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and Tionesta creek in that corner. The Johnson run basin, east of Wilcox, is the leading agricultural district of this township. Of the principal coal basins, one lies between the East and West Clarion creeks, and includes the Bucktail mines, and the other between the West Clarion and the Bridgetown and Highland settlements. In the first, two layers of coal, three feet and three and a half feet, separated by eighteen feet of sandstone, shale and fire-clay, were found before passing below 304 feet; while in the second, at the top of Pistner's hill, similar veins were found before reaching 297 feet as reported in 1865. In both places inferior coal was found in seams at from 60 to 200 feet below openings. On the line between warrants 3295-6, west on road leading from the Catholic church to Pistner's, was Gen. Kane's limestone quarry, showing about eight feet of hard, massive, blue limestone, in 1879, when it was quarried to be burned in a kiln adjoining. The elevation of the top of limestone at the quarry is 1,920 feet above tide, being higher than the coal at the Bucktail openings.

The Bucktail mines were worked in 1883, under Foreman W. H. Harris. The elevation of the bottom at the lower of the two openings was 1,900 feet, and the dip of the bed, east of south, 2.5 to 3 feet per hundred. The two gangways were 36 feet apart, each running north for about 135 feet, when they changed to east of north and ran 275 feet. The average thickness of coal here was 2.9; although at five openings made prior to 1883 the bed was only sixteen inches thick. In 1876, however, a depth of three and a half feet was discovered back of the outcrop.

In the eastern part of warrant 2610, a coal bed outcropped at an elevation of 1,970 feet at Weitoff's farm, northwest corner of warrant 2564, at 2,005 feet, and on Stone hill at 1,785 feet. At Westcott's old coal drift, south of the forks of road at Catholic church, the Clarion coal was opened prior to 1883, and south of Rasselas depot the railroad was cut through a bed of this coal from two and a half to three feet in depth. In the northern part of warrant 3291, a three-foot bed was worked, the shaft opening into bed being 1,775 feet above tide, while the bed at Johnson's spring, in warrant 3293, was only 1,740 feet above tide. In October, 1874, a Mr. Nolquist, under direction of Gen. Kane, made an opening near Silver Creek, at 1,775 feet elevation, where the Schultz mine was subsequently worked. Four hundred feet west of this, at 1,825 feet, another coal outcrop was worked, and in June, 1878, coal beds were opened on the summit between Big and Little Mill creeks, the product resembling the old Montmorenci coal.

The resident tax-payers of Sergeant township (later Jones township), in 1844, were Rasselas W. Brown, Erastus and Nathaniel Burlingame, John W. Blake, Peter Beckwith, Walter Brush, Jedediah Brownell (father of Judge Brownell of Smethport), Joel Demming, Joseph Freeman, Sumner Latham, D. D. Miner, A. B. Miner, John Montgomery, Enos Sweet, John Mowatt, Hosea Miriam, Tim B. Phelps, W. P. Wilcox, A. I. Wilcox, Ira Westcott, John C. Johnson, Miami York and Ebenezer Lee, A. I. Wilcox was assessor. In 1846 the names of Henry and G. T. Warner, Noah Strubble and Jacob Post are found among the tax-payers of this township.

The elections for Jones township were held February 27, 1844. Erastus Burlingame and Rasselas W. Brown were elected justices; Rasselas W. Brown and Jacob Meffert, supervisors; Ira Westcott, constable; E. Burlingame. assessor; Ebenezer Lee, J. Montgomery, John W. Blake, Jacob Meffert, Ira Westcott and R. W. Brown, school directors; J. C. Johnson, clerk; D. D. Minor and J. Montgomery, overseers of poor; S. Latham, D. D. Minor and Ira Westcott, auditors; R. W. Brown, judge, and J. C. Johnson and D. D. Minor, inspectors of elections. Henry Warner was elected justice in 1849, and R. W. Brown, C. H. Fuller and G. T. Warner in 1850. The officers elected in February, 1890, are E. O. Aldrich, justice; C. O. Carlson, clerk: C. H. Horner, collector; Martin Sowers, treasurer; Irving Schultz and James H. Wells, school directors; Irving Schultz and Aaron Larson, supervisors, and F. W. Aldrich, auditor.

In Jones township, in 1850, were forty-five families and forty-five dwellings, 337 inhabitants, twentv-three farms and one industry (mill). The population in 1880 was 1,427. In 1888 there were 218 Republican, 125 Democratic and 3 Prohibitionist votes cast, representing about 1,740 inhabitants. A large number of unnaturalized Swedes, and other foreign residents, swell the total considerably.

In 1876 J. L. Brown contributed a sketch of the early history of Jones township to the school history prepared by Mr. Dixon that year. He states that the name is derived from Andrew M. Jones, who was owner of almost all the 120 square miles embraced in this division of Elk county. Oliphalet Covil was the pioneer who erected a log-house in 1836. In 1837 Isaiah Wilcox, Beckwith, Crandall, Butterfield, Hewey, Updyke, Dix, Minor and Buell located here. R. W. Brown, who came in 1838. was the only ante-forty settler, who was a resident in 1876. Col. W. P. Wilcox came in 1840, having settled just north of the line, at Williamsville in 1831. In 1837 James Hewey was born, his being the first birth in the township. The first schoolhouse was erected in 1842, on the St. Mary's road. In 1843 a stone house was built on the Smethport and Milesburg turnpike. The district was organized February 27, 1844, with R. W. Brown, Ebenezer Lee, Ira Westcott, J. Montgomery, Jacob Meffert and J. W. Blake, directors. Peter Hardy presided over the school of 1842. until succeeded by Sibyl Beckwith. Octavia Howard, J. Burlingame, Clarissa Warner, Mary Warner, Mary Fall, Amanda H. Miriam (Mrs. Brown), E. Burlingame and Miss Walters taught successively here, until the building was sold in 1857. In the stone building, Olive J. Brown and J. Burlingame taught for a while. This house is still standing, but little used. In 1846 a log house was erected on the road to the Sweet farm, near the junction with the turnpike, in which Clarissa Warner, Emma Howard, Miss Brown (Mrs. Chapin of Ridgway), Misses Medbury and Scull presided successively. The Weidert school was built in 1858, and opened by G. R. Allen, followed by J. L. Brown. The stone school-house built in 1856. near the Warner farm, was abandoned shortly after. In 1859-60 the first school-house at Wilcox was opened by Matilda Horton. This was sold in 1870, when the large school-building commenced in 1868 was partly finished. In 1861 the Markert street house was built and opened by Jerry Burlingame.

Williamsville is a village on the Milesburg and Smethport turnpike. Hon. William P. Wilcox used to reside at this place. It is near McKean county, and is one of the longest established post-offices in Elk county.

This settlement, now called Rasselas, named in honor of Rasselas Wilcox Brown, has a Catholic church dedicated to the honor of the Holy Cross. As far as can now be ascertained, that parish dates back to 1855, as the baptismal records show, and was attended by the Benedictine Fathers of St. Mary's until September 20, 1874, when it was affiliated to the Warren Mission, then in charge of Rev. M. A. Delaroque, still pastor of that mission. In 1878 Rev. Bernard Blocker became pastor of it. The -new stone church was begun in 1884, and in 1886 work thereon was discontinued. In 1888 Rev. George Winkler took charge of the mission, and work was resumed. It is a solid stone church, 40x80, with slate roof of Gothic style. Forty families constitute the congregation.

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The Rasselas Lumber Company was organized in 1882, with J. L. Brown, P. S. Ernhout, W. W. Brown and H. H. Loomis, members. Their mills, at the head of Johnson's run near the New York, Lake Erie & Western Railroad track, were erected that year, but were burned in 1884, when the present large mill was erected. The company owned 1,300 acres of land.

Instanter, seven miles south of the site of Instanter of ancient times, is the name of a new depot on the new C. & J. Railroad... .The tannery of Shultz ifc Hoyt was established at this point, and opened in January, 1890.

New Flanders was once the settlement of a colony sent here by the Belgian government. One Victor DeHam conceived the idea of colonization in Elk county, and in 1846 he obtained a number of Belgian colonists by contract, and, with DeHam as leader, New Flanders was founded. But DeHam had not carefully computed the cost of such an experiment, and in a brief period his money gave out, and the colonists, abandoning the enterprise, went to work elsewhere. Many descendants of these Belgians are still living in the county and are leading citizens. One old house, built in 1857, is all that remains of the old city of New Flanders. But the town is now full of life, and its enterprises are backed by men of large means. Around on every side is a deep forest of valuable timber, and here, on these bottom lands in and around New Flanders, the mills will be built to do the cutting. Here are fine railroad and water privileges, and elegant locations for factories. It is a very pleasantly located village, consisting of two hotels, several stores, a meat market and other industries. It is about two miles from Ketner by wagon road, on the road from St. Mary's to Rasselas, and on the recently completed Johnsonburg & Clermont Railroad. At or near the old settlement is the new one of Glen Hazel. The name and wonderful growth of this little town came from the fact that the firm of B. F. Hazleton & Co. have lately built a large saw-mill there, and are building miles of railroad, peeling large quantities of bark, putting in logs and other numerous work, giving employment to a large number of workingmen who are the backbone of any lively business town. At this point the Johnsonburg & Erie Railroads separate. The station on the Erie is called Ketner, and was the post-office for Glen Hazel until recently. The town has several stores, restaurants, markets, boarding houses, etc. The post-office was established in July, 1889, with Mr. Watson in charge.

Wilcox, named in honor of Col. A. I. Wilcox, is located fourteen miles north of the county seat on the Philadelphia & Erie Railroad. It is noted for its immense tannery, for one of the best hotels in the State, for its palatial residences, its intelligent men and its charming women. The first post-office at the place was opened by A. I. Wilcox, in 1858 or 1859, with A. T. Aldrich assistant. The last-named was de facto postmaster, but was not commissioned until 1860, since which time he has filled this position. The sale of stamps for year ending June 13,1889, amounted to $1,553. A newspaper correspondent, referring to this official in 1889, says: "It looked strange, yet it proved true, that a man who had been guilty of 'offensive partisanship' ever since he was a man grown, was still receiving a salary as postmaster under a Democratic administration. The only explanation we could gather for this state of affairs was that no Democrat wanted the office who was qualified to hold it, therefore Aldrich was left in possession. It looks now very much like a life lease. At the post-office we met those old Republican war horses, Jim Malone and Joe Tambini. the former as hale and hearty as when he was serving his country in Company F, of the old Fifty-eighth."

The pioneer store was built by A. I. & Lucius Wilcox, who carried on business until 1861, when A. T. Aldrich purchased the stock and carried on bus

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