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chartered corporation of the State (capital, $10,000—100 shares). In September, 1884, Messrs. Byron, McSweeney and Snow successively sold their interests, and J. D. Brooder, Elizabeth D. Kane and Joshua Davis succeeded them. September 29, 1885, the company reorganized under the natural gas act. At first the company purchased its gas from the National Transit Company, but in May, 1884, they drilled a well at the north end of Fraley street, and obtained an abundant supply of gas at the depth of 2,488 feet. Before means could be devised for confining the gas, the roar of its escape could be plainly heard at a distance of eight miles, and the company were threatened with suits for damage on account of loss of sleep by the neighbors. To avoid interruption of supply during repairs of well, a second gas well half a mile south of Kane was drilled in 1885. The excellent sand and evidences of oil found in these two wells encouraged Mr. Clemenger to try another "wild-cat," and the discovery of the Kane oil field. The company's mains have been extended with the growth of the town, and now (in August, 1889) they are laid in every street of Kane, and branches extend to the three villages of West Kane, North Kane and East Kane, while the value of the entire plant is estimated at $40,000.

In 1887 the Citizens' Gas Company (capital $5,000) was chartered as a competing line. James McDade, president; J. T. Griffith, vice-president, and W. A. Holgate, originated the project and pushed it to success. Mains were laid on the four principal streets of Kane, and a branch to East Kane was constructed. A well was drilled on Fraley street and another on sub. 343. but the latter has since been disposed of. The plant is worth about $12,000, the principal stockholders having procured loans to the company for the excess over the capital. The immediate result of the competition was a reduction in price of gas from $2 per stove, monthly, to 90 cents and $1 per stove.

Water Company.—Spring Water Company of Kane (capital $40,000) was incorporated in 1887, the principal stockholders being Elizabeth D. Kane, Elisha K. Kane, Joshua Davis, H. J. James and M. W. Moffitt, all of Kane. Water is obtained from Hubert run, one mile north of the town, the entire valley being preserved in timber for its protection. It is propelled by natural gas introduced in lieu of steam into the cylinders of a Worthington duplex pump, through a six inch cast iron main to two 600-barrel wooden tanks, elevated twenty feet above the highest point of ground in the borough. From this reservoir distributing mains are laid on all the principal streets east of the Philadelphia & Erie Railroad. The value of the plant is (August, 1889) about $20,000, paid in by stockholders, the remaining $20,000 of the capital remaining in the treasury for future extensions.

Bank and Industries. —In the Kane Bank, conducted by McDade, Davis & Co., the town has a monetary interest of which it is justly proud. It was founded April 27, 1886. James McDade, Joshua Davis, W. P. Weston and Dr. G. H. Preston are the individual proprietors, and they are all men of influence and enterprise. The office is in the modern McDade building, completed in 1886.

A branch of the Security Building & Loan Association was organized January 30, 1890, with the following named officers: President, Andrew Larson, ten shares; treasurer, D. B. Keelor, ten shares; secretary, Carl Egelin, five shares; board of advisors, Andrew Skoog, ten shares; Albert Peterson, ten shares; Andrew Skoglund, five shares.

In the James Brothers, of whom there are seven, although not all of them are residents of Kane, the town has substantial pillars. Their principal business is the manufacture of lumber, their mills being situated about nine miles south of Kane, in Elk county. There they cut 12,000,000 feet of hemlock, cherry and poplar annually, and have sufficient timber standing to keep them busy for ten years. They cut mostly yard sizes, and are now just completing a lath mill. At Hinton, W. Va., where J. C. James, assisted by his brother, D. W., is located, they have a mill and other interests, the style of the firm being William James & Sons, the father, now deceased, having founded the business in 1865, taking his son into partnership two years later. They cut yearly 2,000,000 feet of pine, poplar and oak, and from both there and Elk county they make shipments to all parts of Eastern Pennsylvania, New Jersey and Delaware. The business in Kane is in charge of H. J. and T. S. James.

The Griffith Mills were established in 1866, by Thomas Griffith, who conducted them until 1884, when J. T. Griffith leased two of them. A year later he and his brother, Webb, purchased the three mills, which produced 7,000,000 feet of lumber last year. In 1883 the Griffith Brothers established their large store at Kane, and in 1889 invested $80,000 in local oil lands. They carry almost a half interest in the Citizens' Gas Company, and employ from forty to a hundred men.

Probably the largest industry in Kane is the brush-block factory, founded here some four years ago by the Holgate Brothers, the oldest and most widelyknown firm in this line in the whole country, the business having been handed down to the present generation from a hundred years back. In February, 1888, Joshua Davis, his son, W. H., and G. W. Neuls, became the sole proprietors, retaining the old title, but adding to it the word company. Mr. Neuls, who gives every detail of the business his personal attention, was with the Holgates fifteen years ago, becoming thoroughly versed in the manufacture of every article made in the factory, including brush heads, brush handles, and white-wash, paste, dust, stove and scrub blocks. They make the finest goods, and their productive capacity is 500,000 to 800,000 gross per annum, the variety of handles made being over 50,000.

The Kane clothes-pin factories are operated by David Howells, M. W. Moffitt and Joshua Davis. The works at West Kane were first opened in the fall of 1889. The process of making these is an interesting one. It is done in just six motions. The first one cuts a four-foot chunk off the log, the second saws a board from the chunk, the third saws the board into square strips, the fourth cuts the strips into clothes-pin lengths, the fifth turns the pin, and the sixth cuts the slot in it. This is done very rapidly, and they are then dried and polished in revolving cylinders, after which they are at once boxed and shipped. The capacity is 300 boxes of 720 pins each per day, or twenty-nine miles in length. In February, 1890, the West & Britton clothespin factory was purchased by Howells, Moffitt & Co.

The Carbon Manufacturing Company's Gas-black factory was established in February, 1889, by A. R. Blood and James McDade. The works give employment to three hands and produce $25,000 worth of gas-black annually. W. S. Haskjns is foreman.

The Sergeant Chemical Works dates back to 1886, when the Chemical Company was incorporated with L. M. Otto, president; N. B. Bubb, secretary and treasurer; J. B. Coryell, H. C. Bubb, J. F. Tyler, and C. H. Heim (superintendent), members. The works were erected that year and now employ thirty-five hands. The annual product is valued at $75,000. Natural gas is used in this factory as in nearly all others; part of the product goes to Europe.

The La Mont Chemical Works Company, of which J. C. James is president. H. J. James, treasurer; Joshua Davis, secretary, and J. B. Finch, superintendent, manufacture acetate of lime, charcoal and naphtha, operating what is known as a twelve-retort plant and consuming 3,000 cords of beech, maple and birch woods annually, using natural gas fuel. The works are located three miles south of Kane, have been running seven years, and their products are shipped to the Philadelphia and Boston markets.

The Brooder Wall-Catching Packer was patented by Mr. Brooder August 6, 1880, and May 17. 1887. In the use of the Brooder packer no anchor is required, as a screw purchase, instead of the weight of the tubing, is employed in compressing the rubber, causing it to expand, shutting off the flow of gas or oil outside the packer, forcing the same up through the packer and tubing instead. With this invention Mr. Brooder guarantees the shutting-in of any well, no matter how strong the pressure or at what depth it is to be shut off. The Brooder packers are also used with success in packing off salt water where it is necessary to pull the casing, the packer sustaining the weight of water and the tubing while the casing is being drawn. In January, 1890, John P. Farrell, of the Butler Co-Operative Glass Works, which were burned to the ground the previous spring, recently made Kane a visit to consult with her citizens in regard to bringing the works here. Flattering offers were made to him which were in substance as follows: Ground rent, free; gas from the Kane Gas Light and Heating Company, at exceedingly low rates; and water from the Spring Water Company free. For the site of the works he preferred the land in the "Y" formed by the P. & W. and P. & E. Railroads. The gentleman has visited the gas fields in the West and he found no place which pleased him better than Kane.

Hotels. —The Thompson House was leased by B. M. N. Taylor in 187(>. when the bouse was first regularly opened for hotel purposes. In 1877 he was succeeded by C. H. Kemp, formerly of the Washington Hotel, Philadelphia, who gave place in 1880 to George W. Jackson. On the removal of the latter Mr. Kemp leased the house and conducted it from 1884 until 1887, when Martin O'Brien leased it. In the spring of 1888 Mr. Kemp resumed the conduct of the house, being the only successful lessee. The house is part of the Kane estate. There are eighty bed-rooms, together with large parlors, etc. There are thirty hands generally employed. A. Y. Jones is the genial clerk.

The Hotel La Mont is conducted by Rick Donovan, who is one of the most popular hosts in the field. The Fleming House is a favorite hostelry, and claims an extensive patronage, while the Kane House is admirably conducted and consequently very popular. There are smaller hotels and boarding houses in the city, which are all doing a fair trade. The St. Elmo was purchased in November, 1889, by John O'Shea.

Churches.—The Kane Methodist Episcopal Church was formerly connected with the Sheffield work; while ti circuit its first pastor was Rev. George F. Reeser. Then followed A. S. Goodrich, S. Holland and Wilder (Rev. Wilder being the one who preached to Gen. Grant when he visited Kane), M. Colgrove, L. F. Merritt, M. V. Stone, H. P. Hicks, S. S. Burton, C. Clark, A. H. Bowers, M. Fording, L. A. Chapin, L. F. Merritt, D. M. Carpenter, L. O. Mead, F. A. Mills, W. A. Merriam, J. A. Parsons, C. W. Foulk and J. Bell Neff. Under J. A. Parsons it was made a station. At present the pastor. J. Bell Neff, is putting up a new brick church, which will cost $12,000.* The society was organized in 1864 with the following members: Neil McEwen, Lydia McEwen, Maggie McEwen, Katie McEwen, Mary A. Repine, Joseph

'This church liiilldinn was dedicated March 10, I»90. Rev. Dr. Williams, of Allegheny College, officiating.

Wegley, Eve Wegley, William Hubbard, Charles Everson, Elizabeth Everson, John A. Mell, Hettie Mell, Theodosia Mell, Robert Campbell, Sarah Campbell, Elizabeth S. James, Mary A. Blew, Laura Campbell, Lueetta Lafferty, Hanna Davis, Ebenezer Edwards, Helen Fisher, Orpha Campbell, Almysa Jane Cummings. The first Methodist Episcopal building was dedicated in December, 1872, and the second February 28, 1875. Rev. John Hicks was pastor in 1872.

The Catholic Church dates back to 1866. Rev. G. A. Voisard signed the records of the Catholic church in 1866, when the work of church building was begun. The house was completed in 1867, at a cost of 1686. In 1869 Rev. Mr. Mullowney presided here; in 1871, Rev. De la Rocque; in 1878, Rev. B. Klocker, followed by Rev. Hugh Mullen in 1887. Rev. George Winkler, the present pastor, came in 1888. In 1885 the old church was burned and the people worshiped in Temperance Hall until October 13, when the new church was dedicated by Bishop Mullen, of Erie. Rev. George Winkler, immediately upon taking charge of his mission, began the building of the new church; it is of gothic style, 50x100 feet, with a large and handsome foundation to hold the brick work, which is also solid. The spire from foundation wall to peak of the cross has a height of 131 feet. It will, without the furniture, cost 114,000. The number of families attending this church is eighty. The building, if erected under ordinary contract forms, would cost about $32,000. Under the close supervision of Father Winkler the large church, with great high altar, stained-glass windows, modern pews, etc., has been provided for the people at less than half the cost of the highest bid tendered for the work.

The Presbyterian Church of Kane was organized November 15, 187-t, by Rev. J. L. Landis. Robert Field and William Hubbard were installed elders. Pending the erection of a building, services were held in the Thomson House, with Rev. J. M. Gillette, pastor. Mrs. Thomas, aunt of Gen. Kane, may be said to be the donor of the church at Kane to the Presbyterian society. It appears that she was anxious that Gen. Kane's children should be educated in Presbyterian religious ideas, and this, in connection with her desire to build a memorial to her father, Mr. Leiper, suggested this building. The stone was taken from A. A. Clay's quarry, with his permission, and with this exception must be considered her grant to the society here. In building, Henry L. Taylor was architect; the layer of the stone, Gen. Kane; all Masons, and Mrs. Thomas were the leaders in the ceremony of corner-stone laying; and the latter being the principal and an anti-Mason in sentiment, varied from the Masonic ritual in one instance, and used the words of the church ritual.

The Congregational Church was organized December 29, 1887, with Joshua Davis, David Howells, A. Y. Jones, John T. Griffith, R. T. Starsmeare, O. D. Coleman, WT. A. Holgate and their families members. Rev. George Belsey is pastor, and A. Y. Jones, clerk. The church building, which was completed and dedicated December 9, 1888, cost $13,000. Lemuel Davis and E. B. James are named among the trustees in act of incorporation of April, 1888.

The Baptist Church was organized November 25, 1887, with the following named members: Charles Roos, Mrs. Ella Roos, Emery Davis, Mrs. Margaret Montice, Mrs. Sarah Ware, Mrs. C. R. Dickey, Mrs. Parkhurst, Mrs. Dora Norline, Mrs. Martha Young, P. C. WTest, Mrs. M. E. West. It was incorporated in May, 1888, the subscribers being C. Roos, P. C. West, E. R. Britton, Emery Davis, Norman Thomas, and their wives, A. D. Clark, A. J. Donachi, O. A. Thomas, Madams Lida Mitchell, Margaret Mentrjce, Martha Young, Sarah Ware, Parkhurst, Gillis, Dickie, and Agnes Hanna. Rev. O. R Thomas is pastor, and Emery Davis clerk. There are twenty-nine mem bers, with property valued at 16,000.

The Swedish Evangelical Lutheran Society of Kane was incorporated September 4, 1888, on a petition signed by August Torstenson, J. A. Carlson, Ole Hanson, J. P. Larson and A. Peterson.

The Free Lutheran Evangelical Church of Wetmore township was incorporated October 27, 1885, on petition of H. Norliu, A. Norman, G. Oberg and C. F. Karlson.

The Kanasholm Swedish Evangelical Lutheran Church of the Augustoria Synod was organized in June, 1876, with John Alfred Berling and others trustees.

The Kanasholm Cemetery of Wetmore township was incorporated as the last resting-place of deceased Swedes in September, 1876.

St. John's Protestant Episcopal Mission Church dates its beginning December 1, 1888, when Mr. and Mrs. Flynn and daughter, Mrs. Eugene Miller, Mrs. Thomas McClellan, Miss Ella Herrick, Mrs. O'Brien, A. Louisa Long and Mrs. Wilkinson, signed the roll of membership. N. M. Long was the tirst secretary and J. Elmer Fluke is the present secretary. The membership numbers ten persons, with Rev. A. W. Ryan, pastor.

Societies.—Kane Lodge, No. 566, F. & A. M., was organized October 28, 1886, with the following named charter members: Claudius V. Gillis, Thomas H. Ryan, Alexander Y. Jones, Joshua Davis, Richard W. Smith, John T. Griffith, David Howells, Edward W. Long, William Turbey, Randolph M. Campbell, Walter B. Smith, James Campbell, Francis A. Lyte. William A. Holgate, Ogden B. Lay, Charles W. Stone, William Hearst, Joseph Manzella, Frank W. Brayton, John J. Stenstrom, Richard T. Starsmeare, Arthur H. Holgate, William E. Blew, J. Frank Tyler, Jacob M. Mock. The three first named have served as masters and F. A. Lyte in 1889; R. W. Smith as secretary, and Joshua Davis as treasurer, with W. B. Smith, master. There are forty-five members with property valued at $1,500.

Lodge 209, K. of P., was instituted July 27, 1888, with the following named officers: C. O, M. A. Bingham; V. C., William B. Beamer; P. A., J. Kingsley; M. at A., R. E. Looker; K. of R. & S., A. E. Myers; M. of F., A. B. Thomas; M. of E., John Fleming; I. G., George N. Jackson; O. G., John Shaner. The names of past and present C. Cs, are M. A. Bingham, A. A. Truxel and William B. Beamer; W. O. Delph was C. C. in February, 1890; John Shaner, A. E. Myers and A. B. Thomas are past chancellors. The names of secretaries are A. D. Swick and A. E. Myers. The present number of members is sixty-four and the value of property is $600.

Kane Lodge, No. 412, I. O. O. F., is presided over by L. Davis, N. G., and Willis Jackson, Sec. This lodge has a well-equipped hall, and is one of the most prosperous of the Kane societies.

Charles R. Riddle Post, 238, G. A. R., was mustered in March 27, 1888, with R. E. Looker, Com.; George Griffith, S. V. C.; Michael Galvin, J. V. C.; B. F. Burgess, Q. M.; Joshua Davis, Surg.; David Howells, Chap.; D. R. Matthews, O. of D.; R. M. Campbell, O. of G.: A. Y. Jones, Adjt.; Michael McEvoy, S. M; H. McConnell. Q. M. S.; E. J. Collins and T. H. Ryan, trustees. The membership at date of muster included the above named with S. P. Bray, William Brennan, Adam Brodt, Omit Brestle, M. A. Bingham, S. W. Brewer, Murty Dowd, C. H. Franklin, G. N. Jackson, J. R. London, James Landragan, L. N. Mosier. W. H. H Parker, Philip Quigley, F. W. Patch, William Rose, Sebastian Searles, Peter C. Tripp and Thomas H. Ryan.

Col. Charles J. Biddle, Women's Relief Corps, No 100, was organized March 27, 1888, with Mrs. Jennie Griffith, president; Mrs. Joshua Davis, vice-presi

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