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When bronght to bay by a crowd of ar- the broth of the sick and the bread of guments and persecated with the display the soldiers. He was busy and observof her great conceptions. Tant mieux, ant; wherever his presence was needed sire," the mistress replied, “il faut qu'un there he was found. He was accessible roi ressuscite."

to officers of all rank. People repeated Other court intrigues contributed at bis reply to the Dutch ambassador, “Je the same time to favor the views of Mad- vous ferai réponse en Flandre.Confidence ame Châteauroux. Maurepas the chan- was restored in the army, in the counSORRICT, the light frivolous minister whose try. Men said to each other, “Now we name is associated with the disgrace of have a King again,” and repeated, “ Et one and the disasters of two reigns, the surtout il n'est pas question de femmes.” SudMaréchal de Noailles, Richelieu, as well denly, however, the popular enthusiasm as all the courtiers who worshipped the fell fifty degrees; the common soldiers star of the mistress, endeavored to get the grioned about the tent of the King, King to take the field. Pare patriotism whence two splendid ladies in patches had little to do with any of their per- and rouge and magnificent attire were suasions Maurepas reckoned upon get- often seen to emerge to their carriage ; ting the King to determine to join the ladies to whom very rough opprobrious army throagh the influence of the favor- names were given, and concerning whom ite, and by a fine touch of subtlety trust- scornful and satirical chansons were baned also subsequently to persuade the King died about the camp. A murmur of innot to take his mistress with him; he dignation ran through France; the hopes then hoped, since he himself would ne- of the nation were deceived. oersarily accompany bis sovereign, to dis- Madame de Châteauroux had rejoined engage him from any influence but his the King at Lille. With her came also ORD. The Maréchale de Noailles, the Madame Laraguais and a bevy of court old Duchess—now ninety-nine years of ladies. The two sisters followed in the age, the mother of eleven daughters and King's wake without any concealment, ten sons, with more than a hundred live while the grand marechal des logis preceing descendants—she whom the courtiers ded them, to prepare the communication called the mother of the ten tribes of Is- between the King's lodgings and those rael, all anxiously looking to the Duch- of his mistresses. Then ensued the most ees and the King's favor to provide them striking incident of the latter days of with a new land of promise; she with royalty in France, when the sudden and all the tribe of the Noailles, in fact, were nearly fatal illness of the King at Metz, calculating ou the good things to be got aroused for the last time the deep-seated it the King could be carried off to the affection of the nation for its Sovereign, ekanap of the Marshal, where the latter one final expression of loyalty on the eve yoald have uncontrolled supervision of of eternal separation. After a night of the despatch-boxes from Paris. Thus the debauchery on the 31 of August, 1744, Log was, after long preparation, wound Louis was laid prostrate with a putrid up to the pitch of resolve, and determin- fever. From the 4th to the 12th the ed to join the army. Maurepas insinu- King got rapidly worse. Madame de ated at the last moment that if Lonis XV. Châteauroux and her confidant Richelieu voald really play a kingly part, and gain took possession of the royal chanıber, and the affection of his people, he must make with the aid of Madame de Laraguais, one more sacrifice, and leave his mistress. the aides-de camp and domestics attached

at home. On this question there en- to the favorite's interest, closed the door ped a subtle game of intrigue, but in against their enemies. For at not many. the end the Maurepas triumphed; the feet from the bed where the King was tons of the favorite were vain, and the lying in a desperate condition, the princes Kring departed alone on the 2d of May, of the blood, the great officers of the 174

Crown, all the dignitaries who yet reThe King reached the army, and all spected the honor of the Crown and of Ponade burst out into hymns of praise the Church, Bouillon, La Rochefoucauld,

King had visited the fortresses, Villeroy, Fitz-james, the Bishop of Soisthe stores at the hospitals; he had tasted sons, the Jesuit Father Pérusseau, the

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confessor of the King, collected together on the 15th, the King was given over in the antechamber, scanning eagerly the by his doctors, but an empiric stept in, countenances of the King's attendants gave him an enormous dose of emetic, as they passed to and fro between the and he was saved. The public joy knew folding-doors of his bedroom. All these no bounds, people embraced in the streets felt a pious horror at the bare possibility with tears and cries of joy ; not a guild of a King of France dying without con- of artisans but sang the “ Te Deum;" and fession and the last consolations of reli- the news spread with electric speed gion. For the inexorable Bishop of Sois- throughout France. The title of Louis sons, the chief almoner of the King, and Bien-aimé was awarded him by univerthe Father Pérusseau, would listen to no sal acclamation; the gratitude of the terms of compromise; they demanded people was given him, in fact, not for the dismissal of the concubine before con- having done anything, but for not dying; fession should be accepted and the sac- and the King himself, amid the triumrament administered. Every art was phal reception which was prepared for used to dupe the Court and to deceive him on his return, exclaimed, What have the King as to the danger of his condi- I done to be so loved ?” But with retion; but all was vain ; the terrors of the turning health the passion for Madame King were aroused, he fancied in his de- de Châteauroux returned also ; and one liriuin that he already felt the torments November night he slipt quietly out of of eternity. On recovering from a faint the Tuileries and presented himself withing state he called aloud for his broth out warning at the house of his mistress and his confessor ; the Châteauroux, with in the Rue da Bac. The favorite was so a hopeless air, gave way to the ecclesi- confounded at this sudden apparition that astics; in a few seconds the folding at the first interview she made nothing doors were thrown open, and the Bishop but incoherent speeches ; on the next day, cried sternly to the two sisters ::" Le roi however, all her haughtiness returned, vous ordonne, mesdames, de vous retirer de and her injured pride made exorbitant dechez lui sur le champ," and the pair quitted mands before she would consent to return Metz amid the imprecations of crowds to Versailles. Nothing would satisfy her who beheld in them but examples of but the disgrace and exile of all who had adultery and incest, and knew not that conspired to drive her away from Metz. the shortlived energy he had displayed The Bishop of Soissons, his confessor, was due to the mistress—the very object the Dukes de Bouillon and La Rochefouof their execrations.

cauld, all were exiled. Maurepas alone Very many descriptions have been was allowed to remain at the King's earnmade of the prophetic frenzy into which est prayer, and at the price of the most the news of the King's illness threw the abject humiliation. The minister was whole population of Paris. “Now," they himself to bear to the injured favorite a said, “now that he was about to become letter of apology and her own recall. a great King, he will be taken from us.” Maurepas, whom the Châteauroux France recalled like a mother her once ways styled the "faquine'," yielded. He passionate love and devotion for the presented himself with his missive in the bright-faced boy with the golden hair. Rue du Bac, he received no salutation, After they had heard that the Queen had and when he attempted to kiss the misleft Versailles to go to the bedside of her tress's hand, received but the words, dying husband, “ For many days,” says " Donnez allez-vous en ."" But the Voltaire, “Paris took no heed of the ap- indigoation and emotions of the last two pointed times for sleep, for waking, or months, the frenzy of triumph, had fafor taking food." The couriers, as they tally agitated the violent nature of the arrived, were beset by crowds eager for imperious woman, an inflammatory feintelligence; the churches were besieged ver raged through her whole system, day and night by the populace praying and after eleven days of transports, confor the King's recovery as for the last valsions, and delirium ; 'after having been grace of Heaven. The poor gave to the bled eleven times in vain in the feet and poor money to make their offerings at the hand, she died on the 1st of Decemthe altar, saying, Priez Dieu pour le roi.” ber at the age of twenty-seven years, in


the arms of her sister and discarded ri- lute permanent existence? Is the skepval Madame de Mailly, who forgave ev- tical maxim of Horne Tooke really suffierything. Two days afterwards she was cient explanation of everything—“Truth buried at Saint Sulpice with a guard un- is that which one troweth ? " It would der arms, to save her body from the in- be futile to endeavor to solve a prosults of the populace. *

blem, which certainly dates from the days of Pontius Pilate, within the limits of a magazine article ; nor would it be less unprofitable to attempt, within a few

pages, definitely to settle what the preTemple Bar.

cise function of modern criticism is or CLIQUES AND CRITICISM.

ought to be. An Utopian ideal may be

agreeable enough as an abstract speculaIt is not very long since a bewildered tion ; but Utopian ideals, unfortunately, correspondent addressed one of the daily are quite as apt to elude the rough materinewspapers, in a piteous strain of inqui- al grasp, as the phantom of Creusa to ry, as to how it should be that the most escape from the abortive embrace of the opposite critical verdicts imaginable were pious Æneas. Mr. Lowe has obligingly so often pronounced, over the same lite- taught us the value--though, by the by, rary production, by the various Aristar- he happens to have violated his precept chi of journalism. How should it hap- at every step-nf arguing and of drawpen that Brown's novel should be affirm- ing conclusions from the facts of experied to be all that a novel ought to be in ence, instead of starting from the ignisone quarter, and all that a novel ought fatuus of à priori abstractions. Criticism, not to be in another ? Were there ab- like most other human institutions, can solutely no fixed canons of criticism be best discerned by the light of experiwhatever? Was there no such thing as ence, and that is the only luminary of a defioite invariable standard of art? which use will be made here. As for Was the law of artistic excellence sub- ungrateful skeptics who declare that critject to the same fluctation as that of the icism never did and never can do any sopbistic morality? And was it, after good—who boldly and thanklessly allege all, the case that merit was a merely re- that public opinion is the only valid trilative term, and that each newly-made, bunal by which to judge of the artist's self-created critic was, in fact, the stand- claims-no attempt need be made, bere ard of all things to himself?' Such were to discuss these very objectionable perthe questions propounded in despairing sons. Practically, the great value which accents by the mazed gentleman who ap- the general reader can derive from the pealed, as a last resource, to that modern critical pen is an escape from the necesDelphic oracle,. the daily press. And sity of wading through a great deal of such, doubtless, have been the queries trash, without any solid beneficial results. which many a puzzled student of the re- Viewed in this light the critic is much what views inpumerable of ephemeral litera- a wine-taster to the public at large might ture has again and again propounded to be. It would be the business of this tichimself. Is it still the old story of the titious functionary to cultivate a palate Heraclitean flux-is everything in a state of exquisite nicety, to see that his patrons of decay—is there no such thing as abso- were not imposed upon, and generally to

save them the annoyance of sipping so "Madame de Mailly passed the last years of her many vintages, as well as the possible life in practices of an exemplary penitence contingency of a headache. Not less spending all her time and money on the poor: ought it to be the aim of the artistic exwashed the feet of the poor; she reserved for her. aminer and professional connoisseur to vell searcely enough for her own necessities. She see that the wares which he recommends died in 1751, with hair-cloth next her person. On to the special patronage of a public which one occasion, as she entered the church of Saint has neither time nor inclination to do the Paul, and some person gave way to her, a bystander said, Voila bien de train pour une fem

dirty work of indiscriminate tasting for me perdue !"" She replied, “ Puisque vous la con- itself, are the best of their kind. South Maisses, priez Dieu pour ell."

African, if we may judge from the benevNEW SERIES——Vol. VI., No. 2.


olent and complacent countenance of the one's inclination, and to give the prefergentleman who figures so prominently ence to the calm unimpassioned judg. in the advertising illustrations of a cer- ment of the head over the emotional and tain firm of wine merchants, with which enthusiastic sentence of the heart. Peothe sides of railway-carriages are not un- ple have such a horror of the serpent's seldom embellished, is a very delightful tooth of ingratitude, that the best-intenbeverage ; but even if this benignant tioned critic in the world cannot well help creature of the artist's brain were to re- feeling a twinge of remorse when he sits ceive it under the name and at the cost down to pull to pieces the novel or draof Vino de Pasto, his beaming face would ma of that friend whose hospitality he probably at once be puckered into frowns. was enjoying a few hours ago. There is It would not be a sufficient excuse that a certain indefinable sanctity, according the connoisseur who induced the pur- to English notions, attendant upon the chase had a friend in the trade to whom social institution of dinner. To dine and he wished to do a good turn; he would to converse amicably with one's friend, at once be denounced as an imposter and and then to proceed, should circumstana humbug, upon whose judgment for the ces require it, to do the work that an enefuture no reliance whatever was to be pla- my might do, is popularly supposed to be ced. In the same way, as long as the just as much an act of sacrilege as to murcritic conscientiously adheres to his own der one's host, after having partaken of convictions—it being pre-supposed that his salt, would appear to Oriental ideas of he is capable of possessing these-no decorum. Or if the talented and kindlyfault can be found with him. If his natured author, who does the theatrical taste is not exquisitely refined, that critiques for the Fiddler, happens to be is rather his misfortune; he acts up acquainted with something of the prito the best of his ability, and with that. vate circumstances of that ineffable stage we onght to be content. Directly, how- stick, Pump, and to be aware of the fact ever, he begins to diverge from the plain that he has to support, upon a salary of path of duty, he is guilty of the unpar- five pounds a week, a wife and seven radouable sin. It can be no manner of ex- venous children, can be find it in his cuse that he should, through a private heart to speak as his critical conscience weakness for Jones, puff Jones's wares, would impel him to speak, knowing all laying the flattering unction to his soul the while that an unfavorable notice in that Jones is an industrious workman, that powerful organ, the Fiddler, will at and that, after all, Jones's productions are once make the manager of the theatre in good enough in their way as times go. which Pump is engaged knock one pound What we want is the critic's free unbi- off his weekly stipend, and eventually, assed opinion, and this is what we do not perhaps, send him loose on the world alget.

together. It is to be hoped that such inOpen, honest, independent criticism is, stances as these are not of every-day ocin truth, not only a very rare but neces- currence, but still they can be by no sarily a very difficult article to meet with. means unheard-of; and when such pitIf one knows a person in private life in- falls do lie in the path of the critic, he timately, entertains towards him feelings must possess a breast girt round by triple not only of friendship but respect, and oak and brass who does not stumble in knows too that upon the success of any his weakness. one particular venture, or of any series of If these are some of the adverse influventures, his worldly well-doing in great ences under which the cause of writicism measure depends, it is a hard thing de- suffers, there are others of far greater and liberately to run down his handiwork. more culpable magnitude. Cases such Amicus Plato, magis amicu veritas, is an as have been above alluded to can only adage of which all acknowledge the ex- occasionally happen ; they do not at any cellence, while a few have moral resolu- rate amount to an organized system, while tion enough to carry it out into active the human weakness which they exhibit is every-day practice. It involves, perhaps, not without a certain attractive side as no small struggle against human nature well. Cliques really constitute the great to have to do violence to the dictates of curse of criticism.

Litterateurs are a gre

garious race. They like to meet togeth- very fine, noble, clever fellows in their er, and to talk over the events of the own estimation they are. There is a day. The same kind of coteries exist certain monotony, perhaps, in their connow as in the days when the wit of versation, and a stranger will not unlikeShakespeare and Jonson reigned su- ly get heavily bored with the fulsome preme at the Mermaid, or when the bur- compliments mutually bestowed, with so ly lexicographer used to be voted the lavish a hand. But what of that? If it dictator and arbiter bibendi at the little pleases them it can certainly.injure no one coffee-room in Fleet Street. Such réun- outside the four walls of the tavern room ions as these, viewed in the abstract, are in which they meet together for their anything but culpable. Conversation is grog and pipes. This is perfectly true, just as sure a means of eliciting truth and and

not the least harm would be done to of improving intellectual acumen now, any one or in any way if they would but as it was in the days of Socrates. The confine themselves to these humble oronly objection is that this private literary gies. The worst of the matter is that a clanship is unpleasantly perceptible in considerable number of the Yahoos are public life as well, and that these select in the habit of writing criticisms of variineetings of literary confrères not unfre- ous kinds for the press, and that in the quently resolve themselves into societies discharge of these duties they cannot with the direct parpose of securing a make up their minds to forget their posimataal admiration for each other, a pro- tion as Yahoos, and to adopt the tone found dissatisfaction with all those other of men of gentlemanly taste and critical laborers in the broad field of letters, honor. The spirit and influence of the who do not care about making their way dingy tavern room will perpetually keep into that charmed circle which embraces cropping out. By a certain system of so many self-conceited celebrities, and dichotomy they divide mankind into two which rapidly develops itself into a posi- classes— Yahoos and not-Yahoos, each to tion of antagonism towards all who are be handled in a respectively different not of the enviable number. The Ya- manner. They admit, of course, of vahoos, for instance, compose a brother- rious gradations of censure just as they hood of this description. Amongst do of praise; but the latter is monopothemselves the Yahoos are united by an lised by the Yahoos. The former is exoath of eternal friendship and goodwill

, clusively devoted to the benefit of the by a moral obligation to sing each oth- not-Yahoos. It might be thought perer's praises at every conceivable oppor- haps that these literary small fry cannot tanity, in season and out of season. As do much harm, either by their blame or for what the feeling of their secret hearts by their panegyric ; but at the present may be, it is impossible to say. They day, with the amount of influence that may perhaps be consumed often by mu- attaches to each separate member of the taal jealousy, and heartily wish each oth- London press, it can hardly be said that er at the bottom of the Dead Sea. But, such is the case. Besides, the clique at any rate, they manage to preserve an

of the Yahoos is not without its moexterior of persistent and boisterous dicum of talent, position, and celebrity, good-fellowship. It is mere matter of There have been, it is currently reported bistory how impossible it is to infer from to the eternal shame of recalcitrant memthe angelic suavity of the feminine ex- bers of the brotherhood, cases in which pression what may be precisely the state certain Yahoos have been troubled by of feeling of one lady towards her bosom conscientious qualms as to the legitimacy friend; and in the same way when the of such an indiscriminate practice of muYahoos use the easy-going, good-natur- tual pufling, and have positively ventured salutation of old boy," « dear boy,” ed to issue a personal and practical reand other such forms of convivial affec- monstrance by presuming to speak their tion, one is quite unable to make any mind, frankly and openly, when some certain conjecture as to the genuine na- one of their number has written a book ture of their internal disposition. They or produced a play that is egregiously langh and talk with each other, praise bad! But the esprit de corps of the cotethemselves, abuse every person else, and rie must at any expense be kept up. The

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