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or should pay, lend, send, or bring any Hearne, a London merchant, was arrestmoney into the kingdom for or upon ed for refusing to give up “ Queen those jewels," should be accounted an Elizabeth's great and precious onyxenemy of the state, and be dealt with stone,” upon which he professed to have accordingly. Assuming to themselves lent money. Frances Curson was comthe rights they denied the king, the mitted to prison for baving received a Commons, in the same year, authorized hatful of gold and jewels at the time of Henry Martyn to break open the royal the dispersion of the crown jewels; and jewel-chest at Westminster, and sell the she confessed that she knew of a Jesuit contents. Among the historic regalia who had managed to appropriate prothus confiscated were “the imperial perty of the same kind worth forty crown of massy gold,” commonly called thousand pounds. However, the royal King Edward's crown (this dated from valuables came in but slowly. Two Edward III.'s reign-the original Con- years after the proclamation was issued, fessor's crown disappeared long before); a warrant was granted to certain parties King Alfred's crown of gold wire-work to search for and seize a diamond hatset with slight stones and two little band and garter, a gold wedge and cup, bells; the queen's crown; Edward VI.'s and a stirrup of gold taken from the crown; and Queen Edith's crown, late king's closet at Whitehall. In the “formerly thought to be of massy gold, same year, too, it was thought necessary but upon trial found to be of silver-gilt, to appoint a commission to examine enriched with garnetts, foule pearl, the accounts of the so-called trustees, saphires, and some odd stones.” Four contractors, or treasurers for the sale of sceptres were also broken and defaced, the late king's goods; namely, the and the perpetrators of this destruction crowns, jewels, plates, pictures, etc., discovered that one of them was only formerly kept in the Tower and Whitesilver-gilt; that a large dove-headed hall jewel-houses, but forced from the staff was wood inside and silver-gilt persons to whom they were intrusted, without; and a smaller one, decorated and disposed of to those who were not with the fleur-de-luce, was iron within creditors to the late king, and who are and gilt without, instead of being “massy therefore not pardoned by the act of gold,” as they had fondly imagined. oblivion, but must return the property, When England grew tired of the Pro
or pay over the money which they tectorate, a new set of regalia became received for it.” Nothing, so far as we necessary, and in the first year of the Res- can discover, came of this effort, so we toration, Goldsmith Vyner's bill amount- suppose it came to the inconsequential ed to £31,979 9s. 11d. Besides that, end common to royal commissions. The £1,200 had to be paid for some bor- Merry Monarch very nearly lost his own rowed stones lost during the coronation crown jewels some few years afterwards, ceremonial. Charles II. seems to have lost aud gratefully rewarded Blood for his no time in doing something towards re- daring attempt to rob him of his crown stocking the jewel-house. He bought å by pensioning him for life, while he left valuable oriental ruby, and a large heart- the faithful custodian of the jeweldiamond of great perfection, and decorat- house unpaid for risking his life in ed his stirrups with three hundred and defence of the royal treasures. The twenty diamonds. In the third
year of his crown jewels have ever since remained reign, we find one Mary Simpson peti- unmolested by embarrassed sovereigns tioning his Majesty to award 'her or light-fingered subjects, and they are £15,595 out of the Dunkirk money, for not likely to be disturbed by either in jewels supplied to him by her father and our time. uncle; and three years later, another jeweller presented a small account for £12,179.
The Saturday Review. Immediately after Charles' accession,
RUSSIA AND INDIA. a proclamation had been issued commanding all persons holding possession The impression that the progress of of any jewels or plate belonging to the Russia towards India is a matter of just crown to restore the same. Nathaniel anxiety to England appears at length to have taken some hold of the public mind. the more reason for the inquiry proThe situation is, indeed, little changed posed. from what it was six months ago, when We are inclined to hold by the prima the Bokharian fortress of Djuzak was facie view. It only requires the briefest captured, and the country placed at the consideration to perceive the unsound. mercy of the invaders. Even the intel- ness of all arguments based on the supligence received this week—that the posed impracticability of the region communication of the Russians with between Russia and India. So far from their most advanced posts had been being an impracticable land, Central interrupted, and one of those on their Asia is a huge battle-field where armies line of communication threatened-sim- have marched and countermarched from ply means that the Bokharians have the dawn of history. No doubt it is a mastered courage to provoke their region of deserts, where an army, if it is adversaries to complete their work. The taken through a desert tract by the stuimportant fact for some time has been pidity or miscalculation of a general, and the decisive overthrow of Bokhara. That without proper precautions, may easily event, together with the breaking up of be lost; but, on the other hand, there the State into fragments like Affghanis- are many broad and fertile oases, coming tan, and the complete anarchy which near together, sometimes running into thus reigns between the Russian and one another, and by following the lines Indian frontiers, bas naturally increased thus indicated marches may be made, the apprehensions felt in India, where and have been made times without numeven the native press has been discussing ber, without any unusual difficulty. It with avowed alarm, but veiled satisfac- is in this light we must look at the bortion, the news of Russia's progress, and der between Russia and India. It is wondering at the apathy of the masters utterly irrelevant to urge, as the Times of India. The time has therefore come did the other day, that the Russians for considering soberly in what way the once lost an army in the distant desert recent conquests of Russia really touch between Orenburg and Khiva. It also our position, and whether any action is appears, contrary to the assumption of now incumbent on us in consequence, in optimist writers, that the Russians will defence of our Indian Empire. Prima have no difficulty in any operations facie there is ground for alarm in the within their own territory. The two fact that a great European Power has points on their frontier from wbich they virtually become the next neighbor of can approach India are Asterabad, on India. 'It is scarcely possible that the the southern shores of the Caspian Sea, security of our Empire can be so easily and Djuzak in Bokhara, to both of which provided for as when our troops had points, we may state as a matter of fact, merely to guard against internal revolt. easy communication is established from There are nevertheless plenty of writers the " seats of Russian power.” Asterin the press, with whose views the Gov- abad is directly linked with the heart of emor-General of India apparently agrees, Russia by means of the Caspian Sea and who see no cause for the slightest appre- the Volga, on which there are fleets of bension. Their idea is that the country merchantmen. As for Djuzak, the ease between the Russian and Indian fron- with which troops may be moved thither tiers, including broad tracts within both was exhibited in the autumn before last, frontiers but interposing between the when more than 10,000 men were hastily opposite - seats of power,” is so diffi- dispatched from the Caucasus and Orencult for the movements of armies that burg to the neighborhood of Taschkent. no attack on India is likely, while, if The truth is, Russia has so improved the attempted, we may rest secure that it roads by digging wells, and the Jaxartes can be easily repulsed. Assuming that is found so suitable for navigation, that there is no reason for disquietude, they the transit of troops to the front from rather welcome the approximation of the the “seats of Russian power ” is accomRussian lines to India as a triumph of plished with the utmost facility: civilization over Asiatic Asiatic barbarism.
Starting, then, from Asterabad and When such views are held, so different Djuzak we find two great routes to from the one first suggested, there is all India, which, speaking roughly, run in a south-easterly direction parallel to each small division to cover the advance of other, and about three or four hundred the main body? To both branches of miles apart. The distance to India by the question, according to good military the southernmost of these roads-from authorities-- Lieut. Connolly, Sir AlexAsterabad by Meshed, Herat, and Can- ander Burnes, General Ferrier, and dahar, to Shikarpore on the Indus——is others--an affirmative answer must be about 1,350 miles; and the distance by returned. On the first section of the the other road—from Djuzak by Bok main route, namely, between Asterabad hara, Balkh, and Cabul to Peshawur-is and Meshed—380 miles—there are two about 930 miles. There are also roads good level roads, with abundance of communicating between the two routes water, and a third road, not quite so On the way from Bokhara to Balkh good as the others. Meshed itself is an there are several points where it is pos- important town, the capital of the Persible to branch off and proceed to Herat sian province of Khorassan, and on one on the southernmost road; and there is of the roads are the towns of Sebzwar again communication between Cabul and and Nishapore, each with about 12,000 Candahar. It is when we look at these inhabitants; while on the other are communicating roads that we perceive Shirwan, Birdjnoord, and Kouchan, the importance of the late conquests of which latter place, when Burnes passed Russia—that is, assuming that all the that way, had just been exposed for roads are practicable. It has often been months to a siege by a Persian army of urged that these conquests are of no 20,000 men, a fact of importance with consequence, because Russia has for regard to the capacity of the country. many years possessed Asterabad, and From Meshed to Herat, again—200 could always have advanced as well as miles—there are three good roads, on now direct from that point, by Herat one of which Lieut. Connolly travelled and Candahar, to the Indus. The answer with an Affghan cavalry and artillery, is that the northernmost road was also force 7,000 strong. Of the wealth of necessary in order to cover the flank of Herat and the surrounding plain there such an advance. Unless the force mov- is no need to say anything. From Herat ing by Herat and Candahar has got to Candahar-350 miles—there are two Cabul and Balkh secured for it, its left good roads, and, according to Connolly, flank would always be in danger from an "the country, though hilly, would offer Indian force marching out of Peshawur little obstacle to the march of an unopand occupying the neglected posts. The posed European army; water is in suffiunopposed possession of the northern- ciency, and partial supplies might be most road also enables Russia to surprise procured
the way.” Candahar would with ease the most important point on be another resting-place, being, like the main road--Herat. Till last year Herat, the centre of a fertile district. she must have given notice of an inten- From Candahar to the Indus—400 miles tion to occupy that city by the move- -would be the most difficult portion of ment of ships and troops on the Caspian, the journey, but the difficulties and hardand by negotiations with Persia, unless ships, whatever they are, were surprepared to disregard that Power, in mounted in 1839 by an English army, which case her preparations must have which entered the country by Shikarbeen on a larger scala, and all the more pore, after as long a march to that point likely to be noised abroad. Now a as the Russians would need to make in small force sufficient for the purpose order to reach Candahar. The force we could be mustered unannounced in the then had was of very considerable size, valley of the Jaxartes, and the first hint requiring certainly as much transport as of its advance might reach us with the a Russian army of 30,000 men.
It intelligence that it had succeeded in its hardly admits of doubt that a Russian purpose. The question then is whether, army of about 40,000 men, the number if Russia proposed to attack India, the named by General Ferrier, could be facilities for marching by the southern. brought to the Indus, at any time that most route are such that a considerable Russia chooses, with little loss, and with army could move on it, and whether the a perfectly secure retreat, if the northerly northerly road is good enough for a route is preoccupied to Cabul. The evidence is equally good as to the practica- ness having no worse effect than tempobility of that route for a pretty large rary danger and disaster; but the fact division. From Bokhara to Balkh there of the movement described being practiwould be very little desert marching, cable appears already to demand a very and although the Hindu Kush must be considerable addition to our Indian crossed between Balkh and Cabul, the force. all probability the Indian passage of the Hindu Kush cannot be Empire by itself is as strong as Russia, considered transcendently difficult. Two but its nature is such that unguarded passes at least, except for two months of moments are dangerous, and a lost batthe year, are practicable for wagons, tle on the Indus might lead to the most and Affghan armies with artillery have calamitous results. repeatedly passed that way, which was We bave spoken only of the danger certainly followed last century by the to India in the existing position of affairs. Persian conqueror, Nadir Shah, and is Danger, of course, is aggravated by supposed, not without reason, to have every step in advance which Russia been taken by 'Alexander. As to the takes. When she has advanced to the practicability of the intercommunicating Oxus, the occupation of Herat and Cabul roads, Herat is little more than 400 miles would become even more easy than at by road from Bokhara, while the fertile present, and proportionably more temptvalley of the Mourghab lies midway ing. But we need say nothing on this between the two points; and although head, since the optimists whose opinions the most direct road lies over belts of we controvert view with apparent cheerdesert, there are yet paths only a little fulness the prospect of a Russian lodgeless direct, such as the one M. Vambéry ment in Affghanistan. Such a lodgement took two or three years ago, which may be effected very soon. Only two almost altogether keep to `inhabited or ihree scattered millions of population tracts. There is equally little doubt of interpose, and there is nowhere a force the practicability of the road between which Russia need even consider. She Cabul and Candahar, which has been has only to prepare a short time before. traversed by a British army, and is the hand, and, in less than two months after scene of continual fighting among the the order leaves St. Petersburg, Herat, Affghans themselves.
Cabul, and Candabar might all be occuThere remains the question what a pied. The achievement would only be Russian army could do, if it reached the slightly less easy than it would be to Indus unopposed. If we got long warn- ourselves. We fear the cheerfulness of ing, it would be easy enough to occupy our optimists would be put to rather a Cabul and Candabar, or at least to op- severe test were this event accomplished. pose the Russians in the Bolan pass. In possession of Affghanistan, Russia's But what has to be considered, is the power to injure India would be literally chance of Russia acting suddenly when overwhelming. By improving the roads we are off our guard, when India is per- and communications, digging wells, and haps temporarily denuded of troops, or settling the country as she has done all at a time of great disturbance, like the through her progress in Central Asia, Indian mutiny. In such a case, we could forty thousand men would not long be spare no force to bar a Russian march the limit of the force she could prepare to the Indus, and Russia might act so for an attack on India. Always on our quickly as to give us no time to collect frontier, she would be ready to take adone. The first intimation of danger vantage of every untoward incident. would probably be the simultaneous Probably nothing short of an additional seizure of Herat and Cabul. Two or hundred thousand of European troops three months afterward a great Russian would be requisite to defend India army might appear on the Indus. If against surprise. Where are we to get our hands should happen to be fully oc- this additional force ? Putting such a cupied elsewhere, it would be very awk- question, we can scarcely wonder at ward, to say the least of it, to have such military men viewing with so much an army upon us.
By superhuman alarm the prospect of Russia securely efforts it might be resisted and thrust seated at the gates of India. back as far as Candahar, our careless- It is not easy to say what our policy
should now be. The time is past when Indifferent as we seem at present, we could have negotiated with Russia, the threat of Russia to occupy Heratand demanded her adherence to the much more its actual seizurt-would limits she prescribed for herself when provoke an explosion of feeling in India the first bit of Kokan was annexed. · which no government could disregard. The mischief is done, and we cannot ex. The common arguments against annexapect but that Russia would prefer war tion do not apply to the case of Affghan. to giving up Djuzac, Oratepe, Khojent, istan, at present no man's land, and the and Taschkent. It may be said again, source of endless disquiet by its lawlesswith some show of reason, that by ad- ness and anarchy to our possessions in vancing ourselves into Central Asia we the north-west of India. By taking would only add to the chances of a con- part of it, we should interfere with no flict, and at once bring the frontiers to- rights of self-government, and our rule gether--the very contingency we dread. wonld confer on the districts we occuWe are inclined to think that, inconve- pied a material prosperity, such as has nient as the last alternative may be, it is been unknown since our former occupathe only one left us. It is preferable to tion, which was held in grateful rememkeeping within the present limits of brance by the mass of the people long India. If we must have Russia for after we withdrew. neighbor, it becomes us, instead of leaving things to chance, to choose our ground. In this view the expediency of
Nort: British Review. occupying Herat at once is apparent. It would be a step in the right direction A DUTCH POLITICAL NOVEL. to go half-way, and occupy Quetta, as recommended ineffectually by the Bom- tle Barbara.
Officer. My Lord, this is the man who killed litbay government; but to have all the
Judge. To the gallows with him! How did he security desirable, we must go to Herat. do it ? Only by so doing could we effectually
Oficer. He cut her to pieces and pickled the
body. prevent the Russians from combining
Judge. Infamous ! To the gallows with him! the lines of advance we have described.
Lothario. My Lord, I did not murder little BarBut the proceeding would be effectual. bara. I fed, and clothed, and provided for her. I If Russia then thought to attack us, she can bring witnesses to prove me a good man, and would only have the one path straight no murderer:
Judge. You are to be hanged. You aggravate from Asterabad, without any cover on
your crime by your arrogance. It is not becoming the left to screen her movements, and in a man, accused of any crime, to consider himself without any good sub-base, such as the a virtuous being. plain of Herat would afford, if we allow Lothario. But, my Lord, there are witnesses to her to be there before us. The defence confirm it, and as I am now accused of murderof Herat and Candahar-in short, of all Barbara to pieces, and pickled the body, and bold
Judge. You will be hanged. You cut little Affghanistan-would also give us time to .no small opinion of yourself; three capital crimes. rally in the event of a sudden movement; Who are you, woman? and the confusion of the fight would be
Woman. I am little Barbara. kept remote from India-a very great ad- Lord, I am not her murderer.
Lothario. Heaven be praised! You see, my vantage. At Herat, too, we might have Judge. Hem! yes, hem! Butas to the pickall the benefits of railway communication, ling? just as we have now, for it would not be Barbara. No, my Lord, he did not pickle me ; difficult to extend so far the Indian rail
on the contrary, he has done me a great deal of way system, which must at any rate be good; he is the kindest of human beings.
Lothario. My Lord, you hear how she declares extended to the Indus valley. In the me to be a good man. interests of both England and India, the Judge Hem; but the third crime allows of no occupation of this advance post should exculpation officer, away with that fellow and not be delayed. The more secure we
hang him! He is guilty of self-conceit. And,
clerk, be sure to quote in his sentence the jurisprucan make our Indian position the less
dence of Lessing's Patriarch.- From an Unpublikely is it to be attempted; while the lished Tragedy. preoccupation of Herat would take away from Russia a temptation, by yield- The above was the rather startling ing to which she might easily provoke a motto prefixed to a novel published ex