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attended school at Mount Pleasant Seminary, Boyerstown, Berks county. After attending the school for seven weeks, examinations for teachers were held in the neighborhood, and, entering one of the classes, passed examination successfully, being the second in a class of fifteen to receive a certificate to teach. He then taught a term of four months, and in the spring attended a normal institute, held in Pottstown, for ten weeks, after which he labored during the summer, and taught the following winter a term of six months. In the spring of 1863 he entered Freeland Seminary, afterward known as Ursinus College, at Collegeville, Montgomery Co., Penn., where he continued his studies for five terms. In 1864 he received the appointment of assistant teacher and prefect at the house of refuge, Philadelphia, Penn. After discharging the duties of this appointment about six months, an enrollment was made to draft men to fill our serried ranks in the army. Being a single man, he felt it his duty to enlist, which he did in March, 1865, enlisting in Company C. Two Hundred and Fourteenth Pennsylvania Volunteers. He was honorably discharged at the close of the war, and returned to Philadelphia. In May of the same year he came to Elk county, engaging as weighman in the coal mines at Korsey. In 1876, in company with his brother, Augustus, he engaged in lumbering at Gilbertsville, Penn., but he finally returned to Elk county, and assisted W. H. May, civil engineer, in surveying. He remained in his employ until December, 1877, when he came to Weedville and started in the mercantile business, which he is successfully conducting at the present time. Mr. Gresh married, in February, 1888, Mrs. Sarah J. Rader, widow of the late John Rader, and daughter of George Hane, of Armstrong county, Penn. They have had two children: Ruby and Pearl (twins), the latter of whom died August 23, 1889. Mr. Gresh has held the offices of justice of the peace for nine years, and various other offices of public trust, and is one of the wide-awake men of the township.

W. W. HOOVER, jeweler, P. O. Caledonia, was born in Clearfield county, Penn., September 3, 1844, the eldest son of twelve children—nine boys and three girls—born to Abraham and Margaret (Murray) Hoover, natives of Clearfield county, Penn., and the former of German origin. Mr. Hoover received a practical business education in the public schools of Clearfield, and worked upon his father's farm until he was twenty-two years of age, when he engaged in the lumber business on his own account, coming to Elk county, in 1883, and conducting the same successfully until November 1, 1888, when he commenced the jewelry business, dealing in watches, clocks, jewelry, silverware and glasses, and making repairing a specialty. He married in November, 1869, Miss Drucilla, a daughter of Ira and Margaret (Hicks) Greene, of Benezette, Penn., who were among the first settlers of Elk county, Penn. No children have been born to this union, but Mr. Hoover has reared two girls, both now married. Mr. Hoover, in 1874, joined Wallaceton Lodge, No. 411, Knights of Pythias, Clearfield county. He is now a member of White Pine Lodge, No. 478, Knights of Pythias, at Benezette; of the Ellsworth Lodge, No. 489, at Penfield, Clearfield county, and of Caledonia Lodge, No. 437, Patriotic Order Sons of America, and of the American Mechanics of Penfield. Mrs. Hoover is a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church of Caledonia.

J. B. MILLER, farmer, P. 0. Caledonia, is the eldest son of Michael and Tracy (Craterer) Miller, and was born in Philadelphia, Penn., June 19, 1838. His parents were natives of Germany, and came to America in 1836, first locating in Philadelphia, where they remained until 1847, when they removed to St. Mary's, Penn. They afterward purchased a farm in Jay township, where they remained the rest of their lives. J. B. Miller, worked upon the farm with his father until 1861, when he enlisted in the service of his country. He served three months in the famous "Bucktail'' Regiment of Pennsylvania, and afterward re-enlisted in the Eighty-fourth Regiment, Pennsylvania Volunteers, serving one year, when he was discharged on account of disability. After his return home, he went to Chicago, Ill., returning in the fall of 1865, when he married Miss Sophia, a daughter of George Zimmerman, of Williamsport, Penn., and to them were born six children, five of whom are still living. Mr. Miller remained in Williamsport until 1873, when he returned to Jay township, and engaged in farming. He has held various township offices, and is a member of White Pine Lodge, No. 478, Knights of Pythias, of Benezette.

J. S. MILLER, farmer, P. O. Caledonia, was born in Philadelphia, Penn., April 24, 1844, a son of Michael and Tracy Miller, who came from Philadelphia to St. Mary's, Penn., in 1847, and settled upon the farm, where J. S. now resides, in 1850. During his early manhood Mr. Miller worked upon the farm with his father, the latter making his home with his son in his old age. In 1861 J. S. Miller entered the United States service, and was assigned to Company I, Eighty-fourth Regiment, Pennsylvania Volunteers, and served until the close of the war, when he was honorably discharged from the 57th Pa. V. V. and returned to his farm in Jay township. He married, in June, 1876, Miss Anna, a daughter of Matthias Huff, of Clarion county, Penn., and they have three children: Maggie M , Lizzie A. and Tracy M. J. S. Miller has held various township offices, and is highly respected by his fellow-citizens.

M. A. LOVELL, farmer, P. O. Caledonia, was born in Jay township, Elk Co., Penn., June 1, 1862, a son of Jacob and Sarah B. Ovell, natives of Pennsylvania, who settled in Jay township, where they reared a family of nine children, M. A. being the second son. Mr. Ovell was early in life thrown upon his own resources, his father dying, and leaving him, a boy of twelve years, to assist in the support of the family. When he was fifteen years of age he began working for others, and when twenty-one he removed to the old homestead, which had been left by his father to three surviving sons and three daughters in equal parts. The youngest daughter died unmarried and the other two sold their portions to David Dixon; our subject bought out Mr. Dixon for $660, and paid the sons $300 each for their portions, and thus became sole possessor of the farm. This fact renders the old home and its associations an object of interest and regard to Mr. Ovell and his family. He married, December 25, 1882, Miss Lovern Stephens, who was born in Blue Rock, Penn., May 28, 1862, a daughter of Jonathan and Almira (Welsh) Stephens, and they have been blessed with two children: Stella C. and Carrie G.

N. S. SHAFFER, manager of general store, Caledonia, was born in Sinnemahoning, Cameron Co., Penn., September 12, 1861, the elder of two children born to Joseph and Eliza (McCloskey) Shaffer, natives of Pennsylvania. He received a practical business education in his native town, and remained with his parents until he was fifteen years of age, then worked in mills at Sinnemahoning and Benezette until he was seventeen, when he went to Caledonia, Penn.; where he was employed by Andrew Kaul as a shipper of lumber. He worked for Mr. Kaul six months, and was afterward, for three years, in the employ of J. E. Putnam as lumber inspector and counter, since which time he has been engaged with W. E. Zierden, as general manager of a large store in Caledonia (since June 25, 1888, owned by M. E. Taylor), showing by his suecessful management his thorough ability and understanding of the business. Mr. Shaffer married, January 12, 1886, Miss Mary E., a daughter of H. D. and Amelia (Morey) Derr, of Benezette, and they have one child: Edna Larue Shaffer. Mr; Shaffer is a member of Benezette Lodge, No. 988, I. O. O. F.; Caledonia Lodge, No. 437, Patriotic Order Sons of America, and also of the Knights of Pythias/Ellsworth Lodge, No. 489, Penfield, Penn.

F. A. TOZIER, merchant, Caledonia, was born in Benezette township, Elk Co., Penn., January 5, 1851, and is,a son of Thomas and Lydia (Morey) Tozier, the former of whom came to Caledonia from Maine in 1848, and the latter was born in Benezette township. They reared a family of eight children, F. A. being the eldest son. When a young man he developed unusual business ability, and when twenty years of age, entered into partnership with B. E. Morey in the mercantile business in Jay township. After a few months, however, his father employed him as foreman in the lumber business in Elk county, where he remained until 1875. when he entered the Williamsport Commercial College, from which he was eventually graduated. He then spent three years lumbering in Wisconsin, but finally returned to Pennsylvania, and was employed by the Portland Lumber Company, of Vineyard Run, in the capacity of book-keeper. In 1885 he purchased an interest in the firm of G. W. Tozier & Co., and returned to Caledonia in March, 1889. Mr. Tozier has held the office of auditor of the township, and has always taken an active interest in the advancement and prosperity of the social and business interests of his town. He is a man of excellent capabilities in his management of business. He is a member of Ellsworth Lodge, No. 489, Knights of Pythias, Penfield, Penn.; also a member of Washington Camp, No. 437, P. O. S. of A., Caledonia, Penn.

SAMUEL UHL, farmer, P. O. Caledonia, was born in Germany, April 4, 1840, a son of Christopher and Annie (Brunner) Ubl. The family came to Elk county, Penn., in 1840, and settled in St. Mary's. They reared a family of eight children, Samuel being the second son. When fourteen years of age our subject went to Sligo, Clarion Co., Penn., and was employed four years in the iron works, at the close of which time he removed to Centreville and engaged in lumbering. In February, 1868, he married Miss Tracy Cross, a daughter of Andrew Cross, of Fox township, and she bore him six children, five of whom are still living: Katie, William A., Josephine, Tracy L. and John E. Mrs. Uhl died in 1875. In 1869 Mr. Ubl purchased the farm where he now resides. He has been supervisor of the township, and is a highly respected citizen. He is a member of the Catholic Church.

JUSTUS WEED, postmaster, Weedville, was born at what is now Weedville, Jay township, Elk Co., Penn., December 18, 1831, a son of A. B. and Charlotte (Mead) Weed, natives of New York State, who came to Elk county, Penn., in 1818. They reared a family of seven children, the subject of this sketch being the fourth son. He worked for his father until he was twentythree years of age, when, in March, 1854, he married Miss E. J., a daughter of John and Elizabeth (Hunter) Tudor, who came to Weedville in 1853. Mr. and Mrs. Weed have three children, viz.: Abijah B., Manley E. and Eva E. (wife of J. H. Webb, Falls Creek, Penn.). J. H. Webb was born in Weedville, and is a son of William M. and F. Elizabeth (Morey) Webb, both residents of that place. Mr. Weed purchased a farm in Jay township, and in 1882 engaged in the mercantile business in Weedville. He has always taken an active interest in the welfare and growth of the township, and has held various local offices, now being postmaster of Weedville. Mrs. Weed is a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church.

THEODORE F. YOUNG, lumber inspector, Caledonia, was born March 12, 1845, at Flemington, Hunterdon Co., N. J., and is the eldest son of William R. and Hannah (Stires) Young, also natives of New Jersey. He came to Williamsport, Penn., with his parents, in 1854, and here he was reared and educated. When but a lad of seventeen years he entered his country's service, enlisting in August, 1802. He was assigned to Company B, One Hundred and Thirty-first Pennsylvania Volunteers, served nine months, and afterward re enlisted in the Third New York Light Artillery. After two and one-half years' service he was wounded, and returned home to Williamsport. He married, September 3, 1806, Miss Mary, a daughter of Lewis Carter, of Bethlehem, Penn., and to them have been born three children, named as follows: William R. (telegraph operator for the Philadelphia & Erie Railroad Company, at Williamsport), May B. and Minnie (both at home). Mr. Young was engaged as a shipper of lumber in his father's mill until in 1883, when it was destroyed by fire. Since then he has been employed in the same capacity with J. E. Putnam and Col. James Cochran, being with the latter at the present time. Mr. Young is a member of the Williamsport Post, No. 385, G. A. R., Caledonia Lodge, No. 437, Patriotic Order Sons of America; Williamsport Lodge, No. 100, F. & A. M., Chapter No. 222, and Williamsport Lodge, No. 602. I. O. O. F.

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CHAPTER XXI.

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES—BENZINGER TOWNSHIP AND BOROUGH OF ST. MARY'S.

C. L. BAYER, manufacturer and dealer in furniture, St. Mary's, was born in Baden, Germany, September 6, 1836, and is a son of Andrew and Catharine (Pfeifer) Bayer, who came to America in 1848 and settled in Benzinger township, Elk Co., Penn. Andrew Bayer was a wagon-maker by trade, and for a number of years carried on a shop in St. Mary's. He was the father of three children: C. L., Theresa (Mrs. Joseph Arnold) and Andrew. Of these, C. L., whose name heads this sketch, was reared in Elk county from twelve years of age, and served an apprenticeship of five years at the cabinet-maker's trade in Philadelphia; after which he worked as a journeyman until the breaking out of the Civil war, when, being in the South, he was pressed into the Confederate service at Jefferson, Tex. After serving about nine months, he left at Little Rock, Ark., and went to the Union army at Fayetteville, Ark. A few months after, he took employment at his trade in the cabinet department of the navy yards at Cairo and Mound City, Ill. , where he served till the end of the war. In 1866 he commenced a sash and door shop in St. Mary's, but after a few years changed to manufacturing and dealing in furniture, and has built up a large and lucrative business. In 1867 Mr. Bayer married Barbara, daughter of George and Clara (Prongratz) Gregory, of St. Mary's, and by her has seven children living: John S., Minnie, Lizzie, Andrew, Lena, Willie and Fred. Mr. Bayer and family are members of the Catholic Church. In politics he votes the Democratic ticket, and has served the borough as school director several terms. Father B. Bayer, one of the first priests in St. Mary's and first doctor, was an uncle of C. L. Bayer.

GEORGE W. BOYER, proprietor of the Franklin House, St. Mary's, was born in Shannondale, Clarion Co., Penn., October 1, 1846, and is a son of George and Elizabeth (Bartley) Boyer, both natives of Pennsylvania. He was reared in his native county, receiving his early education in the common schools, and January 28, 1862, when but fifteen years of age, enlisted in Company C, Sixty-second Pennsylvania Volunteer Infantry. He was wounded in the foot at the battle of Gaines' Mills, Va., June 27, 1862, being also taken prisoner, and after spending three months in Libby prison he was released on parole and sent to Fortress Monroe. Three months later he was exchanged and placed on hospital duty in the Chesapeake General Hospital as wound-dresser and steward. He was here discharged from the service June 30, 1865, after serving nearly three and a half years. After the war Mr. Boyer attended Dayton Academy, Armstrong county, Penn., and also the select and public schools of Clarion county, same State. While attending the latter in 1867, he was chosen by the directors to take charge of a public school at Shannondale, to fill the unexpired term of a teacher who had failed. This he did successfully, and to the satisfaction of the directors and patrons of the school. He followed teaching for several years, as well as

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