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an increase of ten, by February 11, from the twenty-six wells in existence, January 28. By April 10, the Kane Oil Company had six wells in the field, No. 6 producing 225 barrels, and No. 1, 145 barrels. The Union Oil Company had seven wells of from 70 to 197 barrels per day; Coast & Thyng's No. 1 yielded 242 barrels, while Shirley and Hochstetler, Andrews & Co., and Reed & Brown wells, were all producers.

In January, 1889, the firms of West & Co. and Davis & Co. drilled for oil on Warrant 3,131, in Wetmore, two and one-half miles north of Kane. At 1,773 feet they tapped the oil sand, but not satisfied with the promise of a ten-barrel well, they continued the boring to 1,956 feet, when they struck the heaviest flow of gas known in the Kane region.

The first gas well in the Kane field was struck in the fall of 1884. To-day the pressure varies from 200 to 1,200 pounds to the square inch. On November 11, 1885, this field yielded its first oil.

Wetmore township, in 1880, had a population of 1,438. In 1888 there were 184 Republican votes, sixty-one Democratic, eighteen Prohibitionist and three Labor-Unionist, or a total of 266, on which figures the population is estimated to be 1,330. A number of unnaturalized residents, however (Swedes, Italians, Germans), place the true population far above this.

The township officers elected in February, 189J, are as follows: Supervisors, Charles Hedman, Peter Nelson; school directors, P. A. Carlquist, E. W. Campbell; constable, G. N. Jackson; auditor, John Selin; town clerk, C. L. O'Kerlind; justice of the peace, Eric Erickson; collector, William Wilkins; judge of election, J. O. Liddell; inspectors, John McNall, Neil C. McEwen.

In 1855 Gen. Kane came to the upper Clarion with a number of friends, where his father and the widow of Mr. Leiper owned lands. The party took up their quarters in Williamsville, on the Elk county side of the Wilcox farm. In 1856 Mrs. Kane accompanied her husband into the wilderness, and that year the General instructed Erastus Burlingame in geology, and had him join the explorations of that year. In 1859 he selected the country around Kane for his home, and in 1860 began the building of the present Kane home. On the opening of hostilities the place was deserted, and the cut stone, which was intended for the building, was stolen and used in filling the railroad embankment. In 1864, however, the work of building was resumed, but the pioneer saw-mill, built in 1864, burned in 1867, and delayed progress.

Evidences of prehistoric occupation are not wanting. There are three earthworks or forts, each from two to four feet high, and about one mile apart. They resemble each other, being all of a true circle and about fifty paces across the center, and are evidently of great age, as large trees have grown up their embankments. One contains from eight to ten small mounds with a deep hole in the center, and all are situated on high land far from water. Two cannon balls or shells were found at Kane when excavating for a round-house. They are supposed to be reminders of the soldiers of the Revolution.

In May, 1880, the Seneca hunters, with their women and children, camped below Kane in the great pigeon roosts. Their object was to feed on young pigeons, which they intended to capture and kill chicken fashion, but owing to some miscalculation, they arrived at the wrong time, and so had to evacuate the location in the face of starvation, as they had no arms to bring down the hitherto despised old birds.

The forest fires around Kane in May, 1888, originated near Wetmore, destroying three houses at Swamp Lodge, the Clinton Oil Company's stock and property; the Boston Oil Company's rigs and tanks; Treat & Mallory's rigs and tanks, while much of the country between Kane and Mount Jewett was burned over. The clothes pin factory of Howells, Moffitt & Co., of West Kane, was destroyed that month.

The town of Jo Jo, which sprang into existence in the winter of 1885-86. was practically deserted in April of the latter year. In October, 1889. the name of the place was changed to Joville, and a post-office established there, with Thomas J. McCann, master. The Kane Oil Field Railroad, built in

1886, had the tracks removed, and the James Brothers' milling interest, or Weaver's mill, was moved to Alton.

About the heaviest deal that has been made here for some time was made between J. T. and W. Griffith and parties who owned a large oil interest near the western limit of Kane. This interest consists of twenty-two producing wells, and was purchased by the Griffiths for $80,000.


The town was named in honor of Thomas L. Kane. He and David Cor nelius were the first of the white men to settle here, and Mr. Kane was also the first in Pennsylvania to volunteer his services to the government at the commencement of the civil war, he having been colonel of the famous Bucktail Regiment, dying on Christmas Day, 1883. His sons are Elisha, Evan O. and Thomas L., and with creditable zeal they are carrying out the public spirited policy adopted by their father, the honorable and distinguished founder of the place, doing their utmost to advance the community in all that is possible for man to accomplish.

Kane borough, which was included in Wetmore township in 1880. gave, in 1888, 163 Republican, 117 Democratic, 37 Prohibition and three Labor Unionist votes, or a total of 320. The figures multiplied by six give an approximate of the present number of residents as 1.920. but local authorities place it much higher. In January, 1890, Robert Campbell, city asses sor, reported a population of 1.92D.

In December, 1869, a large hotel (164x122 feet, four stories) was completed; the railroad restaurant was carried on by the Nicholses; the McKean and Elk Land and Improvement Company's park of 600 acres was laid out; the Catholic church building, 40x60 feet, was completed prior to this time by Father "Voisard. Rev. Goodrich preached to the Methodists in a log house: the school-building was completed, while the Swedes held religious meetings on Fraley street. In 1871 O. D. Coleman, Leonard & Meese, and Robert Lafferty, were the leading merchants. The large saw-mill (Kane's) was burned in July, 1867, entailing a loss of $75,000. The commercial interests of Kane in 1871 were represented by F. W. Meese, J. Davis, O. D. Coleman and M. W. Burk, merchants; R. E. Looker and P. Burns, grocers; D. T. Hall, of the Kane House; J. D. Leonard, postmaster; J. D. Barnes, foreman of steam saw-mill; William Bartholomew, butcher; M. Crotty, shoemaker: James Hyde, machinist, and William Gannon, locomotive engineer. The railroad buildings at Kane were destroyed by fire May 10, 1874.

Election. — The charter election of Kane borough was held February 15.

1887, when W. B. Smith received 235 votes for burgess (being the total vote cast). George Griffith, J. McDade, O. D. Coleman, J. C. Myers, H. H. Corson and R. W. Smith were elected members of council; J. H. Grady, O. B. Lay, P. J. Daly, M. W. Moffitt, J. Davis and R. M. Campbell received each a full vote for school directors; C. V. Gillis was chosen justice; Robert Campbell, assessor; Henry McConnell, collector; F. A. Vauorsdall, auditor; Dan Matthews, constable; John Wegley, high constable; William Turby, judge, and A. Peterson, inspector of elections. W. B. Smith was elected burgess in


I 1888. In February, 1889, Joshua Davis and E. H. Long received each 126 votes. The matter was decided by the court declaring the office vacant and appointing M. W. Moffitt, burgess. A. Y. Jones was chosen justice, receiving 130 votes, while D. T. Hall received only 117.

The following is the vote cast in the borough in February, 1890:

Water Tax—For, 190; against, 44.

Burgess—M. W. Moffitt, R., 107; George Kinnear, D., 81; N. M. Orr, I., 85.

Council—W. B. Smith, R., 172; C. E. Brown, R. &P., 128; T. H. Ryan, R., 99; P. McHale, D.. 98; William O'Connor, D., 81; James Cochran, D., 81: Dr. W. J. Armstrong, I., 39; Webb Evans, I., 34; G. W. Neuls, I., 37; O. B. Lay, P., 38; D. Staples, P., 22.

School Directors—T. S. James, R. & P., 150; Albert Peterson, R. & P., 139: Dr. J. L. Wright, D., 102; Edward Brooder. D., 88; William Hubard. I., 35.

Constable—R. E. Looker, R., 160; James F. Wood, D., 59; Davis Smiley, P. &I.,49.

High Constable—H. N. Cummings, R.. 121; John McDonough, D., 80;

D. M. Longshore, P. & I., 64.

Auditor—Dennie Davis, R., 134; E. H. Long, D., 88; W. O. Marvin, P., 20; Willis Jackson. I., 32.

Tax Collector—R. E. Looker, R., 96; James F. Wood, D., 38; Davis Smiley, P. & I.. 34; C. V. Gillis, I., 103.

Judge of Election-F. W. Meese, Sr., R., 133; D. T. Hall, D., 86; William Blew, P. & I., 55.

Inspector of Election—W. H. Davis, R., 137; Richard Kerwin, D., 85; Milton Craven, P., 24.

Sciiools. —The Kane school-building was erected in 1883 at a cost of about $12,000. In 1885 W. P. Eckles was principal, with Misses Jones and Hodges, assistants. R. Campbell is president of the school board, O. B. Lay, secretary, W. J. Armstrong, treasurer, and Charles Roos, Grady and McKnight unofficial members. The schools are presided over by C. D. Higby. The teachers are Kate Ryan, Irene Davis, Florence Olmsted and May Norris. The Convent school-building was erected in 1882, and has been attended by three sisters of the Benedictine Convent. The enrollment is over 150.

The Board of Trade.—Of this organization Joshua Davis is president; J. T. Griffith and Eugene J. Miller, vice-presidents; U. M. Orr, secretary, and

E. Davis, treasurer. This organization gave authority to the treasurer to offer the following inducements: Free building sites. Sites in desirable locations will be sold outright for manufacturing purposes at one-half the current prices of adjacent lots, or, will be furnished on lease, rent free in any year when twenty men (daily average) are employed about the works. Free gas. In cases of manufactures where the number of hands employed is large in proportion to the quantity of fuel consumed, the gas companies will furnish gas free for one or more years, according to the number of hands employed. Free lumber. Rough lumber for factory buildings will be donated in special cases.

Natural Gas Companies.—In October, 1883, Elisha K. Kane commenced the construction of a system of natural gas supply for Kane, and in December, 1883, Kane Gas Company (limited), consisting of J. H. Snow, Henry McSweeney and Charles P. Byron, all of Bradford, and E. K. Kane, of Kane, filed articles of association at the county seat. In August, 1884, the limited partnership was succeeded by the Kane Gas Light and Heating Company, a la

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