistic geography, it is rich in is graphic and nervous, and her power of concep- details, and valuable on account of the strict and tion and expression is very considerable. The critical classification of the languages and their same publisher sends us, in a neat paper cover, dialects, as far, of course, as is justified by our Beauty and the Beast, by Miss THACKERAY, daugh- knowledge of them. ter of the celebrated novelist, which is a charming little work of art, that delightfully uses up a leisure hour. Reise der æsterreichischen Fregatte Novara um
VARIETIES. die Erde in den Jahren, 1857, 1858, 1859, unter den Befehlen des Commodore B. von Wüllerstorf: Prince Albert's Love of the Country.—This the Urbair. Linguisticher Theil von Dr. Friederich Prince constantly expressed. On arriving at Müller, Professor der Orientalischen Linguistik an Osborne and Balmoral, and on leaving London : der Weiner Universitat. Wien, 1867.
" How sweet it smells; “How delicious the air 357.
is! One begins to breathe again!" And how he Professor Frederick Müller, of the Imperial Uni- delighted in the song of the birds, and especially versity at Vienna, favorably known to oriental of nightingales, listening for then in the happy, scholars by his different publications about Arian peaceful walks he used to take with the Queen in languages, had been charged by the Imperial the woods at Osborne, and whistling to them in Academy of Science to collect all linguistic mate- their own peculiar long note, which they invari. rials brought home by Dr. Scherzer from the No. ably answer. The Queen cannot hear this note vara expedition. Professor Müller had indeed now without fancying she hears him, and without many new details to dispose of, and could thus the deepest, saddest emotion. At night he would edit this volume, originally intended to give also stand on the balcony at Osborne, in May, listening an anthropological view of all tribes and nations to the nightingales.-" The Early Days of the visited by the Novara. The linguistic materials Prince Consort." collected by Dr. Scherzer being, however, 80 nu- A Royal Sign Manual Warrant of King Charles merous, it was decided to publish them separately II., issued in the first year of his reign, is printed from the anthropological researches, and we should in the Builder, which says that it was found in an think all scholars will applaud this decision. Nev. old office-book belonging to the office of the Lord ertheless, we must not expect from Müller's work Chamberlain. Neither Malone nor Payne Collier to get a view of the whole linguistic system of our has noticed it. “In the sign manual," continues globe, a task from which we stand still far remov- our authority, after printing it, “eleven plays are ed. Professor Müller's work intends to acquaint assigned to Sir William Davenant, the patentee of us with some peculiarities of the idioms spoken by the Duke's Theatre, one by Webster, The Duchess peoples visited by the Novara expedition, and of Malfi,' one by Sir Johu Denham, The Sophy;' divides therefore his book into four principal parts,- and nine by Shakespeare. We have here, then, the African, the Hindoo, the Australian, and fresh and startling evidence of the preēminent the Malayo-Polynesian languages. In respect to popularity of Shakespeare over other dramatists in Africa, be treats only the idioms spoken out of the the reign of Charles 11." Negro lands, that is, the language of the Hotten- The High Price of Books in America. A comtots, the Bantu idioms, and the Hamitic languages *plete reversal of what was formerly the case in in the north-east of Africa. His division concern- the United States, is at present attracting atten. ing the Hindoo Peninsula contains four chapters, tion on the other side of the Atlantic, and exciting pamely, the Dravida, the Sanscrit languages, the a good deal of adverse criticism. A New York Singhalese or Ceylon, and a most remarkable and writer observes:-"American publishers are pur. suing a suicidal policy in charging the enormous which reach at least as far as those of the oldest prices that now rule; it is almost impossible for Greek historians, and will be found in full accordpersons of moderate means—the general reading ance with Furdisa and Hamza. We must refrain public--to keep pace with the current literature. from going into details, and refer our readers to the Daily, books are issued at a dollar, or a dollar and article itself
, in which Professor Spiegel, in the a half, which do not contain more than double the different chapters, speaks of Zarathustra's name, amount of reading matter of an ordinary newspa- age, birthplace, his preparations for his priestship, per, and which do not require more than four or and bis sojourn in Bactria. five times as much paper. It is perfectly natural Smyrna.—The ancient city of Smyrna has al. that English publishers should take advantage of ways been of great interest to the archæologist, this state of affairs to introduce to this country numismatist
, historian, philologist, and merchant, exceedingly cheap editions of the standard works and a full account of it cannot fail to attract their of British literature, and, as a consequence, the attention. It is therefore intended, at an early great interest, and the great industry of manufac- date, to lay before the public a carefully prepared turing books among ourselves for our own reading work on ihe subject, in the French language, by pnblic, is on the decline. 'Shakespeare,' complete Mr. B. F. Slaars, of Smyrna, based upon the Greek for fifty cents, which is twice as much as the pub- original by Constantine Ironomos, a learned Neolishers' price in gold, sells in Nassau street with Hellene, who died at Smyrna, in 1857. The work great rapidity, A volume of plays for twenty-five will be complete in a handsome octavo volume, cents less than it costs to see any one of them, in and will be furnished to subscribers at the price of whatever manner performed, is an item that strikes 68., by Trübner & Co., 60 Paternoster Row, Lon. our attention forcibly; and, although these cheap don, the agents for the sale in England. editions are purchased only by the poorer classes, they will certainly purchase the book in preference to wailing until such time as they can afford the costly product of home manufacturers. This once
SCIENCE was the great country for cheap books. Our pub- In our summary for January, it was recorded lishers have entirely forgotten that people do take that Professor Adams had seen reason to doubt into consideration the difference between two dol- the correctness of the period assigned by Professor lars and one dollar, as well as the difference be- Newton to the November meteor-ring, The rigid tween one dollar and a half dollar; and the compe- mathematical scrutiny of the nodal motion due to tition which will soon spring up, will be attended the actions of Venus, Jupiter, and the Earth-the by results decidedly beneficial to the American planets which would be the principal perturbers masses." - London Review.
of the meteoric orbit on Newton's hypothesisIt is stated that the works of the late emperor has resulted in showing that 354•6 days is not the Maximilian are about to be published in Austria, true period of the orbit. In like manner a period in four volumes, consisting of memoirs, travels, and of 377 days—another view suggested by Newton poetical compositions. It is now denied that M. -must be abandoned. Either theory gives to the Louis Blanc will publish Maximilian's correspond- node an annual motion of about 21", whereas to ence on the Mexican question.
account for the observed change in the epoch at A collection of the American poets is about to be which the November shower occurs, a motion of translated into German by Adolf Strodtman, who 52"4 is required. is an admirable translator, and Speithergan, who It remained to calculate the motion of the node holds a high rank among the essayists of Germany. when a period of 33.25 years is selected—that beIt will be a voluminous work, and will contain, ing the only other period, besides those considered, among other productions of the American muse, a which fairly accounts for the interval observed to version of the whole of Mr. Stoddard's "King's separate successive recurrences of brilliant meteBell."
oric displays. This period, which gives, (by Kep. Parsi Literature. We have just received parts ler's law) an elliptic orbit
, having a major axis I. and II. of the first section of the Proceedings of 20-7 times as great as the earth's distance from the the Royal Bavarian Academy for 1867, which con- sun, presents many difficulties. The formulæ tain, among others, an interesting article on the adapted to the nearly circular planetary orbits are life of Zarathustra, by Professor Friedrich Spiegel here inapplicable. Adams applied the method (92 pages). Professor Spiegel purports in this ac- given by Gauss in his " Determinatio Attractionis," count to continue and bring to a close the narrative etc. In this method the long ellipse is broken up of the life of Zarathustra, which Professor Wind- into small parts, and the perturbing effects of the ischmann began, not, however, being allowed to planets on the motion of a neteor in each part is complete it, which is the more regrettable since considered, tho change in the node as the meteors the life of that great reformer is full of interest, and move over each section being separately examined. of the utmost importance. The difficulty which The calculation is very laborious, though Professor will present itself, lies with the scanty material we Adams simplified the work to some extent by inpossess with respect to his early life; and thoughtroducing several ingenious modifications. He Greek historians, as Herodotus, Berosus, and Kie. found that during a period of 33.25 years the lonsias, who are the first to make mention of him at gitude of the node is increased 20' by the action full length, dwell on the subject, they are not al. of Jupiter, nearly 7' by the action of Saturn, and ways to be relied upon. This applies especially about' i' by that of Uranus. The other planets to Klesias, whose accounts, though by far the produce no appreciable perturbations. Thus the longest of any other, are almost wholly contradicto observed increase of longitude is about 28’ in 33-25 ed by historians of a later period, thus rendering years, or 50'2 in one year. We have already his authority rather doubtful. Great help, how. stated that the observed motion of the node is ever, is found in the Avesta itself, the accounts of 52":4. The accordance is close enough to leave no
doubt that the true period of the November mete- proportion of sugar increased in order of time from ors is 33.25 years.
2.98 to 12:10, and even to 16-20 per cent. in the This result very largely enhances the interest juice of the perfectly ripe fruit; whilst the entire with which the phenomenon of periodic November berries showed but a slight diminution or no apdisplays must be viewed. On Newton's hypoth. preciable change in the total amount of acid esis one could understand the recurrence of brillo present. The saccharine matter could not, there. iant showers during two or three successive years; fore, have been directly derived from the organic since the earth was assumed to pass for two or acid or its salts contained in the grape; but the three years in succession through parts of the ring author thinks it possible that the presence of such not very far separated from each other. But with acid effects a change resulting in the production of meteors travelling in an elongated ellipse, extend- sugar similar to that known to occur in the con. ing beyond the orbit of Uranus, the case is far dif. version of starch into sugar by the action of sul. ferent. The part of the meteoric ring traversed at phuric and other acids. Further experiments, even one passage has travelled away more than 100,- more decisive in their character, were made upon 000,000 of miles, when the earth next crosses the Gutedel and Muscatel grapes, gathered at the same stream. Therefore to understand the recurrence time and from the same vine, but in various stages of star-showers during two successive years only, of ripeness. In some of the unripe berries there and we have well-authenticated instances of show- was absolutely no sugar, wbilst in others nearly ers occurring three or four years successively- ripe 8.87 per cent. of sugar was found; but the one must conceive a stream of meteors extending amount of free acid estimated in a hundred grapes more than 100 miles in length.
was almost the same in three samples of Gutedel, This being the case it is the more remarkable to and actually increased with the ripeuing of the find the important November shooting-star dis- Muscatel.-Pop. Science Review. plays, which have continued for at least 600 years, The Origin of Petroleum. The last number of associated with a telescopic comet which has es- the Canadian Naturalist contains an abstract of a caped discovery until quite recently. Yet it re- recent paper by Dr. Hunt, in which the author sults from Adams' discovery that the orbit of the alluded to the subject of the origin of petroleum. November shooting-slars accords in the most re- Dr. Hunt regards the process by which animal and markable manner with the orbit of Comet I, 1866 vegetable hydrocarbonaceous tissues have been -a minute tailless comet discovered in January converted into solid or liquid bitumon, as a decay of that year by M. Tempel. Professor Adams' or fermentation, under conditions in which atmos. elements of the November meteors are here com- pheric oxygenation is excluded, so that the maxipared with Dr. Oppolzer's elements of Tempel's mum amount of hydrogen is retained by the car. comet:
bon; and as represeuting one extreme of a process, Nov. Meteors. Comet I, 1866. the other of which is found in anthracite and mio. Period..
33:25 (assumed) 33:18 eral charcoal, the two conditions being antagonistic, Mean distance.. 10:3402
10-3248 and excluding each other, and the production of Eccentricity
0.9054 petroleum implying, when complete, the disap Perihelion distance 0.9855
pearance of the organic tissue. Hence pyroschists, Inclinatian.......
the so-called bituminous shales, and coal, are not 16 46 iz is
found together with petroleum, but in separate Longitude of node... 51 28
51 26 formations, and it is to be borne in mind that the Distance of Perihe
epithet bituminous applied to the former bodies is lion from node.... 651
a mistaken one, since they seldom or never con. Direction of motion Retrograde. Retrograde. tain any bitumen, although, like all fixed organic This evidence following on Schiaparelli's proof of bodies, they yield hydrocarbons by destructtve the close accordance between the orbits of the distillation. The fallacy of the notion which asAugust meteors and that of Comet II, 1862, seems cribes petroleum to the action of subterranean heat all but decisive. The association of comets-and ou coal was expressed by Dr. Hunt, who stated especially of comets of eccentric orbit-with shoot- that the oil of the Trenton limestone occurs below ing-stars, is certainly one of the last that would the horizon of any pyroschists or other hydrocarhave occurred even to the most speculative astrop. bonaceous rocks. omer, yet it is now established on a foundation The Carboniferous Coal of Russia.-A monothat will not be readily shaken.-Pop. Science Re- graph on the coal of Russia has been published at view.
St. Petersburg. It is by Lieut.-General de HelThe Proportion of Acid and Sugar in ripening merson, and, among other facts, it gives the distriFruit.-At the meeting of the Chemical Society, bution of the coal of the Carboniferous age. This held on the 16th of May, an interesting paper by distribution is as follows: 1. On the eastern and Dr. A. Dupré, upon the above important subject western slopes of the Oural mountains. 2. In the was read by the secretary. It has been stated by governments of Novgorod, Iver, Moscow, Kalouga, Continental chemists that, as the fruit ripens the Toula, and Riazan. The coal occupies a large acid (malic and tartaric) becomes converted into elliptical basin, six hundred versts in length and sugar. This is the point to which Dr. Dupré es- four hundred in width, in the centre of which the pecially devoted his inquiries, and which he be- town of Moscow is situated. 3. In Samara, a lieves he has cleared up by showing that the Con- little peninsula formed by the river Volga, near tinental view is inaccurate. Dr. Dupré collected Liavrpool ; and 4. In the government of Ekaterand experimented upon a hundred berries of Rieg- inoslav, where the coal-beds form a chain of low ling grapes gathered at intervals of a month, com- mountains called the Douetz, and are associated mencing with September last, and the amounts of with abundant deposits of iron, which latter have tartaric acid, free and combined, and also of sugar, not at present been worked for economic purposes; were determined in the separated juices. The though they would well repay the cost.