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the next two years spent much of his time in traveling in Mexico and on the Pacific coast. In 1883 he succeeded to the law practice of his brother, J. K. P. Hall, Esq., of St. Mary's, and rapidly worked his way to the front rank in his profession. He was married in 1886, at Louisville, Ky., to Miss Currin McNairy, a daughter of the late Col. Currin McNairy. of Nashville, Tenn. Mr. Hallis a fine linguist and a polished orator. He is of wide reading and broad culture, and is a frequent contributor to the current magazines and reviews. He is political editor of the Elk County Gazette, and was, in 1885, elected chief burgess of St. Mary's, which office he has held for five successive terms. His administration has been marked by the introduction of gas and water into the borough, of both of which improvements he has been an active promoter. He is prominent in political circles in the State, and in 1884 was secretary of the Democratic State Convention at Allentown, and a delegate to the National Democratic Convention at Chicago.

JOSEPH A. HANHAUSER, merchant, St. Mary's, was born in Philadelphia, Penn.. in April, 1846, and is a son of Anthony and Mary (Vollmer) Barr hauser. natives of Germany, who came to St. Mary's in the fall of 1847. Here the father engaged in the hotel business, and erected the Franklin House, which he conducted several years. In the meantime he had purchased several tracts of land in the township, and on retiring from the hotel business, he located on a farm one and a half miles east of the borough. This he cleared and improved, and resided upon for about ten years, when he returned to St. Mary's, and erected a store and dwelling north of the Franklin House. He died in 1867, at the age of seventy-four years, the father of three children: Joseph A., Louis F. and Mary E. (Mrs. J. M. Mecum). The subject of these lines was reared and educated in St. Mary's, and began life as a clerk in a general store. In 1878 he became a member of the firm of Hall, Kaul & Co., general merchants, with whom he has since been associated, being general manager of the store. In February, 1871, Mr. Hanhauser married Mary, daughter of Joseph and Crescence (Ritter) Wilhelm, of St. Mary's, and to this union five children have been born: Louis F., George, Frederick, Crescence and Clara. Mr. Hanhauser and family are members of the Catholic Church. Politically he is a Democrat; has served as a member of the Democratic committee of Elk county, and has held the office of councilman of St. Mary's.

WILLIAM B. HARTMAN, M. D., St. Mary's, was born in Williams port, Penn., September 14, 1833, and is a son of Henry and Julia (Gehrhart) Hartman. His paternal grandfather, Jacob Hartman, who was a native of Germany, became an early settler of York county, Penn., and was a soldier in the Revolutionary war. Henry Hartman, father of Dr. Hartman, a carpenter by trade, and a native of York county, Penn., was a soldier in the war of 1812, and a pioneer of Williamsport, Penn., where he died at the age of eighty-nine years. The subject of this sketch was reared in Williamsport, educated in the public schools and Dickinson Seminary, of that place, and at Wyoming Seminary, Kingston, Penn., where he graduated in 1852. In 1853 he began the study of medicine with Dr. Samuel Pollock, of Williamsport; entered Pennsylvania Medical College, Philadelphia, in 1854, and was graduated from there in 1856. The Doctor began the practice of his profession in June, same year, at Quincy, Ill. , where he remained until 1857, when he located at Linden, Lycoming Co., Penn. Here he was in practice up to the fall of 1861, when he was appointed by Gov. A. G Curtin assistant-surgeon of the One Hundred and Sixteenth P. V. I., in which capacity he served until July 4, 1862, when he was promoted to the rank of surgeon of the same volunteers, a position he held until the close of the war. In August, 1865, he located in St. Mary's, and was in active practice until 1875, in which year he went to Cattaraugus county, N. Y., where he remained two years. He then returned to St. Mary's, where he now enjoys a large and lucrative business. Dr. Hart man was twice married—first to Helen S., daughter of George R. Crooks, of Carlisle, Penn., and by her he had six children: Julia (Mrs. S. M. Taylor), Russell H., William, Fannie (Mrs. Mark Jones), Emma (deceased) and John. His second wife was Mrs. Naomi E. (Watts) Rogers, a native of England, and daughter of James Watts, and the issue of this union has been two children: Clifford E. A. and Clarence DeL. Dr. Hartman is a member of the K of P. and G. A. R., of the Pennsylvania State Medical Society, of the Elk County Medical Society and the American Medical Association. He is the oldest regular graduate of medicine practicing in Elk county. Politically he is a Democrat.

WILLIAM A. HARTRANFT, mill boss, St. Mary's, was born in Delaware township, Northumberland Co., Penn., July 9, 1838, a son of Henry C. and Elizabeth (Bugh) Hartranft. He was reared and educated in his native county, learning the carpenter's trade, and in September, 1861, he enlisted in Company D, Seventh P. C., in which he re-enlisted in 1863. At LaVergne, Tenn., Mr. Hartranft was taken prisoner, and after twenty-nine days' confinement (part of the time in Libby prison), he was paroled In June, 1864. being exchanged, he rejoined his regiment at Nashville, Tenn., and in September, 1865, he was honorably discharged at Macon, Ga. After the war, he worked at his trade and other occupations in his native State for a time, and in 1878 located in St. Mary's, where he has since been employed by Hall, Kaul & Co., as foreman of their Summit Mill. In 1866 Mr. Hartranft married Mary A., daughter of Andrew Nye, of Northumberland county, Penn., and by her has had three children: Burton H., Edith (deceased) and George A. Mr. Hartranft is a member of the G. A. R.. and in politics is a Republican.

JOHN B. HEINDL, farmer, P. 0. St. Mary's, was born in Bavaria/ Germany, June 17, 1841, a son of Michael and Ursula (Beibrunner) Heindl, who settled in St. Mary's in September, 1846. The father, who was a carpenter by trade, which he followed most of his life, cleared a small farm on the present site of St. Mary's. He had five children: Lizzie (Mrs. Martin Sorg), Minnie (Mrs. Ed. Blintzler), Wally (Mrs. William Holland), Julia (Mrs. Joseph Fox) and John B. The subject of our sketch was reared in St. Mary's from five years of age. He followed various occupations up to 1876, when he engaged in farming, in which he has since successfully continued. Mr. Heindl married Mary M., daughter of Wendel and Mary J. (Herbstritt) Lion, of St. Mary's and has eleven children: Josephine (Mrs. John J. Weis), Maggie (Mrs. William Robinson), Michael W., Frank, Joseph E., Lizzie, John, Ann, Fred, Clara and Charlie. Mr. Heindl is a member of the Catholic Church. Politically he is a Democrat, and has held various township offices.

FRANK A. JACOB, of the St. Mary's Herald, St. Mary's, was born in that borough May 12, 1863, and is a son of Joseph and Mary (Beck) Jacob, natives of Bavaria, Germany, who immigrated to this country, and became pioneers of St. Mary's. The father was a hatter by trade, which he followed in the borough a couple of years, since when he has worked at the plasterer's trade. He reared a family of five children: Elizabeth (Mrs. Frank A. Erich), Simon (now deceased), John, Joseph and Frank A. The subject of this biographical memoir was reared and educated in St. Mary's, where he learned the printer's trade, and January 23, 1888, became connected with the St. Mary's Herald (a weekly journal), as one of its proprietors, and is now sole owner. Mr. Jacob married, October 6, 1885, Sophia, daughter of Thomas and Mary (Kerner) Ernst, of Benzinger township, Elk Co., Penn., and by her has two children: Francisca and Leonard. He is a member of the German Catholic Church, and secretary of St. Mary's Silver Cornet Band. In politics he is a Democrat.

JOHN SAUL, Sr. (deceased), was born at Elbersberg, Bavaria, June 18, 1814, and received an elementary education in the schools of his native village. He left Bavaria in 1844, with the intention of joining the colonists from his native country at St. Mary's, Penn., and on the 25th of July, same year, arrived at New York City, whence he went to Buffalo, N. Y., via Albany. From Buffalo he came to St. Mary's. He journeyed afoot, arriving at the latter town, September 2, 1844. Purchasing a building lot in the new town, on Michael street, south of Joseph Jacob's residence, he built a log house there. September 4, 1844, his marriage with Kunegunda Brindle was solemnized by one of the Redemptorist Fathers. They resided in the log house for about two years, when he purchased a tract of wild land on the Brussels road. He made the farm his home until the autumn of 1876, when the family moved to Mr. Andrew Kaul's residence, where John Kaul, Sr., died February 26, 1877. His widow, who is still a resident of St. Mary's, was born at Elbersberg, Bavaria, May 8, 1815, and resided there until 1844, when she came with a party of three families to the settlement of St. Mary's. It was understood, however, that on her arrival here, she should become the wife of John Kaul, Sr., in accordance with the betrothal in their native land, and, as related above, she was married to him in the fall of the year they arrived. The children of that marriage were Andrew, of St. Mary's; Joseph,who, born October 27, 1846, died in infancy; Kate,who married Joseph Lanzel in the fall of 1866, was born December 9, 1847; John, now associated in the lumber business with his brother, was born September 13, 1849, and married Sophia Goetz; Kunegunda was born May 15, 1851, and married Charles Kronewetter; Catherine was born March 8, 1853, and married Joseph F. Windfelder; Mary was born February 1, 1855, and married Louis Hanhauser, and Joseph was born April 30, 1858, and married Miss Barbara Bauer.

Andrew Kaul was born July 15, 1845, at St. Mary's, and was educated in the common schools of the village. During his school days he assisted in the work of cultivating the homestead farm, and so continued until 1862, when he entered the employ of John Brooks as woodsman. During the following year he worked for Joseph Lanzel and Peter Kleixner, who were getting out square timber on the Sinnemahoning. In 1864 he and Mr. Lanzel took a contract to supply square timber to Col. Noyes and Simon Cameron, which contract they completed successfully, by delivering their rafts at Marietta, Penn. This partnership was continued, following up the first by a second contract, to cut and peel pine logs for Mr. Bryan of Philadelphia. This necessitated the employment of a number of men, and proved very successful. In 1865 their operations were transferred to West Creek, where they were the pioneers of the woods. Their contract was with Herdick, Lentz & White of Williamsport. The West Creek Manufacturing & Mining Company contracted with them, in 1866, to stock their mills, where Beechwood village now stands. This contract was filled in the spring of 1867, and the partnership with Mr. Lanzel then ended. Mr. Kaul now contracted to stock the above-named mills, employing a force of sixty men, and completed the second contract with the West Creek Company in the spring of 1868, being the most successful, financially, of the contracts up to that date. In 1868 he returned to St. Mary's, and purchased pine lands east of here, from Sebastian Weis, of York, Penn., and from Benzinger & Eschbach and others. During the summer, he built his first mill on the head of Iron run, being the second in the district. This mill he stocked and operated for about eight years, when the building was torn down and the machinery removed. In 1872 he built the Summit Mills, one and a half miles east of St. Mary's, which are still in existence. In 1873 he bought from John Brooks the Sterling Run Mills, also a large tract of timber, in which purchase George Walker, Joseph Lanzel, Charles Kronewetter and the Konley Brothers were interested, the company taking the title of Kaul, Walker & Co. They operated the mill for five years, when the firm dissolved, Mr. Kaul purchasing the interests of his partners. He continued to operate this mill until 1884, when the great bush fire swept away this industry. The Benezette Mills were bought from the Kronewetter Brothers, in 1875 or 1876; these he sold, in 1884, to Thomas Tosier. The Spring Run Mills were erected in 1880 for Mr. Kaul, but they were destroyed in the great fire of 1884, together with a large quantity of lumber and camp buildings. In 1871 Mr. Kaul and J. K. P. Hall entered into partnership for the purpose of investing in pine lands, and in the same year Mr. Kaul visited Wisconsin, with the object of purchasing pine lands, and did buy a large tract, but sold it several years afterward to Brown, Early & Co. This was the beginning of the partnership which was reaffirmed by the Hall, Kaul & Co. partnership of 1876. In 1880 Mr. Kaul and J. W. Gaskil of Philadelphia entered into partnership and purchased the 7,500 acres on West Creek, together with the West Creek Manufacturing & Mining Company's mills at Beechwood. A year later J. K. P. Hall purchased Mr. Gasket' s interest, and this partnership has continued down to the present time. They, with Mr. C. R. Kline, are the present owners of this industry. Mr. Kaul was married November 14, 1865, to Miss Walburga Lanzel, a daughter of Michael and Catherine Lanzel. Mrs. Kaul was born near St. Mary's, April 25,1847, and received her education here. The children of this marriage are John L., born October 3, 1866 (he is now secretary and treasurer of the Sample Lumber Company of Alabama); Andrew, born February 2, 1868 (now employed as book-keeper at the St, Mary's Tannery); William, born June 9, 1870 (a student at Georgetown College, D. C); Joseph, born March 6, 1872 (also attends this college); Edward, born February 3, 1874 (attending the St. Mary's schools); Frank, born January 26, 1876; Julia, born March 6, 1878 (a student in St. Mary's convent); Josephine, born March 23, 1880 (also attending the convent schools); Bertha, born June 30, 1882; George, born March 3, 1886, died March 12, 1886; James H., born June 16, 1887. Men speak of a country as one of illimitable possibilities, but in this instance, we learn something of the possibilities of the individual. Mr. Kaul, a native pioneer of Elk county, grew up among her great forests, strong and healthy like them. His youth was passed in the manner of the times forty years ago. In 1862 he sallied forth from the parental roof to hew out a trail to independence. How closely he followed that trail is measured by his repeated successes. Throughout the pages of local history of Elk and Cameron counties, his name appears at short intervals as the supporter of every project which gave promise of serving the people. In this sketch reference is made to the establishment of his early mills; but to obtain a clearer conception of the great industries of which he is the originator or one of the active agents, the pages of local history must be referred to. Of everything constituting the highest citizenship, social and business morality and enterprise, he is the possessor, and in the exercise of those gifts he radiates good all round.

J. C. KOCH, proprietor of a livery stable, St. Mary's, was born in York county, Penn., September 14, 1855, a son of John and Leah (Detter) Koch, natives of that county, the former of whom is a farmer by occupation. Mr. Koch's father was a captain of militia for many years, and was known as "Capt. John Koch." The subject of these lines received an ordinary education at the public schools of the county, and at the age of nineteen years went to Lock Haven, Penn., where he worked in the lumber business as a day laborer, also on the Susquehanna river, in the same capacity. In 1884 he came to Elk county, and purchased one hundred acres of wood land in Benzinger township, which he cleared of the timber. For one year he acted as foreman for the Arthur Coal & Lumber Company, at Swissmont Station, Elk county. In 1886 Mr. Koch married Josephine, daughter of Lawrence (Wesnetzer), of St. Mary's, and purchased the Wesnetzer homestead. He has since resided at St. Mary's, with the exception of one year spent at Rasselas, Elk county, in the lumber trade, and February 15, 1887, he established his present livery business. Mr. Koch casts his vote with the Republican party. Mrs. Koch is a member of the Catholic Church.

GEORGE F. KRELLNER, baker, of St. Mary's, was born in Bavaria, Germany, January 16, 1837, and is a son of John and Margaret (Engelhart) Krellner. He was reared and educated in his native country, and there served a three-years apprenticeship at the baker's trade. In 1858 he came to America, settling in St. Mary's, and lumbered in the woods up to 1861, in April of which year he enlisted in the First Pennsylvania Regiment ''Bucktails," in which he served three months. Re-enlisting, he joined Company E, Sixth Pennsylvania Reserves, and was wounded in the battle of South Mountain, September 14, 1862, and was honorably discharged, on account of disability, in the spring of 1863. After working in the Government bakery, at Washington, D. C. three years, he returned to St. Mary's, and again lumbered in the woods until 1872, in which year he opened a bakery in the borough, which he has since successfully conducted, having now the principal bakery in the place. Mr. Brenner was twice married; first to Mary, daughter of John Kline, of Louisville, Ky., and by her has had two sons: Joseph and John. His present wife was Kate Kline, sister of his first wife, by whom he has three children: Mary, Clements and George. Mr. Krellner is a member of the German Catholic Church. He is independent in politics, and has held the office of councilman four years; school director, ten years in succession; assessor, collector and mercantile appraiser.

CHARLES A. LION, proprietor of meat market, St. Mary's, was born in St. Mary's, Elk Co., Penn., August 21, 1860, and is a son of Wendel and Mary J. (Herbstritt) Lion, natives of Germany, and who were among the pioneers of St. Mary's, the father being a shoemaker by trade, which he followed up to his death. Their children were ten in number, viz.: Mary Magdalena (Mrs. John B. Heindl), Katie (Mrs. B. Wendler), Maggie (Mrs. Joshua Dreisbach), Josephine (Mrs. Charles B. Garner), Elizabeth (Mrs. Andrew Geeck), Frederick, Charles A., Frank, Joseph and John. Of these, Charles A. was reared and educated in St. Mary's, and in the fall of 1878 embarked in his present business, in which he has since successfully continued. He married, May 14, 1884, Tressie, daughter of Joseph and Tressie Pontzer, of Kersey, Elk Co., Penn., and has five children: Charles, Minnie, Edward,

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