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Morey, and carried on in one of the two rooms into which the leading building on Meadic run, in what is now Benezette township, was divided.

In that early age there were many peculiarities in habit and in diction, the words would and could were pronounced by some wold and cold, the letter z was pronounced zed, and had been pronounced a short time previous izzard. the words cubic, music and others, now ending in ic, were written cubick. musick, and the words ending in or were spelled and written our, as honour, labour, etc. In those schools there were JP, blackboards in use; slates were used for the purpose, and all examples in the lessons in the arithmetic were performed on the slate. The pens used were made from the goose-quill, the ink from maple bark, copperas and pokeberries. Dilworth's and Webster's spellers, which were succeeded by Comley's and Byerly's, Murray's English reader and introduction were the principal books used in those schools. The arithmetics were Pike's and Dilworth's; Walker's abridged vocabulary was referred to as a standard on pronunciation, providing the schoolmaster was so fortunate as to have one in his possession. Spelling from memory, words given out or pronounced by the teacher, produced somewhat of emulation, and as the higher branches were not taught, the pupils having more time and by frequent exercises in orthography became excellent spellers.

Capt. Peter Goff opened a school in Jay township in 1822. In 1823 the first school in Fox township was opened at Irishtown. Dr. William Hoyt was the teacher, while his daughter, Camillo, presided over another school on the Little Toby. Olive Brockway conducted a school at Brandy Camp in 182(5. and Hannah Gilbert at Ridgway. In 1832 Miss Graham conducted a little school at Millstone village, and eight years later John Knox presided over a very primitive school at the mouth of Spring Creek. In 1842 Peter Hardy taught in a little frame building erected about that time at the crossing of the turnpike and St. Mary's road, in Jones township. The schools of Benzinger date back to 1844-45, when two lay brothers of the Redemptorist order—Joseph and Xavernis—opened a school. The following year the first public school was presided over by Fred Clarinaav, who was succeeded by John Fresh and Charles Luhr. The convent schools followed, as related in the history of St. Mary's. In 1861 L. S. Houk taught the first school in Highland township, and the beginnings of education were made in every section of the county.

The report of Superintendent C. J. Swift, on the schools of Elk county, dated June 4, 1888, gives the following statistics: 81 school-houses or 9'J rooms; 10 graded schools; 28 male and 89 female teachers; 1,890 male and 1,645 female pupils, of whom 2,440 attended schools; school tax $37,196.69, State moneys $3,203.21, total revenue $44,573.52; teachers' salaries $23.613.15; total expenditures $41,930.47, including salaries, and $9,357.67 expended on houses and rents. The figures for June, 1889, correspond with the increase in population and wealth. In the sketches of the townships and boroughs a history of the local schools appears compiled from Mr. Dixon's admirable centennial paper, and from other sources.

The first superintendent of schools was W. B. Gillis, chosen by the school convention in June, 1854, and granted a salary of $75 per annum. At the time of his appointment there were only twenty nine schools in the county, and the directors of many of them were so adverse to the new office and its incumbent as to refuse him admittance. The position was so disagreeable, and the condition of the public schools so disheartening, that Gilles resigned within a few months, Dr. C. R. Earley being appointed to fill out the term. He reported that "nearly every male at the age of twenty-one years had signed a

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petition for the repeal of the law creating the office of county superintendent." Notwithstanding this report, the directors, in convention, re-elected the doctor in May, 1857, and increased his pay to $400. In 1860 he was again elected; but, resigning in 1861, Rufus Lucore was appointed and served until May, 1863, when James Blakely, of St. Mary's, was elected. Mr. Blakely was re elected in 1866, and during his six years' tenure of office he witnessed the remarkable growth of the school system. George Walmsley of St. Mary's was elected in 1869, but being ineligible, Rufus Lucore was appointed. At this time the salary was placed at $600, but in 1872, when Mr. Lucore was re-elected it was increased to $1,000. George R. Dixon, A.M., was elected in 1875. His attention to school affairs created among the people new and favorable impressions of the system, and won their interest. At the beginning of his term, and in 1876, there were sixty-six schools in the county. Superintendent C. J. Swift has now about one hundred school rooms under his supervision.

County Institutes. —The first institute was held in June, 1856, under the call of Dr. Earley. When he took the chair only one teacher was present, Wallace W. Brown, but others came in, and a session of two weeks was pronounced a success. The institute has met annually since that time. In December. 1884, there were present W. J. King, Maud Paddock, Edith Henry, Mary Gray, Mary Haskin, Benezette, Penn.; Mary Reed, Dry Saw Mill, Penn.; William Gross, Charles Ritter,-Ralph J. Hirsh, Maggie Weidert, Lizzie Rogan, Minnie Fillinger, Mary Kangley, J. L. Henry, Kate Fillinger, John J. Lanmer, Theresa Laumer, Frank J. Lion, Fred Burnhard, St. Mary's, Penn.; S. E. Hayes, Mary McGrady, Mrs. Lemuel McCauley, A. A. Newell, Kate McQuone, P. W. Mover, Ella Donovan, Orpha Keltz, Viola Keltz, Kate Callahan, Emma Callahan, Maggie Ahem, Bridget Walsh, Annie Gillen, Kersey, Penn.; Viola Hayes, Dagus Mines, Penn.; J. H. Hayes, Lawrence Fee, Weedville, Penn.; Alice Neill, Flora Irwin, Kane, McKean Co., Penn.; Alice Brian, Brookston, Forest Co., Penn.; J. C. McAllister, Jr., Brandy Camp. Penn.; Ottis Sibley, Brockwayville, Jefferson Co., Penn.; W. J. Morrison, W. A. Smith, Eva Richards, Brockport, Penn.; Bertie Lindgren, Delia Van Aiken, A. E. Whitney, Emma Beman, Ada Malone, Jennie Mitchell, Babe E. Wilcox, Prof. Swift, Ella Kime, Hattie Warner, May Little, Kate O'Connor, Kate Gresh, Cozy Miller, Kate McNaul, Julia Flynn, Ridgway, Penn.; Matie Locke, Kate Murphy, Amanda Wilcox, John B. Ague, Nellie Northrop, Flora Weining, Wilcox, Penn.; Laura Warner, Jessie Parsons, William Deveraux, Miss Annie Dill, Rasselas, Penn.; Hattie Van Stienberg, Eliza Brosius, Blanche Hindman, Emma Campbell, Raughts, Penn.; M. F. Hindman, Millstone, Penn.; Eliza Donachy, Whistletown, Penn.; Maggie A. Whitehill, J. B. Dunn, Luna Rodgers, Arroyo, Penn.; Ida Millin, Hallton, Penn.; Mrs. Maud Crain, Carman, Penn. During the last five years the list of attendants has been so extended as to preclude the possibility of reprinting here.

CHAPTER VII.

MILITARY AFFAIRS.

Some Veterans Of The War Of 1812—Elk County In The Civil War—The Forty-second Regiment (bucktails)— Names Of Soldiers—The Elk County Guards—Sixteenth Regiment, P. V. I.—Company H, Of RidgWay, And Its Record.

JAMES L. GILLIS was the first regularly discharged soldier of the war of 1812 who settled in Elk county. Isaac Coleman entered the militia in 1812. when but sixteen years old, and served until the English were routed from the lake and land. In 1824 he came to Elk county from New York, and died at Brandy Camp, in September, 1879. David Langdon, a veteran of 1812, resided at Brockway in 1884. He was then ninety years old, and declared he never felt tired in his life except once—during his march home from Sackett's Harbor, after muster out. Other defenders of the young Republic came hither, while the children or grandchildren of Revolutionary heroes find a home here to-day.

Scarcely had the echoes of the Confederate guns at Fort Sumter died away, when the telegraph wire bore a message from Thomas L. Kane to Gov. Curtin asking permission to raise a regiment. The permit was granted at once, and going into Elk county he enlisted Hiram Woodruff * at the old tavern in Williamsville Hollow, placed a bucktail in the recruit's hat, and went forth to enlist the Forty-second Rifle Regiment.

THE FORTY-SECOND REGIMENT (BUCKTAILs).

Company G, of the Forty-second Regiment (better known as the Bucktails, or Kane's Rifle Regiment), was recruited in Elk county, in April, and mustered May 29, 1801, when Hugh McDonald was commissioned captain. He served until muster out, June 11, 1864, and was brevetted major in March, 1865. Jesse B. Doan, the first first lieutenant, resigned January 11, 1862; Thomas B. Winslow was promoted from private to first lieutenant on the same date, and served until the close. A. J. Sparks, second lieutenant, resigned in April, 1862; John A. Wolf rose from sergeant to first lieutenant, February 1, 1863; John L. Luther was promoted to second lieutenant, March 11, 1863, and was discharged March 12, 1865; Sergt. Seth Keys was mustered out in June, 1864; Sergt. J. B. Thompson was transferred to the One Hundred and Ninetieth, May 31, 1864, also Sergts. James McCoy, Charles G. Sharer, and R. E. Looker, the transfer of the latter being made twenty days after receiving wounds; Sergt. John C. Cole died of wounds, June 11,1862; Sergt. Denis Fuller was killed at Fredericksburg, December 13, 1862; sergeant Charles B. Wright deserted October 11, and Sergt. Norman C. Bundy was missing August 11. 1861, but the latter returning in May, was honorably discharged May 12. Corps. Arnold B. Lucore and Thomas J. Stephenson were mustered out with the company June 11, 1864; Corps. Elijah S. Brookins and John McNeil

* Joseph Tombhil rami' here in IMO, having hitherto resided across the line in McKean county. He states that Richard Looker signed the Hucktall roll first, followed by Hiram Woodruff.

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