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and they have four daughters, viz.: Estella A., Sybella G., Ethel R. and Margaret. Capt. Clay is a member of Wilcox Lodge, No. 571, F. & A. M.. and of the Military Order of Loyal Legion of the United States, also of Lucore Post. G. A. R., of St. Mary's. His father, Hon. John Randolph Clay, was born in Philadelphia, Penn., and was educated at the University of Virginia, after which he studied law with Hon. John Randolph, of Roanoke, Va., for whom he was named, and was admitted to the bar of Virginia. He accompanied John Randolph to Russia, when he was appointed United States minister, and was secretary of legation, and was afterward appointed secretary of " Legation and Charge d'Affairs" at Vienna, Austria, and later minister to Peru, where he served eighteen years. He served altogether in the diplomatic service of the United States for thirty consecutive years. He married an English lady, Miss Frances Gibbs, daughter of Dr. John Gibbs, of Exeter, England. Mrs. Clay died in Vienna in 1840, and Hon. John Randolph Clay died in London, England, in 1885. The present home of Capt. A. A. Clay was first occupied by the father of Col. A. I. Wilcox, and later by Gen. Kane, until Capt. Clay purchased it, in 1866. His family are members of the Episcopal Church.

A. A. CLEARWATER, superintendent for the Wilcox Tanning Company, was born in Ulster county, N. Y., March 21, 1846. His parents, Richard and Rachel (Osterhout) Clearwater, were also natives of that county. His mother was a sister of W. H. Osterhout of Ridgway; his father was a millwright by trade and moved to Susquehanna county, Penn., in 1864, and for some years was a car builder in the Susquehanna shops. He was a member of the Republican party, and filled various township offices. He was a deacon and superintendent of the Sunday-school in the Baptist Church for many years, and died in 1882. The mother is still living and resides in Ulster county, N. Y. Their family consisted of nine children, of whom six are living: D. J. (of Scranton. Penn.), A. A., W. W. (of Wilcox, Penn.), Mary C. (wife of Lafayette Hines, of Wayne county, Penn.), Ida E. (wife of B. E. Miles, of Susquehanna county, Penn.) and Leah F. (wife of Elder Campbell, of Ridgway, Penn.). A. A. Clearwater was reared in Ulster county, N. Y., and received an ordinary education. In 1861 he enlisted in Company D, One Hundred and Fifty-sixth New York Infantry, and was appointed sergeant of his company. He was wounded at Port Hudson, June 14, 1862, and was honorably discharged in 1863. He then attended the Harford University in Susquehanna county, Penn., for one year, and then began to learn the tanner's trade with his uncle, W. H. Osterhout, at Glenwood. He served an apprenticeship of four years, and then took the superintendency of a tannery at Herrick Centre for four years, after which, in connection with two partners, he purchased the Glenwood Tannery. After conducting that two years he purchased the interest of one of his partners, and two years later became sole owner of the same, which he conducted for seven years. He then, in company with W. H. Osterhout, began operations at Penfield, Clearfield Co., Penn., which he continued for one year. In 1883 he came to Wilcox, and has since acted as superintendent of the Wilcox Tannery. In 1872 he married Miss Ella B., daughter of William D. Ketchum, of Herrick Centre. They have three children living, Bertha, Libbie and William. One son, Allen B., died in 1886. Mr. Clearwater is a member of Capt. Lyon Post, No. 85, G. A. R., of Susquehanna county, and the Nicholson Lodge, I. O. O. F. He is a Republican in politics, and for six years has served as school director of Jones township. He and his family attend the Presbyterian Church.

DR. A. K. CORBIN, Wilcox, was born in Waverly, Tioga Co., N. Y., No vember 25, 1851. His father, John A. Corbin, was born in Bradford county. Penn., and his mother, Emily A. (Kelley) Corbin, was born in Schoharie county, N. Y. They now reside in Bradford, Penn. Our subject was educated at the academy in Owego, Tioga Co., N. Y. He read medicine with Dr. H. N. Eastman, of Owego, and graduated from the College of Physicians and Surgeons of New York City, February 28, 1879, and first began the practice of medicine at Hinsdale, Cattaraugus Co., N. Y. He moved to Clermont, McKean county, August 8, 1881, and in October, 1885, came to Wilcox, where he has since enjoyed an extensive practice. October 9, 1880, he married Miss Tressie, daughter of A. C. Torrey, of Hinsdale, N. Y. They have one child, Arthur LeRoy. Dr. Corbin is a member of the county medical society, supports the Republican party, and is a member of Clermont Lodge, No. 949, I. O. O. F.

JOHN ERNHOUT, lumber manufacturer, Wilcox, was born in the city of Albany, N. Y., March 18, 1822, a son of Christopher Ernhout, who was a native of Albany, N. Y. His grandfather, John Ernhout, was a native of Germany, emigrated to America with Com. Van Rensselaer, and was the first settler in Albany, N. Y., taking up 400 acres of land on the present site of the city. He served as a private through the war of the Revolution, and was among the prominent men of his day. His wife was a native of Holland. They reared a family of thirteen sons and three daughters, of whom Christopher was next to the youngest. Christopher married Miss Lydia Powell, a native of Scotland, and they settled in Ulster county, N. Y. He was a soldier in the war of 1812: was a Jacksonian Democrat, and filled various township offices. He was twice married; his first wife died in 1842, and he afterward married Miss Polly Brannon. Eleven children were born to his first marriage: Hannah (widow of James Mcintosh), Betsy, Harriet, John, Lydia (deceased), James, William (deceased), Henry, George (deceased), Stephen and David. Mr. Ernhout was a prominent member of the Presbyterian Church; he died in 1877. John Ernhout received a common-school education in Ulster county, N. Y. He was married, May 28, 1843, to Miss Milla Stoddard, daughter of Simeon Stoddard, of Massachusetts, the ceremony being performed at the residence of Phineas Stoddard, in Greenfield, Ulster Co., N. Y. In March, 1844, he moved to Callicoon, Sullivan Co., N. Y., where he remained one year, and in 1845 moved to Greenfield, Ulster Co., N. Y., where he engaged largely in the lumbering business for a term of years. In the meantime he built a large hotel in Greenfield, on the Newburgh and Woodbourne plank road, and also bought the large farm formerly owned by Andrew Lefever. He next moved to Ellenville, Ulster county, and built another extensive hotel, with which he connected one of the largest halls outside the city of New York, and also built, as an appurtenance to the hotel, a mammoth barn. In the fall of 1857 he traded the Ellenville property for a tannery and saw-mill business, in Sandburg, Sullivan county, which business he carried on successfully for nine years. This business comprised three saw-mills, one tannery, two stores, two blacksmith-shops with turning lathes, and a large quantity of land. In 1861 he recruited in Sullivan, Ulster and Orange counties, N. Y., 445 men, and joined the Fifty-sixth New York Regiment, in which he served fourteen months, as captain of his company of 112 men, the balance of the recruits being distributed among other companies of the Fifty-sixth. The captain was honorably discharged on account of sickness. For his meritorious act in recruiting so many men, he was offered the lieutenant-colonelcy of his regiment, but declined, as he had promised to remain with the first company he had raised. In 1867 he came to Wilcox, Elk Co., Penn., where he built its present tannery, afterward associating with him the Messrs. Maurice and Jackson Schultz. About twelve years afterward Mr. Ernhout was obliged to retire from the company on account of ill health; he spent two years in California, eventually returning to Wilcox, where he has since been engaged in the manufacture of lumber. His mill has a capacity of about one million feet of lumber per month, and he employs about seventy men to carry on his business; he has a private railroad, with which to transport his logs from the lumber districts. Capt. Ernhout owns 225 acres of valuable lands near Cuba, with fifteen oil wells and two excellent gas wells; also 800 acres of land near Kane, McKean Co., Penn., upon which there are three producing wells, which he intends developing. Mr. Ernhout is an active business man, with marked ability, and is one of the representative citizens of Wilcox. He has always been identified with the Republican party; he is a member of the Episcopal Church. Mrs. Milla Ernhout departed this life in 1877, having borne her husband four children: Perry S., the eldest son, entered the United States service with his father, and was promoted to the naval academy at Annapolis, Md., and from which he was graduated with high honors, but died in the prime of manhood; Marilda S., married Dr. William Scrosburg, of Ulster county, N. Y., and is now deceased; Phineas S. is a lumber manufacturer of Wilcox, and E. L. is a practicing physician of Omaha, Neb.

P. S. ERNHOUT, lumber manufacturer, Wilcox, is a son of John Ernhout, was born in Ulster county, N. Y., February 4, 1851, and came to Elk county with his parents. He received a common-school education, and learned the tanner's trade at the Wilcox Tannery. For five years he held the position of foreman of Osterhout's tannery at Ridgway. He was in business with Mr. J. L. Brown in manufacturing lumber, and in 1882 became one of the members of the Rasselas Lumber Company, and has since had the management of that company. Mr. Ernhout is also interested in the oil business at Kane, Penn. In 1872 he married Miss Annie, daughter of Noah Merriam, of Onondaga county, N. Y. They have one child, Merriam. Mr. Ernhout is a member of Wilcox Lodge, No. 571, F. & A. M., and of the Sons of Temperance, No. 285, of Wilcox. He takes an active part in the temperance cause, and is chairman of the County Prohibition Committee. He has served as school director of Jones township. He is also an elder and trustee in the Wilcox Presbyterian Church, •

GURNEE FREEMAN, lumber manufacturer and farmer, P. O. Wilcox. was born in Tompkins county, N. Y., May 8, 1845. His parents, Stephen and Rosetta (Trowbridge) Freeman, were natives of that county and farmers by occupation. The mother died December 25, 1854, and the father still resides in Tompkins county, N. Y. They reared seven children, six of whom are living: Survillia, widow of William Burch of Ithaca, N. Y.; Mary, wife of George Williams, of Michigan; Gnrnee; Catherine, wife of Elery Brown, of Michigan; Susan, deceased; Stephen and William, who live in Michigan. Gurnee Freeman received a common-school education in Tompkins county, N. Y. In January, 1863, he went to Philipsburgh, Centre Co., Penn., and engaged in the lumber business; he remained there until 1884, when he came to Elk county and purchased his present farm and also engaged in manufacturing lumber. May 1, 1886, he formed a partnership with H . W. Horner in the manufacture of lumber, and also in a general store, under the firm name of Horner & Freeman. January 11, 1868, Mr. Freeman was united in marriage with Miss Henrietta, daughter of Ellis McClellan, of Centre county, Penn. They have five children: William, Harry, Charles, Ellis and Emma. Mr. Freeman is a supporter of the Democratic party, and is a member of Wilcox Lodge, No. 571, F. & A. M. He and family attend the Episcopal Church.

H. W. HORNER, lumber manufacturer and farmer, P. O. Wilcox, was born in Allegany county, N. Y., July 7, 1840. His father, Timothy Horner, was also a native of that county, born April 26, 1819, and his mother, Lydia Ann (Cease) Horner, was a native of Delaware county, N. Y., born December 16, 1816. His father was a millwright by trade, and operated a grist-mill at Angelica, N. Y. He was killed while repairing the Wilcox Mill at that place, December 28, 1849. The mother soon after married again and moved to McKean county, Penn. Our subject was thrown upon his own resources at an early age. He was reared by his uncle and obtained but a limited education. He learned the trade of a miller, which he followed until twenty-six years of age. April 9, 1865, he married Miss Cassie, daughter of Thomas and Agnes (Daly) King, natives of Ireland, and among the early settlers of McKean county, Penn. In 1867 they moved to Michigan and engaged in farming until 1869, when they returned to Wilcox, where for several years Mr. Horner engaged in the butcher business. In 1875 they purchased their present farm in Jones township and began to manufacture lumber. In 1886 was formed the firm of Horner & Freeman. Mr. Horner has three children: Marion, Mabel and Mildred. He is a member of Wilcox Lodge, No. 698. E. A. U.; Wilcox Lodge, No. 571, F. & A. M., and Wilcox Tent of the Knights of Maccabees. He has always taken an active part in Democratic politics. Mr. Horner's parents were members of the Baptist Church. They reared three children: H. W., C. H. and Orpha (wife of W. W. Brewer, of Mount Jewett). Mr. Horner is a hunter, and has killed a great many deer.

J. C. MALONE, jeweler and confectioner. Wilcox, was born in Fox township, Elk Co., Penn., March 20, 1844. His parents were both accidentally poisoned when he was about four years of age. He remained in Elk county until about fourteen years of age, when he went to Smethport, McKean county, and received a common-school education. He learned the jeweler's trade at Smethport, and first started in that business at Port Allegany. In 1861 he enlisted in Company F, Fifty-eighth Pennsylvania Volunteers; was appointed sergeant of his company, and served until the close of the war. In 1868 he came to Wilcox, Elk county, and has since been engaged in his present business. In 1869 he married Miss Maria Louise, daughter of J. D. Leonard, of Kane, McKean Co., Penn., and they have one child, Maud H. Mr. Malone is a member of Wilcox Lodge, No. 571, F. & A. M. He has always been identified with the Republican party, and has filled the offices of auditor, treasurer, school director, and at this writing is assessor of the township. Mrs. Malone is a member of the Presbyterian Church.

ROBERT A. MANETT, superintendent of the wood department of the Wilcox Tanning Company, was born in Sullivan county, N. Y., June 3, 1842. His father, James Manett, is of Scotch descent, and was reared in New York City. His mother, Diantha ( Avery) Manett, was a native of New England. They were among the early settlers of Sullivan county, where they still reside, engaged in farming. They reared ten children, all of whom are living: George (of Washington), Robert A., Clarissa (wife of Leonard Stratton), Lucinda (wife of Charles Shendler), Fannie (first married to Eliphalet Stratton, who died, and she is now the wife of William Cauthers), James Gilbert, Jonathan D.. Harry (of Brockport. Penn.) Eugene and Emma. Mr. Manett received but a limited education, as his parents were poor and could not afford to send him to the subscription schools of those days. In 1859 he engaged with Jackson Schultz, at Lunenkill, Ulster Co., N. Y., and has been in the employ of the Schultz family ever since, with the exception of two years, when he was engaged in the express business at Ellenville, N. Y. He came to Wilcox, Elk Co., Penn., in 1872, and has since held his present position as superintendent of the wood department of the Wilcox Tanning Company, peeling and hauling 25,000 cords of hemlock bark each year. In 1807 he married Miss Mary J., daughter of James Budd, of Ulster county, N. Y. They have three daughters: Lillian, Eula and Laura. He has always been a supporter of the Republican party, casting his first vote for President Lincoln. He has filled the office of overseer of the poor, tax collector, supervisor and school director of Jones township. He joined the Masonic fraternity of Ridgway, and is a charter member of the Wilcox Lodge, No. 571, F. & A. M., and is also a member of the Wilcox Tent of the Knights of the Maccabees.

E. W. RHONE, superintendent of machinery for the Wilcox Tanning Company, was born in Clinton county, Penn., November 28, 1845. His parents, John and Elizabeth (Batdorf) Rhone, were natives of Germany, and farmers by occupation. Mr. Rhone was educated at the township schools of Clinton and Centre counties, and learned the machinist's trade. In 1867 he came to Wilcox, and has since been in the employ of the Wilcox Tanning Company. In 1805 he married Miss Mary Ellen, daughter of Dickerson Cole, of Clinton county, Penn. They have one child, Evaline. Mr. Rhone is identified with the Republican party, and for the last eight years has been secretary of the school board. He is a member of the E. A. U., of Wilcox, and he and his family attend the Presbyterian Church.

MAURICE M. SCHULTZ (deceased) was born in Delaware county, N. Y., February 11, 1827, and died at Wilcox, Elk Co., Penn., May 18, 1884. At the age of sixteen he embarked on a whaling ship for the Arctic seas, and returned to his native land after a voyage of four years. His voyage, and the hardships and experiences attendant upon it, gave him his stern and unswerving peculiarities of character and his robust and hardy physique, thereby well fitting him for the hard and active service of his after life. After his return from the sea, he became a tanner, and engaged extensively in that business up to the time of his death. He operated a tannery at Sparrow Bush, N. Y., from 1800 to 1800, and during these years accumulated a goodly fortune. At the time he disposed of his tannery at that place, he proposed to retire from active life, but after a pleasure trip to Europe of a year's duration, he was again persuaded to embark in the tanning enterprise, this time at Wilcox, Elk county. From the summer of 1877, up to the time of his death, he was at the head of the firm doing business under the name of the Wilcox Tanning Company. Mr. Schultz had exclusive charge of the landed and manufacturing interests of this company, and by his energy, fidelity and perseverance, he commanded not only the implicit confidence of the other members of this firm, but also the admiration and respect of the community in which he lived. He was kind-hearted and generous, and never turned a deaf ear to the appeals of the less fortunate in life. His wife, Mary A. (Atherton) Schultz, still survives him, also two sons and one daughter: Norman (residing in New York City), Irving (residing in Wilcox, Penn.) and Mrs. Edward Barnes (of Orange, N. J.). The Wilcox Tannery is now conducted by his two sons, Mr. Irving Schultz being the resident member, and having the general supervision of the same.

MARTIN SOWERS, retired, Wilcox, was born in Germany, November 30, 1831, a son of George and Barbara Sowers, and immigrated to America in 1849. He first located near Philadelphia, Penn., where he engaged in farming for a number of years. From there he moved to Clermont, and thence to Williamsville, and then to Kane, McKean county, where for two years he was engaged in the restaurant business. He came to Wilcox in 1865, and conducted

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