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of his mistress not only affected him with the rest of the Nesles. But her temper passionate grief, but renewed in him the

was widely different from that of her sisdread of hell torment which tortured him ters, and the Duc de Richelieu had. conto the end of his days on similar occa- siderable difficulty in getting the King sions. The share wbich Madame de to play the lover in such fashion as would Mailly took in the King's affliction suit the pride of the imperious Madame brought back some semblance of his for- de la Tournelle. The lady was willing mer affection. But that consummate enough to accept the position, but she was tempter tbe Duc de Richelieu was on the not willing to be a humble partner in the look-out for another liaison for his sover- royal amours or to make such advances eign. That which existed between Mad- as Madame de Mailly had made before ame de Mailly and the King had never her. She required to be courted, to have been congenial to his own tastes, since the advances made to her in a manner Madame de Mailly had adopted the coun- satisfactory to her pride and her ambition, sels and the resediments of her friend the and to reign absolutely. The difficulty Princesse de Charolais, who herself had of Richelieu was to get the King, indohad too intimate an acquaintance with lent, shy, and apprehensive of all effortthe unprincipled nature of the heartless a King accustomed to be served in love libertine.

as in all else--to speak the language of The Duke consequently determined to devotion, and to give himself the trouble give his sovereign a new mistress who to please a high spirited woman with all should owe everything to himself, and be the caprice of beauty,and who determined more capable of exercising political in- to uphold her dignity even as mistress. fluence over the King. He took Mad- Her first condition was the dismissal of ame de Tencin, an ancient favorite of the Madame de Mailly. The anguish, the Regent, into his confidence, and the two tears, the supplications of her sister together discussed the whole range of availed nothing, and she succeeded in her Cuart beauties, weighed the character purpose with stipulations of inflexible seand docility of each, and calculated the verity. After this she consented to reprobable duration of her reign. Their ceive a first declaration in her apartment choice, after much besitation, fixed itself of lady-in-waiting to the Queen at Verupon another Nesle, the youngest of all sailles at dead of night; the King and the sisters of Madame de Mailly, superior Richelieu betook themselves to the rento all the rest in beauty, possessing an dezvous disguised in the large peruques abundant portion of the family brilliance, of doctors of the time. The King came with intelligence and ambition, and pre- away from the interview more impassionpared by the unselfishness of her heart ed than before, and the reign of Madame and the unscrupulousness of her con- de la Tournelle, soon after created Duchscience to make a pitiless use of her ad- ess of Châteauroux, commenced. Mavantages.

dame de Mailly, even after her departThe name of the lady was Madame de ure trom Versailles, made one more effort la Tournelle, now better known in his- to recover her position. She asked and tory as the Duchess of Châteauroux. obtained a last interview with the monHer charms had already made a great arch she had loved ; and the courtiers impression on the King, who had seen saw the discarded mistress come from the her on a visit to the Duc d'Antin, and royal closet with heaving bosom, with exclaimed, “ Mon Dieu ! que'lle est belle !" eyes full of tears, and in a state of desolaHer beanty was of a different character tion which made her insensible to all from that of her sisters. Hier skin was about her. Behind her came the King, of a dazzling whiteness, and her large affecting a few parting words of heartless blue eyes bad a magic and fascinating consolation, and speaking the last words brilliance; her form was not spare but she was destined to hear from him ; the graceful, and ber lips fine and full ; her cruel dissimulation which was so characsmile was bright at once with infantile teristic of his nature never found a more freshness and coquettish malice, while striking utterance- A tundi, à Choisy, hier bearing had all the lightness, and her madame la comtesse

á Lundi manners all the dash, which distinguished j'espère que vous ne me ferez pas altendre,'


At Choisy, on Monday, the 'unhappy of gay, polished and dissoluto bons vivwoman knew the sister who sapplanted eurs, - whilst every morning after rising her was to take possession of the doubt- he made what was called la ronde du Roi, ful honors of reigning mistress.

passing from room to room and stopping But the arts of coquetry and indiffer- by the side of the laced pillows of the ence of Madame de la Tournelle were not sleepers to awaken the ladies in waiting yet exhausted. Before she yielded she on his mistress. irritated the King's passion almost to fu- The reign of Madame de Châteauroux ry. She had many enemies in the palace, was brilliant, short, eventful, and tragic. the chief of whom, Maurepas, used every It began in December, 1742, and lasted intrigue to oppose the rise of the new precisely two years. The new mistress, favorite-a favorite with whom he saw described by Madame de Tencin as “haute he should have to reckon as with a new comme les monts," had that loftiness of napower. With consummate skill, and with ture which sometimes appears striking the aid of Richelieu as prime minister, even in the ruins of all moral principle. who was called the president of Madame She united the pride and passion of a de la Tournelle, she triumphed over all Montespan to the energy and ambition her opponents, and exacted for the jour- of a Longueville. The salons of Verney to the King's new châtcau of Choisy, sailles were too limited a theatre for her in the vicinity of Marly, an unprece- energies, and she burned with the desire dented display of the power of a mistress.of becoming the Agnes Sorel of the inShe stipulated that her retinue should dolent monarch and making her position consist of the most noble names of France. pardonable in the eyes of patriotism; all One princess of the blood royal, Madem- the King's advisers who were distinoiselle de la Roche sur Yon, formed part guished by any energy of private or patin ber train, and the presence of the vir- riotic ambition found a ready listener in tuous Duchess de Luynes was requested Madame de Châteauroux. by Louis in person of the Duke de Luy- After allowing the King to revel for nes. The Duke made a profound inclina- a wbile in his new passion, and after havtion, but immediately after addressed ing obtained her duchy and taken her tahimself to one of the gentlemen of the bouret before the Queen, the lady entered chamber and begged him to ask the King with ardor into her political part. With to accept his regrets and bis excuses. the apathetic King politics had hitherto

With this liaison a new life cominenc- been a game of cup and ball which he ed for Louis XV. He now defied pube played in the presence of his ministers. licity and gave loose to his appetites and To talk reason to bim, it was sai l, was his senses with all the freshvess to be to talk to a stone, and the influence of an looked for in a young man suddenly lib- energetic mistress might perhaps arouse erated from the rule of a ministerial ped. the monarch from his torpor. Madame

' a agogue. Indifferent to France, her vic- de Châteauroux began to attack the feetories and her defeats, he hunted and ble nature of the King, to endeavor to drank and feasted as though that were rouse him to some sense of duty, and to the real business of his life, and his roy- overwhelm him with suggestions about alty were a mere pageant. The arrival his ministers, about bis Parliament, about of a trout from the lake of Geneva, or a the war, about its bad management, and loose bit of' scandal from the Duke of the condition of the people and the counRichelieu, drove out of his head all care try. She spoke to him of the hamiliafor the provinces or the army, and he tions of France, of the disaster of Prague, was wholly absorbed in his new passion of the ill success of Bavaria, of generals and in voluptuous delights, when his sol- without genius, of soldiers without condiers were making the disastrous retreat fidence, of Franc from Prague, and sinking with frost and tiers threatenemire, loe isolated and her fronhunger on the route. Thousands were ly. ed upon him ise im. One measure she nurga ing as corpses beneath the snows of Ger- at the hear many, whilst he was living in his little science on than i of his armies. The con

of a length


lowed before all-to put himself charming and unscrupulous women, and rious vacy ; the the faináint king writhed at when brought to bay by a crowd of ar- the broth of the sick and the bread of guments and persecated with the display the soldiers. He was busy and observof her great conceptions. Tant mieux,

beneath the grasp of the impewomai." Vous me tues," he cried,

Tant mieux, ant; wherever his presence was needed şire," the mistress replied, il faut qu'un there he was found. He was accessible roi ressuscite."

to officers of all rank. People repeated Other court intrigues contributed at his reply to the Dutch ambassador, Je the same time to favor the views of Mad- vous ferai réponse en Flandre.Confidence ame Châteauroux. Maurepas the chan- was restored in the army, in the counsonnier, the light frivolous minister whose try. Men said to each other, “ Now we name is associated with the disgrace of have a King again,” and repeated, “ Et one and the disasters of two reigns, the surtout il n'est pas question de feinmes.” SudMaréchal de Noailles, Richelieu, as well denly, however, the popular enthusiasm as all the courtiers who worshipped the fell fifty degrees; the common soldiers star of the mistress, endeavored to get the grioned about the tent of the King, King to take the field. Pure patriotism whence two splendid ladies in patches had little to do with any of their per- and rouge and magnificent attire were suasions. Maurepas reckoned upon get- often seen to emerge to their carriage ; ting the King to determinė to join the ladies to whom very rough opprobrious army throagh the influence of the favor- names were given, and concerning whom ite, and by a fine touch of subtlety trust- scornful and satirical chansons were baned also subsequently to persuade the King died about the camp. A murmur of innot to take his mistress with him ; he dignation ran through France; the hopes then hoped, since he himself would ne- of the nation were deceived. cessarily accompany bis sovereign, to dis- Madame de Châteauroux had rejoined engage him from any influence but his the King at Lille. With her came also 040. The Maréchale de Noailles, the Madame Laraguais and a bevy of court old Duchess-now ninety-nine years of ladies. The two sisters followed in the age, the mother of eleven daughters and King's wake without any concealment, ten sons, with more than a hundred liv- while the grand marechal des logis preceing descendants—she whom the courtiers ded them, to prepare the communication called the mother of the ten tribes of Is- between the King's lodgings and those rael, all anxiously looking to the Duch- of his mistresses. Then ensued the most ess and the King's favor to provide them striking incident of the latter days of with a new land of promise; she with royalty in France, when the sudden and all the tribe of the Noailles, in fact, were nearly fatal illness of the King at Metz, calculating ou the good things to be got aroused for the last time the deep-seated if the King could be carried off to the affection of the nation for its Sovereign, camp of the Marshal, where the latter one final expression of loyalty on the eve would have uncontrolled supervision of of eternal separation. After a night of the despatch-boxes from Paris. Thus the debauchery on the 3 of August, 1744, Knig was, after long preparation, wound Louis was laid prostrate with a putrid up to the pitch of resolve, and determin- fever. From the 4th to the 12th the ed to join the army. Maurepas insinu- King got rapidly worse. Madame de ated at the last moment that if Louis XV. Châteauroux and her confidant Richelieu would really play a kingly part, and gain took possession of the royal chamber, and the affection of his people, he must make with the aid of Madame de Laraguais, one more sacrifice, and leave his mistress. the aides-de camp and domestics attached es at home. On this question there en- to the favorite's interest, closed the door sued a subtle game of intrigue, but in against their enemies. For at not many. the end the Maurepas triumphed; the feet from the bed where the King was tears of the favorite were vain, and the lying in a desperate condition, the princes King departed alone on the 2d of May, of the blood, the great officers of the 1744.

Crown, all the dignitaries who yet reThe King reached the army, and all spected the honor of the Crown and of France burst out into hymns of praise the Church, Bouillon, La Rochefoucauld, The King bad visited the fortresses, Villeroy, Fitz-james, the Bishop of Soisthe stores at the hospitals; he had tasted sons, the Jesuit Father Pérusseau, the

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confessor of the King, collected together on the 15th, the King was given over in the antechamber, scanning eagerly the by his doctors, but an empiric stept in, countenances of the King's attendants gave him an enormous dose of emetic, as they passed to and fro between the and he was saved. The public joy knew folding-doors of his bedroom. All these no bounds, people embraced in the streets felt a pious horror at the bare possibility with tears and cries of joy ; not a guild of a King of France dying without con- of artisans but sang the “ Te Deum ;” and fession and the last consolations of reli- the news spread with electric speed gion. For the inexorable Bishop of Sois- throughout France. The title of Louis sons, the chief almoner of the King, and le Bien-aimé was awarded him by univerthe Father Pérusseau, would listen to no sal acclamation; the gratitude of the terms of compromise; they demanded people was given him, in fact, not for the dismissal of the concubive before con- having done anything, but for not dying; fession should be accepted and the sac- and the King himself, amid the triumrament administered. Every art' was phal reception which was prepared for used to dupe the Court and to deceive him on his return, exclaimed, What have the King as to the danger of his condi- I done to be so loved ?" But with retion; but all was vain ; the terrors of the turning health the passion for Madame King were aroused, he fancied in his de- de Châteauroux returned also ; and one liriuin that he already felt the torments November night he slipt quietly out of of eternity. On recovering from a faint- the Tuileries and presented himself withing state be called aloud for his broth out warning at the house of his mistress and his confessor ; the Châteauroux, with in the Rue du Bac. The favorite was so a hopeless air, gave way to the ecclesi- confounded at this sudden apparition that astics; in a few seconds the folding at the first interview she made nothing doors were thrown open, and the Bishop but incoherent speeches ; on the next day, cried steroly to the two sisters : " Le roi however, all her haughtiness returned, vous ordonne, mesdames, de vous retirer de and her injured pride made exorbitant dechez lui sur le champ,” and the pair quitted mands before she would consent to return Metz amid the imprecations of crowds to Versailles. Nothing would satisfy her who beheld in them but examples of but the disgrace and exile of all wbo had adultery and incest, and knew not that conspired to drive her away from Metz. the shortlived energy he had displayed The Bishop of Soissons, his confessor, was due to the mistress—the very object the Dukes de Bouillon and La Rochefouof their execrations.

cauld, all were exiled. Maurepas alone Very many descriptions have been was allowed to remain at the King's earnmade of the prophetic frenzy into which est prayer, and at the price of the most the news of the King's illness threw the abject humiliation. The minister was whole population of Paris. “Now," they himself to bear to the injured favorite a said, “now that he was about to become letter of apology and her own recall. a great King, he will be taken from us.” Maurepas, whom the Châteauroux France recalled like a mother her once ways styled the "faquine',"yielded. He passionate love and devotion for the presented himself with his missive in the bright-faced boy with the golden hair. Rue du Bac, he received no salutation, After they had heard that the Queen had and when he attempted to kiss the misleft Versailles to go to the bedside of her tress's band, received but the words, dying husband, “ For many days,” says Donnez ... allez-vous en .!” But the Voltaire, “Paris took no heed of the ap- indignation and emotions of the last two pointed times for sleep, for waking, or months, the frenzy of triumph, had fa

, for taking food.” The couriers, as they tally agitated the violent nature of the arrived, were beset by crowds eager for imperious woman, an inflammatory feintelligence; the churches were besieged ver raged throngh her whole system, day and night by the populace praying and after eleven days of transports, confor the King's recovery as for the last vulsions, and delirium ; after having been grace of Heaven. The poor gave to the bled eleven times in vain in the feet and poor money to make their offerings at the hand, she died on the 1st of Decemthe altar, saying, Priez Dieu pour le roi." ber at the age of twenty-seven years, in


the arms of her sister and discarded ri- lute permanent existence? Is the skepval Madame de Mailly, who forgave ev- tical maxim of Horne Tooke really suffierything. Two days afterwards she was cient explanation of everything-Truth

" buried at Saint Sulpice with a guard un- is that which one troweth ?” It would der arms, to save her body from the in- be futile to endeavor to solve a prosults of the populace. *

blem, which certainly dates from the days of Pontius Pilate, within the limits of a magazine article ; nor would it be less unprofitable to attempt, within a few

pages, definitely to settle what the preTemple Bar.

cise function of modern criticism is or

ought to be. An Utopian ideal may be CLIQUES AND CRITICISM.

agreeable enough as an abstract speculaIt is not very long since a bewildered tion ; but Utopian ideals, unfortunately, correspondent addressed one of the daily are quite as apt to elude the rough materinewspapers, in a piteous strain of inqui- al grasp, as the phantom of Creusa to ry, as to bow it should be that the most escape from the abortive embrace of the opposite critical verdicts imaginable were pious Æneas. Mr. Lowe has obligingly 80 often pronounced, over the same lite- taught us the value-though, by the by, rary production, by the various Aristar- he happens to have violated his precept chi of journalism. How should it hap- at every step-of arguing and of drawpen that Brown's novel should be affirm- ing conclusions from the facts of experied to be all that a novel ought to be in ence, instead of starting from the ignisone quarter, and all that a novel ought fatuus of à priori abstractions. Criticism, not to be in another ? Were there ab- like most other human institutions, can solutely no fixed canons of criticism be best discerned by the light of experiwhatever? Was there no such thing as ence, and that is the only luminary of a defioite invariable standard of art ? which use will be made here. As for Was the law of artistic excellence sub- ungrateful skeptics who declare that critject to the same fluctation as that of the icism never did and never can do any sopbistic morality? And was it, after good—who boldly and thanklessly allege all, the case that merit was a merely re- that public opinion is the only valid trilative term, and that each newly-made, bunal by which to judge of the artist's self-created critic was, in fact, the stand- claims-no attempt need be made, bere ard of all things to himself? Such were to discuss these very objectionable perthe questions propounded in despairing sons. Practically, the great value which accents by the mazed gentleman who ap- the general reader can derive from the pealed, as a last resource, to that modern critical pen is an escape from the necesDelphic oracle,. the daily press. And sity of wading through a great deal of such, doubtless, have been the queries trash, without any solid beneficial results. which many a puzzled student of the re- Viewed in this light the critic is much what views inpumerable of ephemeral litera- a wine-taster to the public at large might ture has again and again propounded to be. It would be the business of this fichimself. Is it still the old story of the titious functionary to cultivate a palate Heraclitean flux-is everything in a state of exquisite nicety, to see that his patrons of decay-is there no such thing as abso- were not imposed upon, and generally to

save them the annoyance of sipping so * Madame de Mailly passed the last years of her many vintages, as well as the possible life in practices of an exemplary penitencem contingency of a headache. Not less spending all her time and money on the poor. She visited the prisons and the sick, and publicly

ought it to be the aim of the artistic exwashed the feet of the poor; she reserved for her

aminer and professional connoisseur to self searcely enough for her own necessities. She see that the wares which he recommends died in 1751, with hair-cloth next her person. On to the special patronage of a public which one occasion, as she entered the church of Saint

has neither time nor inclination to do the Paul, and some person gave way to her, a bystander said, Toila bien de train pour une fem

dirty work of indiscriminate tasting for me perdue!" She replied, “ Puisque vous la con- itself, are the best of their kind. South raissez, priez Dieu pour ell."

African, if we may judge from the benevNEW SERIES_Vol. VI., No. 2.


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