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ber of the Methodist Episcopal Church and of the P. O. S. of A. Politically he is a Republican.

HICKORY TOWNSHIP.

CHARLES ALBAUGH, farmer, P. O. East Hickory, was born in Alle gany county, N. Y., October 15, 1830, and is a son of John P. and Margaret S. (Schenck) Albaugh, who in 1853 settled in Hickory township, where they lived and died. Charles Albaugh cleared and improved the farm he now occupies, on which he has built over 250 rods of stone fence. He was in the war of the Rebellion, enlisting October 14, 1861, in Company H, Fourth Pennsylvania Cavalry; was wounded at White Oak Swamp's, Va., and after three years and eight months' service was honorably discharged. He married, December 1, 1853, Sarah, daughter of Joseph and Martha (Demars) Henderson, of Venango county, Penn.,' and they have six children living: John W., Joseph H., Edward, Alfred, Curtis and Nancy J. Mr. and Mrs. Albaugh are members of the Evangelical Church. Politically he is a Republican.

WILLIAM ALBAUGH, farmer, P. O. East Hickory, was born in Jackson township, Venango Co., Penn., January 13, 1837, and is a son of John P. and Margaret S. (Schenck) Albaugh, who settled in Hickory township in 1853. William was reared in his native township until he was sixteen years of age, and was engaged in various occupations until 1879, when he settled on the farm he now occupies, which he cleared and improved. He was in the Civil war, enlisting in August, 1861, in Company G, Eighty-third Pennsylvania Volunteers. He participated in all the engagements of the regiment, except Fredericksburg, and was honorably discharged after three years' service. Mr. Albaugh married Catherine Rhodes. He is a member of the G. A. R., and in politics is a Republican.

JONATHAN ALBAUGH, farmer, P. 0. West Hickory, was born in Jackson township, Venango Co., Penn., April 22, 1844, and is a son of John P. and Margaret S. (Schenck) Albaugh, who settled in Hickory township in 1853 on the farm now occupied by their son Jonathan, a part of which they cleared, and where they lived until their death. Their children were Elias, Charles, Jonathan, James, William and Mary. Jonathan Albaugh was reared in Jackson township, and was nine years of age when he removed with his parents to Hickory township. He has always followed farming, and occupies the old homestead of seventy acres, a good share of which he cleared and improved. He was in the Civil war, enlisting August 11, 1862, in Company G, Eightythird Pennsylvania Volunteers; was wounded at the battle of Chancellorsville. and was honorably discharged from the service July 12, 1865. He was twice married, his first wife being Elizabeth, daughter of Conrad Remsneider. of Lickingville, Clarion Co., Penn., and by her had three children: Susan (deceased), Flora A., and Martha E. (deceased). His second wife was Sarah, daughter of John and Lorinda (Green) Rhodes, of Forest county, by whom he has two children: Nettie M. and Lydia J. Mr. Albaugh is a member of the Evangelical Church, and of the G. A. R.; in politics he is a Republican.

NELSON G. BALL, farmer, P. O. Pit Hole City, Venango Co., Penn., was born in what is now Hickory township, Forest Co., Penn., April 28, 1832. and is a son of Isaac and Sally (Manross) Ball, natives of Vermont, and among the pioneers of what is now Forest county, locating first in what is now Harmony township. Here the father conducted a saw-mill for a time, which was erected by George Siggins, but afterward came to Hickory township, and here engaged in lumbering. In 1832 he located in Balltown, built a saw-mill and commenced lumbering. Here he resided ten years, and then returned to Hickory township, where he erected a saw- and grist-mill, which he conducted until his death. He had ten children: Fidelia (Mrs. John Gilson), Harriet (Mrs. Robert Hiner), Clinton, Isaac, Sally (Mrs. James Y. Siggins), Lavina (Mrs. Clark Bean), David, Nelson G., Julia (Mrs. William Richardson) and William. Nelson G. Ball was reared in Forest county, and conducted a grist-mill at East Hickory for twenty-three years; he then engaged in farming, and resided in Hickory township until 1885, when he removed to Columbus township, Warren county, and there remained until the spring of 1886, when he removed to Allegheny township, Venango Co., Penn., where he now resides. His wife, nee Martha Hunter, daughter of William and Sally (Range) Hunter, is a granddaughter of Poland Hunter, a pioneer of Forest county. Mr. and Mrs. Ball have had seven children: J. Wesley, Homer, Austin (deceased), Sally (Mrs. J. Gorman), Jennie (Mrs. Jacob Zahniser), William and Rilla. Mr. Ball is a member of the Free Methodist Church. Politically he is an advocate of prohibition.

T. J. BOWMAN, merchant and lumberman, East Hickory, was born at Beaver Furnace, Clarion Co., Penn., March 27, 1840, and is a son of David and Ellen (Robertson) Bowman, natives of Scotland. His father in early life followed agricultural pursuits, and cleared a farm near Tylersburg, Penn., in which town he was for twenty years engaged in the lumber and mercantile businesses. He died there, in 1888, in his seventy-third year; his widow is still living, enjoying good health. Their children were Thomas J., John (who died of wounds received at Fair Oaks in the Civil war), Martin (who died of disease contracted in the army, and never returned home), Adam (deceased), Robert (deceased), Margaret Jane (deceased), James C., William, Edward, Charles, Frank and Jane (Mrs. Ault, residing at Leeper, Penn.). T. J. Bowman was reared in Farmington, Clarion county, and located in East Hickory in 1862, where he eugaged in boat building and lumbering, continuing in the latter business to the present time. He embarked in mercantile business in 1872, and for eighteen years was postmaster at East Hickory. In 1887, in company with H. W. Ledebur, he built a large grist-mill at East Hickory (a much-needed institution at that place), having a capacity for grinding twenty tons of feed and two tons of flour per day. Mr. Bowman was married, in December, 1868, to Nancy, daughter of James and Molly (Brown) Green, of East Hickory, and they have four children: Lester D., Leona, Glenna F. and Ellen. Mr. Bowman is a representative citizen and business man. In politics he is a Democrat.

IRA CHURCH, farmer, P. 0. East Hickory, was born in Genesee county, N. Y., March 31. 1818, and is a son of John and Laura (Corss) Church, who settled in what is now Harmony township, this county, in 1820. The father was a farmer, and for a time operated a still-house; later he removed to New York State, where he died in 1835. Ira Church was reared in what is now Forest county, and in 1842 settled at Church Hill, Hickory township, where he cleared and improved the farm now owned by the Little Hickory Oil Company. With the exception of a three years' residence in Iowa, he has lived in Hickory township ever since, and has occupied his present farm since 1870. He married twice, his first wife being Philema, daughter of Luther and Polly (Copeland) Barnes, of Harmony township, by whom he has eight children living: Charlotte (Mrs. John H. Wentworth). Mary (Mrs. Jacob Shaffer), Laura (Mrs. John Range), Sarah (Mrs. William Foreman), Lucetta (Mrs. Joshua Hall), Luther H., James L. and John C. His second wife was Matilda, daughter of Samuel Dempsey, of Hickory township, and by her he has one son, Samuel. Mr. Church is a prominent farmer, a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church, and in politics is an independent Republican.

LUTHER H. CHURCH, farmer, P. 0. East Hickory, was born in Hickory township, Forest Co., Penn., April 13, 1850, and is a son of Ira and Phileina 'Barnes) Church. He was reared in Hickory township, received a common-school education, and after attaining his majority worked in the Venango oil region for twelve years. Returning to Hickory township in 1888. he engaged in farming, and since October, 1889. he has again been working in the Venango county oil regions. In November, 1870, he married Sarah M., daughter of Perkins and Sarah (Bargain) Lovell, of Venango county. Mr. Church is a popular citizen and an enterprising farmer. He is a member of the I. O. O. F., and in politics is a Republican. He and his wife attend the services of the Methodist Episcopal Church.

JAMES M. CHURCH, farmer, P. 0. East Hickory, was born in Hickory township, Forest Co., Penn., December 7, 1855, and is a son of Ira and Philema (Barnes) Church, who settled in Hickory township in 1842. He was reared and educated in his native township, where, with the exception of three years he lived in Iowa, he has always resided. In 1880 he married Priscilla, daughter of George W. and Elizabeth Bell, of Armstrong county, Penn. Mrs. Church is a member of the Free Methodist Church. Mr. Church is a popular young farmer, and has lived on the farm he now occupies since 1881. Iu politics he is a Republican, and has held the office of collector and assessor of his township two years.

JOHN C. CHURCH, farmer, P. O. East Hickory, was born in Hickory township, Forest Co., Penn., November 28, 1861, and is a son of Ira and Philena (Barnes) Church, who settled in Hickory township in 1842. John C. Church was reared in his native township, and received a common-school education. In 1884 he located on the farm he how occupies, a part of which he cleared, making all the improvements in buildings, etc. He married. December 25, 1883, Lizzie, a daughter of Joseph and Christenia (Knicely) Brewster, of Farmington, Clarion Co., Penn., and has one daughter, -Sylvia P. Mr. Church is an enterprising farmer and citizen, and in politics is independent.

JUDSON CLARK, farmer, P. 0. East Hickory, was born in Steuben county, N. Y., August 5, 1837, and is a son of Daniel and Lydia (Wellman) Clark, natives of Vermont, and pioneers of Steuben county, N. Y. Judson Clark was reared in his native county, and,after attaining his majority, worked in the lumber woods on Sinnemahoning Creek, now in Cameron county, for four years. In the fall of 1865 he came to Hickory township, and followed teaming four years. In 1869 he engaged in farming and has occupied his present farm since 1880. He married, in 1872, Fayette, daughter of Abram Bean, of Hickory township, and they have three children: Nellie, Florence and Orion. Mr. Clark is a representative and enterprising farmer. Politically he is a Democrat.

PARCUS COPELAND, farmer, P. 0. East Hickory, was born in what is now Harmony township, Forest Co., Penn., April 10, 1837, and is a son of Ira and Lydia (Thompson) Copeland, natives of Vermont and New York, respectively. The paternal grandparents of Parous Copeland were among the pioneers of Harmony township, and Ira Copeland cleared and improved the farm taken up by his father, and lived and died there. He reared a family of ten children, named as follows: Mandana (Mrs. Alden Handy), Sarah A. (Mrs. Azro Copeland). Ora (Mrs. Peter Herring), Rhoda (Mrs. Philip Stitz), Clarissa (Mrs. David Metcalf), Eliza, Julia (Mrs. Wes. Hayes), Parcus, David and Rufus. Parcus Copeland was reared in Harmony township, and in 1855 settled in Hickory township, where he cleared and improved the farm he now occupies, and has since resided. He was in the Civil war, enlisting November 18, 1861, in Company H, Fourth Pennsylvania Cavalry; was wounded at Travillion Station, taken prisoner at Ashby Gap, and spent one month in Libby prison, when he was paroled; six months later he was exchanged, and joined his regiment at City Point, Va., and was honorably discharged after three years' service. In 1855 he married Lucinda, daughter of Moses and Laura (Barnes) Walters, of Hickory township, and to them have been born eight children, of whom six are living: Lydia M. (Mrs. P. C. Hill), Milda (Mrs. Joseph Schwab), George S., Della, Lizzie and Moses. Mr. Copeland is a member of the G. A. R., and in politics is a Democrat.

JAMES HENDERSON, merchant, farmer and lumberman, East Hickory, was born in Venango county, Penn., in April, 1835, and is a son of Joseph and Martha (Dumas) Henderson, natives of Pennsylvania, and pioneers of Venango county. James Henderson was reared in his native county, where he received a limited common-school education, and in 1852 located in East Hickory, where he worked in a furnace for a time. At the beginning of the oil excitement he went to Oil City and boated oil down Oil creek until 1865, when he returned to Hickory, and settled on the farm where he now resides, and has since been engaged in farming and lumbering; he also embarked in the mercantile business, at East Hickory, in 1888. In 1866 Mr. Henderson married Nancy L., daughter of Hicks and Susan (Myers) Prather, of Hickory, who were among the pioneers of the township, and cleared and improved the farm now occupied by Mr. Henderson. To Mr. and Mrs. Henderson have been born six children: Almira (Mrs. George Meager), Louisa (Mrs. Walter P. Crouch), Frank, Nellie, John and James. Mr. Henderson is a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church; has served one term as commissioner of Forest county, and in politics is an advocate of prohibition.

CHARLES A. HILL, farmer, P. 0. Tionesta, was born in Chenango county, N. Y., 4ugust 27, 1831, and is a son of Frederick and Eliza (Shaw) Hill, who settled in Warren county, Penn., in 1848. Mr. Hill was reared and educated in his native State, and located in Hickory township, this county, in 1849, where he worked in the woods for two years. In 1851 he embarked in the lumber business, and also engaged in farming; with the exception of seven years he lived in Wisconsin, he has made his home in Hickory township since 1849. He was in the Civil war, enlisting August 11, 1862, in Company G, Eighty-third Pennsylvania Regiment, and participated in the battles of Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville and the Wilderness (being wounded in the latter engagement), and was honorably discharged on account of wounds, after two and one-half years' service. He married, in 1848, Mary, J., daughter of William and Nancy (Gates) Wolcott, of Hickory township, Forest Co., Penn., and they have seven children: Nancy J. (Mrs. Peter Lindal), Ida (Mrs. James Butler), Perry C., Truman L., Arnold W., Nettie M. and Minnie J. Mr. Hill is a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church of Tionesta, the A. O. U. W., P. O. S. of A. aud G. A. R. He has held several of the local offices in Hickory township, and has served one term as associate judge of Forest county. Politically he is a Republican, and a strong advocate of temperance.

fl. W. LEDEBUR, miller, East Hickory, was born in Hanover, Germany, September 1, 1838, and is a son of Conrad and Mary (Hawkes) Ledebur, former ofwhom came to America in 1841, and located in Pittsburgh, Penn., removing his family there in 1844. There the subject of these lines was reared from six years of age, and was educated in the public schools and Duff's Commercial College. He first came to Forest county in 1859, and located in Green township, where his father and several others had purchased 1,000 acres of land on German hill, which they divided up into 100-acre tracts, on which they placed settlers from Pittsburgh of German birth. Mr. Ledebur remained here two years, and on the breaking out of the Civil war, enlisted, in April, 1861. in Company G, Ninth Pennsylvania Reserves. He served three years and two months, when he was honorably discharged, after participating in the battles of the Potomac and Shenandoah Valley, including two battles of Fredericksburg, Bull Run, Antietam, Chancellorsville, Gettysburg and the Wilderness. In 1864 he returned to Forest county, and engaged in jobbing and cutting lumber in Kingsley township for seven years; then located in Nebraska, Green township, where he conducted a grist-mill for thirteen years; then removed to his farm in Green township, where he remained two years, coming to East Hickory in 1886. In 1887, in company with T. J. Bowman, he built the large grist-mill at East Hickory, which he has since conducted. Mr. Ledebur married, February 9,1866, Sophia, daughter of William Thase, of Green township, by whom he had eight children: Amos F., Emma, Mary, Richard, Bennie (deceased), Ida, Arthur and Wilbur. Mr. Ledebur is a member of the Evangelical Lutheran Church, of the I. O. O. F., A. O. U. W. and G. A. R. He served as justice of the peace of Green township two terms, and county commissioner also two terms. In politics he is a Republican.

CALEB R. MIDDLETON, farmer, P. O. East Hickory, was born in Limestone, Warren Co., Penn., March 18, 1830, and is a son of James and Susannah (Richardson) Middleton. His father was a native of Westmoreland county, Penn., and a son of William Middleton, a pioneer of what is now Tionesta, Forest county, locating on what is now known as the Jamison farm, where he resided until his death; he had three children: John, James and Mary (Mrs. Thomas Arters). The maternal grandfather of the subject of this sketch was Caleb Richardson, a native of Maine, a pioneer of Harmony township, this county, and later of Hickory, locating on the farm now occupied by Mr. Middleton, a part of which he cleared and improved, and where he died. James Middleton was reared in what is now Forest county, and in early manhood he located in Limestone, Warren Co., Penn., where he cleared and improved a farm, lumbered to some extent, and in later life removed to Deerfield, where he died. He had seven children: William A., Caleb R., Mary Jane, Cyrus J., John M., Mehitable E. and Hannah C. (Mrs. Oscar J. Williams). Caleb R. Middleton was reared in Limestone township, Warren Co., Penn., and after the close of the war of the Rebellion he located in Tidioute in mercantile business till 1867, when he came to Hickory township, and settled on the old homestead of his maternal grandfather, where he has since resided. He has filled several of the local offices in the township, is a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church, and in politics he has been a Republican since the organization of the party.

HOWARD WEBER, physician and surgeon, East Hickory, was bora in Venango county, Penn., October 28, 1862. He is a son of George K. and Elizabeth Weber, both of German descent, who, about the year 1850, moved from Centre county, Penn., to Dempseytown, same State, where they reared a family of ten children—nine sons and one daughter—and by perseverance and economy accumulated a snug little fortune. They are still living in comfort at Dempseytown. Dr. Weber's brothers, yet living, are as follows: James Buchanan and Charles Henry, in Greeley, Colo.; Edgar H, in the State of Washington; Judson M. and Norton, in Dempseytown, Penn. The deceased brothers are Newton, Emerson and Duff; the sister, Pira Weber, is also deceased. Howard Weber, the subject of these lines, was educated at Allegheny College, Mead

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