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other occupations, and in 1877 removed to Elk county, where he taught school several terms; was clerk for D. Eldridge at Eureka Mines one year: was in the employ of Koch & Sons, Kersey, Elk county, as book-keeper one year, and for three years was deputy treasurer of Elk county under John Collins, treasurer. In March, 1887, Mr. Boyer purchased the Franklin House at St. Mary's, which he has since successfully conducted. He married, November 25, 1868, Mary S., daughter of Dr. H. and Caroline (Gruber) Straessley. of Millville, Clarion Co., Penn., and they have two children living: Charles W. and Caroline E., and two children dead. Mr. Boyer is a member of the Catholic Church and of the G. A. R. Politically he is a Democrat, and has held the office of township treasurer and clerk.

MICHAEL BRUNNER, merchant, St. Mary's, was born in Bavaria, Germany, November 20, 1830, and is a son of George and Catherine (Hoffbauerj Brunner, who settled in St. Mary's in 1844, where they resided until their death. They were the parents of four children: Magdalena (Mrs. Nicholas Heinffling), Margaret (Mrs. Balzer Wenzel), Barbara (Mrs. Sebastian Hahn) and Michael. The subject of these lines was reared in St. Mary's from fourteen years of age, and here learned the cabinet-maker's trade, which he followed as an occupation four years. He then taught school for several years, and in 1862 embarked in the mercantile business, in which he has since successfully continued. His wife, whom he married August 16, 1858, was Carolina, daughter of George and Juliana (Weisenberger) Weis, of St. Mary's, and to this union were born nine children, as follows: Susan (Mrs. John Fochtman), Adeline (Mrs. Nicholas Tierney), Josephine, Julia, Mary, George, Annie, Albert and Clara. Mr. Brunner is a Democrat, politically, and has held the offices of school director and councilman of St. Mary's and also that of county treasurer one term. He and his family are members of the German Catholic Church.

MARTIN DIPPOLD, mine boss, in the coal mines of Kaul & Hall. St. Mary's, was born in Germany, April 14, 1841, and is a son of Frederick and Margaret Dippold, who came to this country and to St. Mary's in 1855. The father, who was a farmer by occupation, cleared and improved a farm in Benzinger township, Elk county, where he died. They had four children: John (who was killed in the Civil war), Martin, Barbara (Mrs. Louis Vollmer) and Andrew. Of these, Martin was fourteen years of age when he came with his parents to St. Mary's. He has worked in the coal mines twenty years, and has held his present position eighteen years. Mr. Dippold married Mary, daughter of Anthony and Lizzie Eves, of St. Mary's, and has by her thirteen children: Maggie, Frank, Kate, Lizzie, John, Barbara, Mary, Anna, Anthony and Bertie (twins), Carrie, Ida and Alfred. Mr. Dippold is a Democrat in politics; has served one year as constable, and is a member of the Catholic Church.

FRANK A. ERICH, farmer and lumberman, P. O. St. Mary's, was bor n in St. Mary's, Elk Co., Penn., June 15, 1848, and is a son of Joseph and Elizabeth Erich, natives of Germany, who settled in Benzinger township. Elk county, in 1846, where they cleared and improved a farm, on which they lived and died. Joseph Erich was twice married, and by his first wife he had two children: Joseph and Mary A. (Mrs. Jacob Mallison); by his second wife, Elizabeth, he had six children: Elizabeth (Mrs. Jacob Wafford), Frank A., F. Xavier, George, Mary (Mrs. Peter Bauer) and Katie (deceased). Of these, Frank A. was reared in Benzinger township, where he has followed farming and lumbering as his principal occupation, and for one and a half years he was proprietor of a green-grocer's store in St. Mary's. In 1869 Mr. Erich married Elizabeth, daughter of Joseph and Mary (Bock) Jacobs, of St. Mary's, and by her has ten children: Mary, Rosa, Bertha, Joseph, Edward, Tracy, Caroline, George, Josephine and Michael. Mr. Erich is a member of the Catholic Church; in politics a Democrat.

FRANK FISHER, proprietor of the Keystone House, St. Mary's, was born in that borough, June 24, 1853, and is a son of Charles and Mary (Hartzop) Fisher, natives of Baden, Germany, who were among the noineers of St. Mary's. His father was a rope-maker by trade, but engaged in mercantile business in St. Mary's, at which he continued until his death. He had eight children: John, Philip, Mary (Mrs. Leonard Wittmann), William, Barbara (Mrs. William Schwab), Frank, Charles and Lizzie (Mrs. Charles Rorick). The subject of this sketch was reared in St. Mary's, being educated in the public schools, and served an apprenticeship of three years at the blacksmith's trade, at which he worked as a journeyman twelve years. He carried on a shop of his own in Kane, McKean county, Penn., two and one half years, and in 1881 he embarked in the hotel business in St. Mary's, keeping the Luhr House three and one half years. Afterward he filled the position of bartender at the City Hotel one and one-half years, and then entered into possession of the Keystone House, of which he has been the genial host for one and one-half years. In 1876 Mr. Fisher married Anna, daughter of Joseph and Mary (Schwab) Murray, of Centre county, Penn., and by her has one daughter, Mary. Mr. Fisher is a member of the Catholic Church, in politics a Democrat.

JOSEPH C. FRANK, merchant, St. Mary's, was born in Benzinger township, Elk Co., Penn., April 14, 1856, and is a son of George and Maggie (Schauer) Frank, natives of Germany, who settled in Benzinger township in 1848, where they cleared and improved a farm on which they still reside. Their children are John, Theresa (Mrs. George Weigel), Joseph C., Francis, George, Charles and Anthony. The subject of this sketch was reared in his native township, receiving a common-school education, then for six years was a clerk in the store of Spafford & Finney, St. Mary's. In 1881 he embarked in the general mercantile business in partnership with Charles Luhr, under the firm name of J. C. Frank & Co., and they have built up a large and prosperous trade. In May, 1880, Mr. Frank married Rosa, daughter of Charles and Elizabeth (Beleke) Luhr, of St. Mary's, and they have one daughter, Maggie. Mr. Frank is a member of the Catholic Church, of St. John's and St. Patrick's beneficiary societies, and of the Knights of Labor. In politics he is a Democrat, and has been auditor of St. Mary's.

IGNATIUS GARNER, St. Mary's, was born in Alsace-Lorraine, France, May 14, 1816, and is a son of George Garner and Magdalena (Bueser) Garner. George Garner settled in St. Mary's in 1845, and died there. They reared a family of four children: Ignatius, Magdalena (Mrs. Jacob Schaut), Anna and Barbara (Mrs. John Lejeal). The subject of this biographical sketch came to America in 1832, and to St. Mary's in 1845, where he has since resided. For a number of years he was agent and general director here for the German colony. Early in 1845 he proceeded to Europe and returned in July of the same year with a number of substantial settlers. He was the first postmaster of St. Mary's, which position he held ten years; was again appointed in 1887, and was retired July 1, 1889. A prominent and talented musician, he was for twenty-five years organist of St. Mary's German Catholic Church, and thirty-three years ago built the organ still used in that church. In 1844 Mr. Garner married Julia, daughter of Christopher and Johanna (Baumgardner) Weis, of Philadelphia, and they have six children: Louis H., Elizabeth, Charles, George, Bonaventura and Aloysius. Mr. Garner and his wife are members of St. Mary's German Catholic Church. He is a Democrat in politics, and has held the office of county auditor and commissioner several terms: also served as chief burgess, councilman and justice of the peace of St. Marv's.

LOUIS H. GARNER, machinist, St. Mary's, was born in St. Mary's. Elk Co., Penn., October 7, 1845, and is a son of Ignatius and Julia W. (Weis) Garner. He was reared in his native town, and educated at St. Vincent's College, Latrobe, Penn., afterward serving an apprenticeship of three years at the machinist's trade in Ashland, Schuylkill Co., Penn. On July 2, 1863. he enlisted in Company C, Fifty-third Pennsylvania Infantry, and participated in the battle of Harrison's Landing, Va.; also assisted in burying the dead at Gettysburg. After nine months' service, he was honorably discharged, and then resumed his trade at Ashland. Later he was employed in the Franklin Iron Works at Reading, Pena thence removed to Renovo, same State, and was the first machinist employed in the railroad shops at that place. Afterward he worked at his trade in the oil regions of Pennsylvania, and in 1866 he moved to Leavenworth, Kans., where he was employed on the Eastern Division of the Northern Pacific Railroad, from March until November of that year. He then returned to St. Mary's and here opened up for himself in the old Gen. McGill foundry, which he rented in April, 1868, put in running order, and melted the first iron in the county; this he carried on two years; then erected a new shop on the cor ner of Mill and St. Mary's streets, which he conducted for five years under the firm name of L. H. Garner & Bro. Selling out his interest in this concern, he then took charge of the Clearfield Coal Company's works at Tyler, Penn.. as engineer, for two years, at which time he again returned to St. Mary's, where he was engaged as clerk with Hall, Kaul & Co., nine months, and then took charge of the foundry and machine shops of J. & A. Kaul for two years, when he assumed the duties of assistant postmaster at St. Mary's for two and a half years, when he resumed his trade. In 1871 Mr. Garner married Mary E., daughter of Capt. Charles H. and Elizabeth (Brindle) Volk, of St. Mary's, and they have six children living: George, Carrie, Lawrence, Irene, John and Louis. Mr. Garner is a member of the Catholic Church and of the G. A. R., being at present commander of M. W. Lucore Post, No. 216, of St. Marv's. In politics he is a Democrat.

CHARLES B. GARNER, molder, St. Mary's, was born in that borough, September 12, 1849, and is a son of Ignatius and Julia (Weis) Garner. He was reared in his native town, and received his education in the school of St. Mary's and at St. Vincent's College, Latrobe, Penn.; afterward he learned the molder's trade in the shop of his brother, L. H. Garner, which occupation he has followed since 1868. In 1875 he married Mary Josephine, daughter of Wendel and Mary J. (Herbstritt) Lion, of St. Mary's, and they have five children: Charles C., Lizzie, Julia, Mary and Clara. Mr. Garner is a member of the German Catholic Church, and in politics is a Democrat.

ANDREW GEECK, barber, St. Mary's, was born on the Rhine, in Bavaria, November 23, 1852, and is a son of Francis C. and Francesca (Kuntz) Geeck. He was reared and educated in his native land, and, coming to America in 1871, settled, in February, 1872, in St. Mary's, where he worked as a journeyman barber up to November 10, same year, at which date he opened a shop of his own, and has since succeeded in building up a successful business. Mr. Geeck married, June 8, 1873, Elizabeth, daughter of Wendel and Mary J. iHerbstritt) Lion, of St. Mary's, and by her has six children: M. Josephine, M. Magdalene, Francis C., Rose, Eugene and Aloys. Mr. Geeck is a member of the Catholic Church and of St. John's Benevolent Society, in which he is treasurer and secretary of the widow fund. In politics he is a Democrat, and has served as a member of the school board from 1882 to 1888; also secretary of the board four years.

MATHIAS GERG, general blacksmith, St. Mary's, was born in that borough May 16, 1857, a son of Michael and Annie (Hoover) Gerg, natives of Germany, who were among the early settler of St. Mary's, the father being a wagon-maker by trade, which he has followed all his life. They reared a family of nine children: Tony, Frank, Anna (Mrs. John Schauer), Barbara (Mrs. Louis Gies), Rosa (Mrs. F. X. Erich), Mathias, Tillie (Mrs. John Hoffman), Charles and Katie (Mrs. George Bauer). Of these, Mathias was reared and educated in St. Mary's, and learned the blacksmith's trade in his brother's shop, and since 1883 has been in business for himself, having proved a firstclass workman. Mr. Berg has been married twice: first, to Josephine, daughter of Joseph and Kate Seel, of St. Mary's, by whom he had three children: Frank, Joseph and Willie; and afterward he married Anna, daughter of Joseph Deitch, also of St. Mary's, by whom he has two children: Katie and Lizzie. He is a member of the Catholic Church and St. John's Society; of the K. of L. and the borough council. In politics he is a Democrat.

JAMES KNOX POLK HALL was born in Milesburg, Centre Co., Penn., on the 30th of September, 1844, during the memorable presidential campaign of that year. His father, an ardent Democrat, bestowed upon him the full name of the great Tennesseean who was at that time the candidate and the ideal of his party. He is descended on both sides from Revolutionary stock, his ancestors having served with credit and distinction in the great struggle for the establishment of American liberty. His parents were Benjamin McDowell Hall, who died in 1873, and Susannah Geary Hall, who is still living at an advanced age. They had seven children, of whom the late Senator John G. Hall and Dr. Wm. E. Hall, both recently deceased, were the eldest; the subject of this sketch came next, and then followed Mrs. B. E. Wellendorf, Miss Mary Hall, B. Frank Hall and Harry Alvan Hall, all of whom are living and residents of Elk county, Penn. His youth was passed, when out of school, in farming and lumbering in the then wilds of Clearfield county, Penn., whither the family had removed when he was about ten years of age.

Mr. Hall received a business education, and studied law with his brother, the late Senator, at Ridgway, where he was admitted to the bar as soon as he attained his majority. He was shortly after elected district attorney of Elk county, which office he filled with satisfaction to the people and credit to himself for three consecutive terms. As his abilities are of a high order and his attainments exceptional, he was most successful in his practice, but as opportunities presented themselves, his keen perception pointed out to him the wisdom of investment in coal and lumber enterprises, and with ready executive tact he pushed the development of numerous and extensive operations into successful action. The enterprises in which he was engaged soon became so numerous, and his business interests reached such magnitude as to claim his entire time and attention, and in 1883 he was compelled to retire from the active practice of his profession. He has since devoted himself exclusively to the management of his business affairs. He is president of the St. Mary's Bank: a member of the firm of Kaul & Hall, proprietors of the Cascade and Hazel Dell bituminous coal mines, near St. Mary's, Penn.; a partner in the St. Mary's Tanning Company, who own and operate a large tannery at St. Mary's; secretary and treasurer of the Penn Lumber Company, with offices at St. Mary's, Philadelphia and Pittsburgh, which, with two or three other large companies, market the bulk of the Pennsylvania hemlock; president of the New York, Lake Erie & Western Coal & Railroad Company, with whose road are connected some of the largest bituminous coal mines in the State, in the operation of which thousands of men are given employment; secretary and treasurer of the Clarion River Railway Company, who are now building a railroad from Laurel Run to Hallton for the purpose of developing a large section of timber land; and a member of the Portland Lumber Company, who, in company with the Kistlers, are now building an extensive tannery at Carman. He is also a member of the Beechwood Lumber Company, and these companies and the various other lumber concerns in which he is interested with his partner, Mr. Kaul, are the owners of over sixty thousand acres of timber lands in Elk, Jefferson and Cameron counties; he is also engaged in numerous merchandising and other business operations in connection with his lumber and coal interests; he is president of the St. Mary's Water Company, president of the Elk County Agricultural Society, and a large stockholder in the St. Mary's Gas Company.

His charities have ever kept step with his wonderful successes in business affairs, and his heart and hand have always been open to the appeals of his fellowmen, and none such have fallen unheeded upon his ear. Though so heavily weighted with business cares, Mr. Hall finds much time for both political and social affairs. He is an unswerving Democrat in his faith, and is prominent in the councils of his party. He has been twice nominated for Congress in his district, having withdrawn the first time in favor of Ex-Gov. Curtin, and having been once defeated by the narrow margin of 142 votes.

Jimanandy Park (named for himself and his partner by grateful friends who had enjoyed its hospitalities), which was erected by Messrs. Hall & Kaul solely for the entertainment of their friends, is one of the most unique institutions of the country. It is situated on a 3,000-acre tract of timber land, in the mountains, seven miles east of St. Mary's. Seven hundred acres of this virgin forest is set aside for a hunting park, and through this roam hundreds of deer. A mountain stream, upon which numerous dams are erected, gives the expert fly-caster ample opportunity to display his skill upon the brook trout, with which the stream is yearly stocked from the hatcheries connected with the park. Just outside the entrance to the deer park is a spacious cottage, in which are billiard-rooms, reading-rooms, sleeping apartments and dining accommodations, which, with the stables attached, offer every comfort to sportsman and beast.

In September, 1875. Mr. Hall was married to Miss Kate Hyde, the youngest daughter of J. S. Hyde, the late millionaire lumberman. They have four children living: Sallie, William, Genevieve and Lisle. He has recently removed from St. Mary's, where he had lived since 1866. to Ridgway, and is now building a superb residence at the latter place.

HARRY ALVAN HALL, attorney at law, St. Mary's, was born at Karthans. Clearfield Co., Penn., October 7, 1861, and came to St. Mary's with his parents in 1867. After spending some time under the tutelage of Rev. Edward Hipelius, a distinguished scholar of the Benedictine order, then stationed at St. Mary's, he attended, for a short time, the University at Lewisburg and Dickinson Seminary at Williamsport, and finally received his diploma from Yale College, in 1881. The same year he was admitted to the bar in the supreme court of Connecticut. He engaged in business in New York, and during

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