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The capital stock was $50,000. After the retirement of Messrs. Short and Singerly, J. S. Hyde became a member of this firm. Mr. Vollmer retired later, so that J. K. P. Hall, John G. Hall and the Hyde estate are the present proprietors. The capital stock is continued at $50,000. The office is in the Hall building erected by Mr. Hall in 1874.

Hotels.—The first hotel was kept, where the Silver Creek Tannery now is, by Buehhaga. This was subsequently conducted by Graham, and in 1851 was closed, and near by E. C. Schultz established his tannery. The next hotel was established by Anthony Fochtraan in 1845. This house stood on the hill opposite J. Walker's old home and was named the Lion Hotel. On his death the business was discontinued.

The Washington House was established by Joseph Luhr in 1847 and conducted by him until 1872, when it was rented to various parties, the last renter being Peter Shoup, who carried it on until 1887.

The Franklin House was erected by Anthony Hanbauser in 1849. After conducting the house for about twelve years he leased the house. The house was next sold to William Geis, who conducted it until its sale to Anthony Koch, who sold to Mr. Boyer in 1886.

St. Mary's Hotel was established about 1855 by M. Wellendorf, who conducted the house for a number of years, after which his children carried on business there up to 1877-78.

The Alpine, where is now the Commercial, was built by Joseph Windfelder after the war. Herman Kretz was tenant in 1866-67. Afterward Mr. Scull conducted the house until its destruction in May, 1872. It was rebuilt by John Wachtel, who carried it on until Riley Brothers purchased it and became owners in 1878. In 1884 they sold to Mrs. Jackson, who sold to William Geis, the present proprietor. During Riley Brothers' administration the name was changed to Commercial.

The City Hotel was built by Lawrence Vogel in 1886. On his death in 1887 the widow rented the house to N. McCarty, who is the present proprietor.

Churches.—The Catholic Church of St. Mary's is contemporary with the first settlement of Benzinger township. Father Alexander was the first priest,* followed by Rev. Borgess, who attended the church at Irishtown in 184.3, and visited this, then new, settlement. A church building was erected in 1845, on the triangular piece of ground between Centre, Markus and Cross streets. This house was burned in 1850, giving place to the present stone church, completed in 1852. In 1850 the Benedictine Fathers took possession of this old Redemptorist mission, and for forty years have labored among the people. One at least of the many illustrious men of this religious order deserves mention here, as by work and family he was connected with St. Mary's—Arch-Abbot Boniface Wimmer, born January 14J 1809, near Ratisbon, Bavaria, died at St. Vincent's Abbey, near Latrobe, Penn., December 8, 1887. His original Christian name was Sebastian, which of course was lost in the new religious name, Boniface. He completed a classical course of eight years, at Ratisbon, and entered the Munich University in 1827, with the object of graduating from the law school, but changing his intention entered the Ratisbon Seminary, and on July 31, 1831, was ordained priest. In 1832 he entered the Benedictine Monastery, at Metten. From 1833 to 1846 he was priest and pro

*It is related by Andrew Reilly, of Smethport, that In 1.H4.' he set out for liellefonte to seek a priest to attend his dying brother. On arriving at liidtrway he learned that a priest had arrived at the German settlement (St. Mary's), and on arriving there told Father Alexander his mission. The weather was very cold, but the priest set out on the long weary journey and reached Xunandah Creek in time to administer the last sacrament.

fessor at Edeastetten, and in 1840 was promoted to a chair in Louis Gymnasium, Munich. Meantime emigration to the United States was large and some calls for priests came from beyond the Atlantic. The young Benedictine concluded to be among the pioneers and conceived the plan of establishing au abbey in the United States. The plan met with some obstacles, but the mis sionary spirit conquered, and ultimately King Louis I. favored the proposition and came to bid farewell to the priest, the four students and the fifteen young men who set out in August, 1846. They arrived at New York September 16. and soon reported to Bishop O'Connor, who transferred to them the church property, where St .Vincent's Abbey now stands. In 1850 he founded the priory of St. Mary. In 1S54 he visited Rome, and the title of abbot was conferred on him, and the same year the monks at St. Vincent were incorporated under the title "The Benedictine Society of Westmoreland County." Afterward he turned his attention to the West, establishing houses in Kansas, Minnesota and Chicago, and later to the South, in 1876-77, establishing an abbey in Louisiana, one in North Carolina, one in Virginia, one in Alabama, one in Georgia, and also one at Newark, N. J. In 1881 he established a monastery in Illinois. On Skidaway Island, near Savannah, he established a school for colored children, and the Church of the Sacred Heart, at Savannah, for colored citizens. December 29, 1883, he was raised to the dignity of Arch-Abbot. The attending ceremonies were the most interesting known in the history of the Benedictines on this continent. In July, 1877, Father Paulinus was succeeded by Father Celestine as prior and Rev. F. Edwards took the place of Father Dennis as priest of the English Catholic Church. In February, 1890, Father Innocent was pastor and Rev. Placitus Piltz, O. S. B., pastor of St. Mary's.

The Shiloh Presbyterian Church was organized May 26. 1867, but on July 8, 1866, the first Protestant sermon was preached by Rev. D. Hull, of Northumberland Presbytery, at St. Mary's. This sermon was given in Joseph Patton's small office, where occasional services were held by Mr. Hall until the meeting of his presbytery on the third Tuesday in April, 1867, when, on the petitions of certain parties, a committee, Revs. Hull and Sturgess and Elder Quiggle, was appointed to organize a church. This committee met with the people in the dining-room of the Alpine House (then operated by H. Kretz), May 26, when an organization was effected with the following members: Joseph and Jennet Patton, James, Mary, Edward and Eliza Mitchell, Christian Folkrod, Elizabeth, Louisa E., George P. and John W. Folkrod and Eugene and Ann Tormey. Joseph Patton was chosen elder and E. Mitchell deacon. Rev. Mr. Hull was authorized to continue reception of members and perform the services of ordination and installation two weeks hence. On that date James and Jennie Snadden and Robert Martin were admitted to membership, and the first-named admitted additional elder. The above-named individuals were duly set apart to the offices to which they were elected with appropriate services, when the present title was given to this church, which was incorporated January 16, 1869, on petition of James Snadden, Samuel Reynolds, Evan J. Russ, John Wylie, Charles Finney, Charles Ames and Joseph R. Patton. The latter, in 186.'5, came to St. Mary's as superintendent of the St. Mary's Coal Company, and was the main supporter of the Shiloh Presbyterian Church. He died January 27, 1884, having served as clerk up to December, 1882, when W. W. Ames succeeded him in this office. On his departure for Brookville on September 1, 1888, the pastor became the acting session clerk. Rev. Mr. Hull supplied the pulpit until May 15, 1872, when Rev. Robert White succeeded, and was installed pastor and served until 1877. Rev. S. T. Thompson was called and presided here in March, 1880. He remained here until August 19, 1884. In May, 1885, Dr. Kennedy came, and was installed in the fall of that year. A church house was built some time after iacorporation on lots donated by Dr. Shirley, of Reading, Penn. The value of building and lots is about $3,100. The number of members recorded is seventy, and the Sunday-school 120.

Convent and Convent Schools.—In 1848 a few Sisters of Notre Dame came here to teach the female schools. They left the field shortly, or on November 20, 1849. Mother M. Walburg Deitrich, daughter of J. Dietrich, was born in Wurtemburg, Germany, May 20, 1802, and made her religious profession as a Benedictine nun in 1834, at the ancient convent of St. Walburg. In June. 1852, she came to the United States with other sisters—Mother Benedict Reip and Sister Maura—of the order, and on July 22, of that year, Mother Reip established the first Benedictine convent in this country, at St. Mary's, in a small frame building where is now the monastery. Prior to her death, on April 27, 1876, she saw no less than thirty-two convents of Benedictine nuns established in the United States. Her sister nuns were not so fortunate. Mother Reip died in Minnesota and Sister Maura at Erie.

The first reception of nuns took place in October 1853, Sisters Scholastica, Alexia and Lidwina, of St. Walburg's, being received. At this time also twelve novices were received, of whom Sister Bernardo (formerly Miss Mary Weidenboerner), Sister Edwarda (Miss Pauline Redant), Sister Luitgard (Miss Mary Butsch) and Sister Hildegard (Miss Theresa Renner) were residents of St. Mary's. Of the others, Sister Placida is the only one now in the convent. The present Sister Bernardo is a sister of the first named. There were two receptions in 1854, when seven sisters entered this convent. In February, 1855, Sister Nepomecene entered and is now here. In December, three nuns from St. Walburg arrived, who afterward went forth to aid in establishing other convents.

In 1856 Sisters Frances, Ruperta and Anselma, with Sister Scholastica as Superior, went to Erie and established the present convent there. Miss Riedderer accompanied them as a postulant. There are now sixty-seven sisters there. In March, 1857, Mother Emerana, accompanied by Sisters Benedicta, Alfonsa, Philomena and Mienrad, went to Indiana, Penn., but finding the location unsuitable, moved to Newark, where they established the present convent. In June, 1857, Mother Benedicta Reip moved to St. Cloud, Minn., with the greater number of the sisters of this house and established a convent there. After the departure of the pioneer prioress, Sister Theresa was appointed. She presided over the convent until 1875, when Mother Isadore (Miss Magdalene Piltz), who entered here in 1861, succeeded, having hitherto filled the position for one year. In July, 1857, Sister Wendelin (Miss Margaret Rieder) and others were received. In 1858, there were four postulants received, among them Miss Sarah Ann Blakely (Sister Beatrice), the first directress of the new academy, which position she filled until 1863, when she and other sisters moved to Nebraska City, Neb., to establish the convent there. In 1859 the work of building a house was commenced, and in 1860 the large stone convent was completed under the supervision of Father Giles, then prior of the monastery. This building was opened in December, 1860. At this time there were over thirty sisters forming the community, exclusive of all formerly sent forth to found new convents. In 1859-60 a few receptions are recorded, among whom were Sister Ida, now in the convent, and Sisters Martha, Floriana and Justiuiae, and in October, 1861, Sisters Mary (Miss Mary Glenn), Cunnigunda (Miss Christina Thomas), Frances (Miss Magdalena Fox) and Agnes (Miss Tillie Ackerman). The latter is deceased, but the other Sisters are now in the fessOr at Edenstetten, and in 1840 was promoted to a chair in Louis Gymnasium, Munich. Meantime emigration to the United States was large and some calls for priests came from beyond the Atlantic. The young Benedictine concluded to be among the pioneers and conceived the plan of establishing an abbey in the United States. The plan met with some obstacles, but the missionary spirit conquered, and ultimately King Louis I. favored the proposition and came to bid farewell to the priest, the four students and the fifteen young men who set out in August, 1846. They arrived at New York September 16. and soon reported to Bishop O'Connor, who transferred to them the church property, where St .Vincent's Abbey now stands. In 1850 he founded the priory of St. Mary. In 1854 he visited Rome, and the title of abbot was conferred on him, and the same year the monks at St. Vincent were incorporated under the title "The Benedictine Society of Westmoreland County." Afterward he turned his attention to the West, establishing houses in Kansas, Minnesota and Chicago, and later to the South, in 1876-77, establishing an abbey in Louisiana, one in North Carolina, one in Virginia, one in Alabama, one in Georgia, and also one at Newark, N. J. In 1881 he established a monastery in Illinois. On Skidaway Island, near Savannah, he established a school for colored children, and the Church of the Sacred Heart, at Savannah, for colored citizens. December 29, 1883, he was raised to the dignity of Arch-Abbot. The attending ceremonies were the most interesting known in the history of the Benedictines on this continent. In July, 1877, Father Paulinus was succeeded by Father Celestino as prior and Rev. F. Edwards took the place of Father Dennis as priest of the English Catholic Church. In February, 1890, Father Innocent was pastor and Rev. Placitus Piltz, O. S. B., pastor of St. Mary's.

The Shiloh Presbyterian Church was organized May 26. 1867, but on July 8, 1866, the first Protestant sermon was preached by Rev. D. Hull, of Northumberland Presbytery, at St. Mary's. This sermon was given in Joseph Patton's small office, where occasional services were held by Mr. Hull until the meeting of his presbytery on the third Tuesday in April, 1S67, when, on the petitions of certain parties, a committee, Revs. Hull and Sturgess and Elder Quiggle, was appointed to organize a church. This committee met with the people in the dining-room of the Alpine House (then operated by H. Kretz), May 26, when an organization was effected with the following members: Joseph and Jennet Patton, James, Mary, Edward and Eliza Mitchell, Christian Folkrod, Elizabeth, Louisa E., George P. and John W. Folkrod and Eugene and Ann Tormey. Joseph Patton was chosen elder and E. Mitchell deacon, Rev. Mr. Hull was authorized to continue reception of members and perform the services of ordination and installation two weeks hence. On that date James and Jennie Snadden and Robert Martin were admitted to membership, and the first-named admitted additional elder. The above-named individuals were duly set apart to the offices to which they were elected with appropriate services, when the present title was given to this church, which was incorporated January 16, 1869, on petition of James Snadden, Samuel Reynolds, Evan J. Russ, John Wylie, Charles Finney, Charles Ames and Joseph R. Patton. The latter, in 1863, came to St. Mary's as superintendent of the St. Mary's Coal Company, and was the main supporter of the Shiloh Presbyterian Church. He died January 27, 1884, having served as clerk up to December, 1882, when W. W. Ames succeeded him in this office. On his departure for Brookville on September 1, 1888, the pastor became the acting session clerk. Rev. Mr. Hull supplied the pulpit until May 15, 1872, when Rev. Robert White succeeded, and was installed pastor and served until 1877. Rev. S. T. Thompson was called and presided here in March, 1880. He remained here until August 19, 1884. In May, 1885, Dr. Kennedy came, and was installed in the fall of that year. A church house was built some time after incorporation on lots donated by Dr. Shirley, of Reading, Penn. The value of building and lots is about 13,100. The number of members recorded is seventy, and the Sundav-school 120.

Convent and Convent Schools.—In 1848 a few Sisters of Notre Dame came here to teach the female schools. They left the field shortly, or on November 20, 1849. Mother M. Walburg Deitrich, daughter of J. Dietrich, was born in Wurtemburg, Germany, May 20, 1802, and made her religious profession as a Benedictine nun in 1834, at the ancient convent of St. Walburg. In June, 1852, she came to the United States with other sisters—Mother Benedict Iteip and Sister Maura—of the order, and on July 22, of that year, Mother Beip established the first Benedictine convent in this country, at St. Mary's, in a small frame building where is now the monastery. Prior to her death, on April 27, 1876, she saw no less than thirty-two convents of Benedictine nuns established in the United States. Her sister nuns were not so fortunate. Mother Reip died in Minnesota and Sister Maura at Erie.

The first reception of nuns took place in October 1853, Sisters Scholastica, Alexia and Lidwina, of St. Walburg's, being received. At this time also twelve novices were received, of whom Sister Bernardo (formerly Miss Mary Weidenboerner), Sister Edwarda (Miss Pauline Redant), Sister Luitgard (Miss Mary Butsch) and Sister Hildegard (Miss Theresa Renner) were residents of St. Mary's. Of the others, Sister Placidais the only one now in the convent. The present Sister Bernardo is a sister of the first named. There were two receptions in 1854, when seven sisters entered this convent. In February, 1855, Sister Nepomecene entered and is now here. In December, three nuns from St. Walburg arrived, who afterward went forth to aid in establishing other convents.

In 1856 Sisters Frances, Ruperta and Anselma, with Sister Scholastica as Superior, went to Erie and established the present convent there. Miss Riedderer accompanied them as a postulant. There are now sixty-seven sisters there. In March, 1857, Mother Emerana, accompanied by Sisters Benedicta, Alfonsa, Philomena and Mienrad, went to Indiana, Penn., but finding the location unsuitable, moved to Newark, where they established the present convent. In June, 1857, Mother Benedicta Reip moved to St. Cloud, Minn., with the greater number of the sisters of this house and established a convent there. After the departure of the pioneer prioress, Sister Theresa was appointed. She presided over the convent until 1875, when Mother Isadore (Miss Magdalene Piltz), who entered here in 1861, succeeded, having hitherto filled the position for one year. In July, 1857, Sister Wendelin (Miss Margaret Rieder) and others were received. In 1858, there were four postulants received, among them Miss Sarah Ann Blakely (Sister Beatrice), the first directress of the new academy, which position she filled until 1863, when she and other sisters moved to Nebraska City, Neb., to establish the convent there. In 1859 the work of building a house was commenced, and in 1860 the large stone convent was completed under the supervision of Father Giles, then prior of the monastery. This building was opened in December, 1860. At this time there were over thirty sisters forming the community, exclusive of all formerly sent forth to found new convents. In 1859-60 a few receptions are recorded, among whom were Sister Ida, now in the convent, and Sisters Martha, Floriana and Justiniae, and in October, 1861, Sisters Mary (Miss Mary Glenn), Cunnigunda (Miss Christina Thomas), Frances (Miss Magdalena Fox) and Agnes (Miss Tillie Ackerman). The latter is deceased, but the other Sisters are now in the

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