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then hired an engine and commenced railroading. He was fireman, engineer, conductor and brakeman, doing all the work himself. He soon made enough to pay the company's indebtedness to him, and here was laid the foundation of his own fortune. The enterprise was also very beneficial to the prosperity of Bradford. What money he had accumulated he invested in lands, and thus began his extensive real-estate business. Since Bradford has become the great oil town and railroad center, he has sold his land, which was laid out in town lots, at a great advance on the purchase price. He still owns 200 town lots, and fifty or sixty dwelling houses in the city, besides other valuable realestate. Mr. Newell was married February 17, 1861, to Anna M. Haynes, who died in 1804, leaving one child, Frederick Haynes Newell, who is now a promising young man in the employ of the United States Government as mining engineer. In 1877 Mr. Newell married Miss Phoebe Lewis, and they have three children: Lewis, Henry Foster and Augustus William. Mr. Newell, though not an aspirant for political honors, has served the public in various relations. His knowledge of engineering enabled him to render important services to the city in organizing a system of water-works, and for eight years he has been a member of the board of water commissioners. He has also filled the office of school director, and was postmaster at Bradford under Lincoln's administration. He was a commissioner from the State of Pennsylvania, by appointment of Gov. Beaver, to the late International Exposition at Paris. He is a member of the American Association of Engineers, and accompanied its excursion to Europe in 1889, where the party was received under the auspices of the English and French engineers, and banqueted in Guildhall, London, and on the Eiffel Tower, Paris. Upon his return home, the Pompelon Club, a permanent intellectual association of Bradford, afforded an opportunity for social welcome by giving a formal reception and banquet in his honor. Mr. Newell has been a member and director of the Bradford board of trade from the date of its organization, and scarcely any public enterprise of importance has been undertaken without his assistance. In measures for fostering the growth of the city his policy has, as in private life, been generous, but discriminating and quite independent of popular clamor. He is a member of the Masonic fraternity, and was the first member initiated in the oldest lodge of Bradford, No. 334. For eleven years he has served as a trustee in the Methodist Episcopal Church.

L. W. OAKES, in the real estate business at Bradford, was born in Cat taraugus county, N. Y., May 5,1848, a son of Nicholas and Mary (Rich) Oakee, natives of Massachusetts, former of German and latter of English descent. His father settled in Western New York in 1824, residing there until his death in 1884, after a married life of sixty years. Of his family of ten children, eight grew to maturity. L. W. Oakes obtained a good education, attending Griffith Institute, Erie county, N. Y. His first occupation was that of schoolteacher, which he continued two years, when he began to learn the printer's trade at Little Valley, N. Y., and after completing his apprenticeship worked at same, either as compositor or editor, seven years. In 1876 he came to Bradford in the employ of Ferrin & Weber, and assisted in establishing the Bradford Era. He subsequently went to Salamanca, N. Y., and acted as local editor of the Cattaraugus County Republican for one year, and then engaged in mercantile business until coming to Bradford. In 1879 Mr. Oakes was married at Jamestown, N. Y., to Miss Georgina C. Newell, a daughter of A T. and Caroline (Rogers) Newell, early settlers of McKean county. Mr. and Mrs. Oakes have three children: Bertha Newell, Jessie Nelson and Ida Beatrice. In politics Mr. Oakes is a Republican. He is a member of the Royal Arcanum.

P. O'BRIEN, repairer of steam-boilers etc., Bradford, is a native of Canada, born January 7, 1854, a son of Martin and Kate (Leary) O'Brien, former a native of Canada, of Irish parentage, latter a native of Ireland. The subject of these lines learned the trade of a machinist in Canada, although he never served an apprenticeship. Being a natural mechanic, he gradually acquired a knowledge of the business. In 1876 he came to the United States, and worked in repair shops until 1884, when he began business for himself in Bradford, and now has a good trade, making a specialty of repairing steam-boilers. He is a self-made man, and has by hard work and energy been successful in business. He is not allied to any church or any political party, but is an independent thinker on all subjects.

THOMAS OSBORNE, constable and tax collector, Bradford, was born in Newark, N. J, , May 3, 1852, a son of John and Mary (Smith) Osborne, natives of Ireland, who came to this country in 1841. Thomas learned the trade of lathing and plastering in his native city, and followed that occupation until 1880, when he became interested in the production of oil in the Bradford field. In 1881 he was elected city assessor of Bradford, and in 1883 was elected constable and collector of State and county taxes, which position he holds to this day; in 1885 he was elected county auditor, and served McKean county in that position for three years. He is a prominent member of the Bradford fire department, and has been, from its organization, holding several offices in the department from time to time; he is now director and first assistant foreman of the Exempt Fireman's Association of Bradford. In politics he is a Democrat, and was chairman of the Democratic county committee during the years 1887 and 1888. In 1887 he was married to Miss Sophie H. Reilly, daughter of Patrick and Sophie Reilly, both now dead. Mr. and Mrs. Osborne have one child, Florence, three years old. They are members of the Catholic Church.

ENOS PARSONS, dealer in real estate, one of Bradford's early settlers, was born in Cortland county, N. Y., April 22, 1818, the fifth of ten children of Reuben and Matilda (Morton) Parsons. His early life was spent on his father's farm, and in attending the district school, later becoming a student at Homer College. After leaving school he invested a little money in clocks, which he sold in the country districts, being employed in this way during the Harrison campaign of 1840. In 1846 he came to McKean county, and in 1847 to Bradford, where for eight years he carried on the "Bradford Hotel." He then engaged in mercantile business, also in real estate, and was one of the prime movers in the building of the street car line from Bradford to Tarport, of which he now owns the most of the stock, his son, Newell B., being superintendent. He is one of the largest real estate owners in the city, and now devotes the most of his attention to that business. Mr. Parsons was married in 1849 to Mary Blair, and they have three children: Newell B., Charles and Grace. Mrs. Parsons is a member of the Presbyterian Church. In politics Mr. Parsons is a Republican, and in 1858 he served McKean county as treasurer.

B. D. PATE, painter and paper-hanger, Bradford, was born in Stark county, Ohio, November 22, 1842, a son of William and Maria (He!len) Pate, natives of Ohio, of Irish and English descent, respectively. He was reared in his native county, remaining with his mother (his father having died in 1859) till 1863, when he enlisted, in the defense of his country, in Company F, One,Hundred and Fifteenth Ohio Volunteer Infantry, and was afterward transferred to Company F, One Hundred and Eighty-eighth Ohio Volunteer Infantry, in which he served until the close of the war. He then returned to Ohio, and soon after went to Cleveland, where he learned the trade of a painter and paper-hanger. In 1877 he moved to Pittsburgh, and same year to the lower oil fields, thence, in 1879, to Bradford, where he has built up a good business. Mr. Pate was married in 1867 to Miss Maria Henderson, and they have three children: Hattie, Florence and Lulu. Mr. Pate is a Republican in politics. He is a member of Bradford Post, G. A. R. The family are members of the Baptist church.

GEORGE W. PIKE, farmer, P. O. Bradford, was born in Bradford township, this county, April 13. 1840, a son of Barnabas and Mary Ann (Colegrove) Pike, natives of Massachusetts, who came to McKean county, about 1828. and located on a farm in Bradford township, where they resided until their death. Barnabas Pike was a supporter of the Democratic party; he was a prominent member of the Universalis! Church, helping to build the same. George W. Pike received a common-school education, and remained at home until twenty years of age. He then engaged in lumbering, and for a number of years rafted lumber down the river. In 1874 he married Miss Emma, daughter of Peter Fox, of Cattaraugus county, N. Y., and they have one child, May Virginia. In 1875 they settled on their present farm of 100 acres, and also have a fine oil production. Mr. Pike is a Democrat.

HARLOW B. PIKE, farmer and oil producer, Bradford, was born in Bradford township, McKean Co., Penn., May 12, 1843. a son of Barnabas and Mary Ann (Colgrove) Pike. The father came to McKean county from Massachusetts in 1829, and settled on the farm now owned by his son, Harlow B., where he died in 1880, aged eighty-five years. Harlow B. Pike was reared a farmer, attending school until the breaking out of the war of the Rebellion, when, in 1801, he enlisted in Company I, Seventy-first New York Volunteer Infantry, in which he served three months; then enlisted in the three-years' service, and participated in some of the most severe battles of the war, including Gettysburg, Chancellorsville and the Wilderness. Since the war he has lived in Bradford, with the exception of six years spent in the West. He was married in 1878 to Miss E. R. Beckwith, daughter of Simon and Elizabeth (Palmer) Beckwith, and they have three children: Daisy, Bertha and Olive. Mr. and Mrs. Pike are members of the Methodist Episcopal Church. In politics he is a Republican, and is a member of the Union Veteran Legion and of the Knights of the Maccabees.

T. J. POWERS, treasurer of the Bradford Oil Company, Bradford, was born in Erie county, N. Y., November 2, 1835, a son of P. W. and Esther (Huntley) Powers, former of whom died in 1887, at the age of seventy-three years. Our subject is the younger of two children, his brother (R. F.) being a farmer of Erie county. T. J. Powers was given a good education, and taught school in his early days, for six years serving as superintendent of public instruction in Erie county. In 1870 he came to Bradford, but in 1887 he removed his family to the homestead farm in Erie county. He has been treasurer of the Bradford Oil Company since 1881, and has served six years as a member of the select council of Bradford, being president of the board. He is a member of the A. O. U. W.; was a member of the Ninety-eighth New York National Guards, and was in active service five months at Elmira. N. Y. In politics Mr. Powers is a Republican. He was married in Fredonia, N. Y., in 1858, to Miss Frances M., daughter of A. F. Taylor, and they have four children: Willis H., Robert E., Helen E. and Fitch T. Mr. Powers and his family are members of the Baptist Church.

EDWARD QUIGLEY, of the firm of Connors, Qnigley & Granger, plumbers, Bradford, was born in Chili, Monroe Co., N. Y., July 8, 1857, a son of Edward and Bridget (McVey) Quigley, natives of Ireland, who came to the United States in their childhood, and were married in the State of New York. Edward is the second of a family of nine children, and, his father being in limited circumstances, he was obliged when quite young to work for his own support. He was employed as a farm hand until 1878, when he came to Bradford and worked about the oil wells. For a time he was foreman of men employed by Wheeler & Whitney, oil producers, remaining with them until 1888, when the firm of Connors, Quigley & Granger, plumbers, was formed. They contract for all styles of plumbing and gas fitting, and also general repairing. Mr. Quigley was married in Wayne county, N. Y., to Mary McVey, daughter of John McVey, and they have two children: Edward and William. Mr. Quigley and his wife are members of the Catholic Church. In politics he is a Democrat. He is a member of the Catholic Mutual Benefit Association, and is vice-president of the order in Bradford.

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CHARLES H. REED, M. D., Bradford, was born in Clarendon, Orleans Co., N. Y., January 17, 1851, a son of Ebenezer and Mabel (Snyder) Reed, the former a native of Vermont, of French descent, and the latter of New York, of German descent. He was desirous of obtaining a good, solid education, and when fifteen years old taught a term of school in order to obtain money to defray his expenses for further education, finally graduating from the Lockport high school. He then taught nearly five years, and in the meantime began the study of medicine. In 1873 he took a course of lectures at Buffalo, and in 1876 graduated from Bellevue Hospital Medical College, New York. He began his practice at Wilson, Niagara Co., N. Y., remaining there three years, and in 1879 he moved to McKean county, Penn., first locating at Eldred, where he remained five years. In 1884 he took a special course on the eye and ear at Wills Eye and Ear College and Philadelphia Dispensary, since when he has made a specialty of the treatment of the diseases of those organs, and stands at the head of his profession in that branch of the practice. His headquarters are now at Bradford, but his fame extends to all the surrounding towns, and even countries. Dr. Reed was married in Niagara county, N. Y., January 9, 1878, to Ada M., daughter of Sylvester and D. M. (Wilson) Parsons, the former of whom is a prominent attorney of Rochester, N. Y. Mrs. Reed died in 1887, a member of the Presbyterian Church. Dr. Reed is a Democrat in politics, and is past master of Eldred Lodge, No. 560, F. & A. M. He is a member of McKean County (Penn.) Medical Society, and also of Niagara County (N. Y.) Medical Society.

MOSES REIS, of the firm of Wagner & Reis, theatrical managers, Bradford, was born in New York City, June 20, 1851, a son of Samuel and Caroline (Bear) Reis, who were natives of Germany. Mr. Reis removed with his parents to Titusville, Penn., in 1863, remaining there until 1876, when he came to Bradford. He was engaged in the grocery business, both in Titusville and Bradford, until 1877, in which year he and Mr. Martin W. Wagner became associated in theatrical management. In politics Mr. Reis is a Republican. He is a thirty-second degree Freemason, also a member of the Knights of Pythias.

T. W. ROBERTS, manufacturer of wooden oil tanks at Bradford, was born in Leyden, Lewis Co., N. Y., June 6, 1847, a son of William and Jane (Evans) Roberts, natives of Wales, former of whom came to this country in 1839, locating in Lewis county, N. Y., June 2 of that year. Mr. Roberts' mother died when he was but an infant, and from that time until he was eleven years old he had his home with Robert Morris. In 1871 he came to the oil fields of Pennsylvania, and drove a team for his brother, who was in business at Parker's Landing, subsequently becoming a partner. In 1878 he removed to Bradford, where he has since been engaged in his present business. He was married in his native county in 1877 to Miss Winnie Jones, a native of Lewis county, N. Y., daughter of John E. and Mary (Perry) Jones, who were natives of Wales. Mrs. Roberts is a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church. Mr. Roberts is a member of the I. O. O. F., lodge and encampment. In politics he is a Republican.

WILLIAM ROBERTSON, of the firm of Robertson & Son, manufacturers of oil-well tools, Bradford, was born near Aberfeldy, Perthshire, Scotland, September 29, 1822, a son of William and Isabella (Eergnsson) Robertson, both born within two miles of the town named. He was reared and educated in his native county, and there learned the blacksmith's trade. When twenty years of age he went to England, where for eleven years he worked at his trade, being in the employ of railroad companies or contractors for the same. His first railroad work was on the Lancaster & Carlisle, at Kendall, Westmoreland, for Brassey. McKenzie & Stevenson; he next went to Shiffnal, Shropshire, where he had charge of the shops on the Shrewsbury & Birmingham Railroad; then went to Grantham, Lincolnshire, and took charge of the shops on the London & York Railroad; thence moved to Bacup, and was engaged on the East Lancashire Railroad; from there he went to the Canada Works, Birkenhead, and for some time worked for Jackson, Peto, Brassey & Betts, and was by them engaged in 1852 to go to Canada to take charge of the shops on the Grand Trunk Railroad. Thither he went in 1853, and was manager of the Grand Trunk Railroad shops there for a few years, then left on his own account and was in business for himself in Stratford, county of Perth, Ontario, for some years, remaining in Canada a period of about ten years. In about the last year of the war of the Rebellion he came to the United States, and has been in the oil region of Pennsylvania ever since the Pithole excitement began until the present time. For the first six years after his arrival in the States, he was engaged in the manufacture of oil-well tools at Pithole City and Petrolia, and in 1880 came to Bradford, where he has since carried on the same business most successfully in partnership with his son, Daniel W. The marriage of Mr. Robertson took place in Grantham, Lincolnshire, England, in 1848, to Miss Harriet Guy, who was born near Wellington, Shropshire, England, and six children were born to the union, of whom only two are living: Maggie and Dan W. Mrs. Robertson and the youngest child died in Petrolia in 1880, and are interred side by side at that place; two of the children died at birth. Mr. Robertson is a member of the Masonic fraternity, and his son, Dan W., is a Knight Templar. In politics Mr. Robertson is a Republican, and while at Petrolia served as a member of the town council.

E. W. ROLFE, oil producer, Bradford, was born in Concord, N. H., August 12, 1849, a son of H. M. Rolfe, an iron manufacturer of Pittsburgh, Penn.. where E. W. was reared. The first business experience of our subject was as clerk in his father's office, and in 1869 he was elected secretary and treasurer of the Pittsburgh & Castle Shannon Railroad, being the first to fill that position. He continued with the railroad company two years, and in 1872 located in Elk county, Penn., where he embarked in the lumber trade, and for eleven years conducted an extensive business, having in his employ from 300 to 400 men. A town was established near the place of his operations, which still bears his name. In 1883 he sold his lumber interests, moved to Bradford and began operating in oil. His first experience in that line of business was while clerking for his father, at which time he bought land near Parker's Landing, Penn.. and had several wells drilled. He now has interests in the oil fields of

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