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act of the legislature, March 3, 1848. Ignatius Garner was elected first burgess, followed in 1849 by Anthony Hanhauser; 1850, George F. Schaffor; 1851, F. X. Biberger; 1855, Edward Babel, and 1856, E. C. Schultz. It is said that George Garner filled this office. The clerks were Matthias Wollen dorf, 1849; Ignatius Garner, 1850-51; Louis Vollmer, 1851; Bernard Eckle. 1S53; Casper Wehner, 1854; John Butsch, 1855; Joseph Wilhelm, 1856; Michael Brunner, 1857... B. Weidenboerner was president of the council until succeeded by Charles Luhr in 1855. In 1856 Charles Luhr was com missioned justice, serving until 1863.

On April 25, 1857, Louis Vollmer was elected burgess; Bernard Belle, John Butsch, G. F. Schaffer, Gerhard Schoening and Michael Brunner, conn pilmen; Messrs. Eckle, Butsch, Schaffer, Vollmer, Francis Weis and Michael Fry, school directors; Wendel Lion, town constable; C. Chisbe, assessor; Henry Severing, high constable; George Weis and Philip Stephen, overseers of poor; Jacob Shoat, auditor; John C. Weidenboerner, judge, with Michael Schenebeck and Lorenzo Westnetzer, inspectors of elections. The office of burgess has been filled since that time by the following named citizens: Louis Vollmer, 1858; G. Edward Weis, 1859-60-68-69-70; Anthony Kuntz, 1801: James Blakeley, 1862- 63; Joseph Windfelder, 1864; Matthias Wellendorf, 1865-73-77; F. X. Biberger, 1866; Bernard Eckle, 1867; Charles Luhr, 1872; Charles Weis, 1874-76-79-80; George Weidenboerner, 1875; Michael Mc Nally, 1878; Josiah Berden, 1881; Michael Gerg, 1882; Charles Weis, 188384; H. A. Hall, 1885-89.... Joseph Hanhauser is present clerk, succeeding Charles Luhr, who was secretary in 1859-64, when Joseph Wilhelm was appointed. In 1865 John Butsch was secretary, and in 1866 C. Luhr was appointed; in 1869, M. Brunner; in 1871, E. Spellenberg; in 1875, C. Luhr, who served to 1887.

The following officers were elected in February, 1890: Justice of the peace, Charles Weis; chief burgess, Adam Pistner; town council, John Vollmer. George Schlimm; school directors, Frank Goetz, Thomas Ernst; high constable, Thomas Valentine; tax collector, George Hoehn; overseer of poor, Joseph Schauer; judge of election, John G. Volk; inspectors of election, A. Kuntz, William Beecher; auditor, A. C. Schaut.

Water Company.—The St. Mary's Water Company was incorporated July 6, 1889, with J. K. P. Hall, president; George Weidenboerner, secretary, and Charles Luhr, treasurer. The directors are J. K. P. Hall, George Krellner. John Schauer, Andrew Saul, John Rogan and George Schlimm. The water rights were granted to the borough by the Benedictine Father, and right of way between the dam and borough obtained variously: The water is brought from Silver creek, which is dammed one and a half miles above the large stone church, and the waters are led 4,000 feet east of this dam to the reservoir, where the engine-house stands. This reservoir is 160 feet above the depot at St. Mary's. Mr. Thomas, of Clarion, is superintendent of construction.

Gas Companies. — St. Mary's Gas Company was organized under the law. May 9, 1889, with A. Kaul, J. K. P. Hall, Eben J. Russ, Charles Luhr and George Krellner, stockholders. The object was to mine for gas in Ridgway township, and convey it to St. Mary's by pipe line for use of consumers. Charles Luhr was elected president, and Harry A. Hall, secretary. In July ninety-four acres were purchased west of Johnsonburg, where two wells are being drilled by Irving Schultz for the company. In August a Mr. Conroy contracted to lay seven and one-quarter miles of pipe from the wells to the limits, and also seven miles within the borough—the contract calling for completion in October. Work on the main line and in the borough was at once entered upon.... The new gas company of St. Mary's was organized January 1, 1890, with Joseph Schliinm, president; E. W. Kuntz, secretary; Louis Gies, treasurer, and they, with George Reusher, Sebastian Craft, Frank Goetz, Theodore Miller and F. A. Ehrich, formed the board of directors.... The Silver Creek Gas & Oil Company of St. Mary's was incorporated in November, 1889, and in February, 1890, work was begun on their well below the monastery.

Fire Companies.—St. Mary's Fire Company, No. 1, was incorporated in May, 1875, with George Schmidt, Philip Meyer, Frank Gerg, Charles Kuffin and John W. Fox, subscribers and directors. In 1877 Elk Fire Company was in charge of Marshal G. E. Weis, with John Krug and A. "Weis, assistants; J. M. Mecnm, engineer; A. Auman and Charles Weis, captains; W. W. Ames, president; P. B. Wachtel, secretary, and John Krug, treasurer.... The Star Hose Company, No. 2, was organized in January, 1890, and the following officers elected: President, Mat Schieler; first vice-president, George A. Valentine; second vice-president, Ralph Lawrence; secretary, W. A. Klausman; financial secretary, Joseph Imhoff; treasurer, John Swartzfisher; foreman, George Foster; first assistant foreman, A. Benninger; second assistant foreman, George Loeffler....The Citizen's Hose Company was organized Feb uary 21, 1890, with following named officers: Dr. A. Mullhaupt, president; W. L. Price, vice-president; C. s. Wilmarth, secretary, and N. J. Tierney, treasurer. In the fall of 1889 the borough council received 1,000 feet of hose, and new hose-cart and engine.

Fires.—The fire of May, 1850, which destroyed the old church building was the first.... The new grist-mill at St. Mary's was burned November 22, 1852 .... The fire of June 14, 1871, destroyed three buildings on Mary street, in the vicinity of Walker's hardware store... .On May 2, 1872, the Alpine House and other buildings were destroyed.... The Ellis mills at Blue Rock were destroyed by fire, July 24, 1873; no less than 650,000 feet of lumber, 400,000 lath and 15,000 pickets were destroyed.

The fire of July 25, 1880, destroyed the following named buildings: Coryell & Russ, store, warehouse; Meecum's residence; W. W. Ames' office; John Smith's tobacco factory, store-room and residence; Joseph Rosenhoffer's two dwelling houses and barn; A. Auman's and John Seal's residences; John Smith's business house; J." Wilhelm's hotel and two store-houses; Ed. McBride's three store buildings and barn; A. Geeck's barber shop and dwelling; A. Meissal's bakery, store and dwelling; A. Schauer's store, saloon and dwelling; P. B. Wachtel's store and dwelling; Riley Bros.' hotel and barns; Charles Luhr's dwelling house; railroad depot; Vogel's hotel and brewery; J. F. Windfelder's hotel; J. E. Weidenboerner's store-house; L. Wittman's store; J. W. Wilhelm's store, and George Schaut's large building, containing two stores, photograph gallery and two flats. The total loss was placed at $104,000.

The fire of February 16, 1889, threatened the Rettger house on Maurus street. To the firemen and waterworks system its escape from total destruction is due.

Industries.—The Penn Lumber Company was chartered in March, 1887, with Andrew Kaul of St. Mary's, president; J. K. P. Hall, secretary and treasurer; A. Kaul, J. S. Schultz, W. H. Hyde, J. G. Hall and B. F.*Hall, directors. This company is composed of individual owners of lands and mills, banded together for the purpose of manufacturing and selling lumber. Each mill sends to the head office at St. Mary's regular reports, and from• this office advices are furnished the offices at Pittsburgh and Philadelphia,, whence information is returned relating to the stock required. The products of the mills is about 80,000,000 feet annually. The present president and secretary are the same as in 1887. J. B. Given, of Philadelphia, was general manager up to the date of his death, in February, 1890. William H. Hyde, J. G. Hall, A. Kaul, John Ernhout and J. B. Given are directors. Fred. Wilmarth is sales agent at Pittsburgh. The Penn Lumber Company markets the cut of the following named mills: The Eagle Valley & Gallagher Run; Saw-mill Run and the Farm mill of the Hyde estate; Beech wood, of the Beechwood Lumber Company; Rathbun, of Andrew Kaul & Co.; Summit mill, of A. Kaul; Daguscahonda and Wilcox mills, of Jackson; S. Schultz; Carman & Vineyard Run mills of the Portland Lumber Company, and Truman mills of Arthur's Coal & Lumber Company. The old Benezette mill is also in this category, but not included, as the work there is about closed.

The Hall & Kaul lands in Benzinger, Jay, Fox and Jones townships, together with two tracts in Cameron county, aggregate 40,000 acres, exclusive of their lands as members of the Portland company. This huge tract is operated by the owners, giving direct employment to about 700 hands, and, being among the largest shippers known to the Pennsylvania company, contribute largely to swell the ranks of employees of that railroad corporation.

In the fall of 1889 Andrew Kaul and J. K. P. Hall purchased warrants 2425, 2377, parts of 2361 and 2363, 163 acres in 2319, and 65 acres in 2323, or a total of 3,900 for 1108,000, embracing 7,000,000 feet of cherry, together with hemlock and other woods. Some short time before this the Portland Lumber Company purchased the Mill Creek property for $100,000. .... The Sample Lumber Company, of Alabama, comprises in the membership Andrew Kaul and John L. Kaul, of St. Mary's, and Alfred Truman, John L. Kaul is secretary.

The St. Mary's Tannery was established in April, 1884, and work commenced September 5, that year. The proprietors are J. K. P. Hall and A. Kaul, and Kestler, Lesh & Co., of Boston. The capacity is 2,200 sides per week, and the number of men employed is eighty. A. Moser has been manager since the beginning, and the specialty is Union sole leather.

The Spring Tannery, inside the borough limits, was established years ago by Judge Schultz and conducted for years by Joseph Wilhelm. In 1885, the works became the property of Hall & Kaul, who manufacture rough leather. J. F. Myer is manager.

In July, 1873, the Walker & Hoffman brick-yards were established The

Lewis & Bauer grist-mill was opened in August, 1889.... John Dornish and J. Fritz have rented the Benedictine Priory mill of Father Prior. They are now making extensive repairs on the mill, and it will soon be in running order.

The first brewery was established by Michael Hantz in 1845, a small concern, which continued about ten years. Joseph Windfelder built a brewery in 1851. In September, 1876, the building and machinery became the property of Charles and Henry Luhr, the present owners. The annual sales range from 1,000 to 1,500 barrels. The third brewery was started by Charles Volk in 1855-56, opposite the old Washington House, later built where is now the City Hotel, and later built the brewery now owned by Straub, in Benzinger township. The Babylon Brewery was founded by Edward Babel—hence the name. This burned down a few years ago. The second brewery in the borough was established by William Geiss, who sold to the present owner, Charles Walker.

Bank.—The St. Mary's Bank was established in 1867 with Sampson Short, W. M. Singerly, Louis Vollmer, John G. Hall, and J. K. P. Hall, stock-holders.

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