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The banking business of the section has been conducted by Charles Duke from 1883 to the present time.

The First Congregational Society of Duke Centre and Prentiss Vale was incorporated in June, 1879, with the following named stockholders: M. W. Strickland, M. A. Strickland, L. B. Prentice, C. L. Allen, L. S. Allen, B. & H. Bunker, F. W. Sprague. Mary Sprague, Joseph Gridley and J. K. Leugemors. A church building was erected in 1879, which was sold in 1884-85, and converted into a skating rink.

The First Church of Christ, Duke Centre, was incorporated in November, 1879, with John Duke, Samuel H. Brown, A. A. Trend, A. J. Applebee, Thomas S. Woodard and Israel Couroth, members. That year the work of building a house of worship commenced. It was completed in 1880, although services were held within it in 1879.

The First Methodist Church of Duke Centre was incorporated in December, 1879, with A. R. Baker, C. G. Thomas, I. C. Schonerman, Enos Thomas, A. A. Coons, W. A. Simons and James L. Van Kirk, stockholders. Among the trustees Charles Duke and J. E. Baldwin are named. The church building is still used.

The Odd Fellows organized March 25, 1881, with the following named members: S. Frankenstein, \V. N. George, John Sharpe, A. A. Averill, Henry L. Raymond, A. N. Heard, J. R. McKinzie, John McGee, A. J. Watkiu, Morris Shear, Thomas Buchanan, David Greenberg, Benjamin Kempner, P. Mills, F. J. Fox. The names of past grands are A. J. Watkin, A. N. Heard, J. Sharpe, George Hancock, N. Fair, J. R. McKinzie, R. D. Henderson, John Needham, John McEwen, James Rickerson, A H. Stuart, J. I. Dunn, E. Koonse, George Williams and J. I. Painter. The names of secretaries are A. J. Watkin, R. D. Henderson, A. W. Terrill, J. V. Brown, N. Fair, J. McEwen and J. I. Painter. The present number of members is 53; value of property, $450, and date of building is 1884.

J. H. Mullin Post, No. 356, G. A. R., was organized at Rixford by W. W. Brown July 30, 1883, and participated in the decoration of Lamphier's grave, he being the only soldier of the Revolution buried in McKean county. The charter members were H. G. Allen, Eighty-fifth New York; C. D. Andrus, One Hundred and Twenty-sixth New York; S. C. Andrus, First Ohio Artillery, D. Adams, Seventy-eighth Pennsylvania; H. T. Breese, Fourteenth Missouri; E. J. Baldwin, Second New York Cavalry; J. E. Baldwin, One Hundred and Ninety-ninth Pennsylvania Volunteers; W. P. Baldwin, Fifty-eighth Pennsylvania; John V. Brown, One Hundred and Forty-ninth Pennsylvania; Clark Brown, Eighth New York; H. P Black, Eleventh Pennsylvania Cavalry: T. R. Burton, Navy; H. K. Burton, Fifty-eighth Pennsylvania Infantry: C. M. Brace, Twenty-first New York Cavalry; W. P. Bair, One Hundred and Third Pennsylvania; Fred Curtis, Seventy-first New York Infantry; M. G.

Dennis, Two Hundred and Eleventh Pennsylvania; James Fraser, ;S. M.

Fletcher, One Hundred and Twenty-sixth Pennsylvania; H. Trummon, First New York Dragoons; A. Glines, Thirteenth New York Artillery; L. J. Lilly, Second Pennsylvania Artillery; A. N. Loop, Two Hundred and Eleventh Pennsylvania; G. Lancomer, One Hundred and Ninety-fifth Pennsylvania; A. H. Low, Fifty-sixth Pennsylvania; E. W. Mullin, One Hundred and Thirtyseventh New York; J. S. Pittinger, of the Sixty-fourth New York (joined in 1880). N. Moore, Fourth New York Artillery; N. L. Moore, Eleventh Pennsylvania Cavalry; J. Moore, Fifty-first Pennsylvania; F. T. McEvoy, Thirteenth New Jersey Cavalry; U. Moore, Sixty-seventh Pennsylvania; H. A. McGraw, Twenty-third New York; J. D. McGee, Eleventh I. Battery, Pennsylvania; J. W. Martin, Tenth Pennsylvania Cavalry: G. W. Potter, Eighth Pennsylvania Cavalry; S. Peterman, Twenty eighth Pennsylvania; H. Peterson, Fifth New York Artillery; A. T. Rence, Sixty-third Pennsylvania; Henry Riley, Eleventh New York Cavalry; R. P. Shields, One Hundred and Fifty-fifth Pennsylvania; Samuel Stives, Twenty-seventh New York Artillery; F. Shrout, Fourteenth Virginia Infantry; G. W. Salmon, One Hundred and Forty-fifth Pennsylvania; W. M. Smith, Eighty second Pennsylvania; Owen Slayman. One Hundred and Forty second Pennsylvania. On June 15, 1885, headquarters were moved to Duke Centre. Nelson Moore was first commander, with N. L. Moore, adjutant. In 1885 W. P. Black was adjutant and J. E. Baldwin commander, succeeded in 1880 by F. T. McEvoy and M. G. Dennis, respectively; James Fraser was commander in 1887. and H. M. Black in 1888. In the latter year E. B. Cronk was appointed adjutant and served in 1889 with C. R. Hatch, commander. Mr. Cronk served in the Fourth New York Heavy Artillery. The present membership is fifty-nine.

Northern Star Lodge, F. & A. M., was organized about nine years ago with the following named members: Charles Bunce, David J. Wilson, John V. Brown. Lucius J. Lilly, Jesse R. Leonard, James Green, Pyrrhus Mills, Samuel M. Jones, George Tinto, Charles C. Anderson, O. P. Irvine, Joseph Norris. William N. George. The past masters are Charles Bunce, William N. George, John V. Brown, Joseph Norris, Lucius J. Lilly, William H. Randall, John S. Greer, F. W. Sprague and John E. Baldwin.

The R. T. and A. O. U. W. of Duke Centre completed their building in June, 1883.

In July, 1889, there were no less than thirty one Equitable Aid Unions in this county, and at that time the county union of McKean was the only county organization of the order in the world. These county meetings are not required by the supreme law. but McKean County Union originated in the fertile brain of John T. Irvine, of Duke Centre, grand secretary and accountant of the grand union of Pennsylvania.

CHAPTER XX.

SERGEANT TOWNSHIP.

Topography, Etc. Coal Measures—Oh. Wells— Population—The Cooper

Lands—Town Of Instanteh—The Place In 1810-13-17—Assessment Of SerGeant Township For 1836-37—Villages.

Clermont Some First Things—Fire—Gas Wells—Cemetery Association

Societies.

SERGEANT TOWNSHIP occupies the south center of the county. The west fork of the west branch of Portage Creek, Lick run, Brewer's run, Red Mill brook, Robin's brook and Smith's brook rise inside the east line in the gulches between the hills, which hero have an altitude of 2,100 feet above ocean level. In the south center are Four Mile. Buck and Smith runs, flowing into the east branch of the Clarion; also Five Mile, Seven Mile and Rocky runs, forming near Williamsville, while Sicily, Large, Beckwith and Little Buck runs flow into the west branch. The Katrine swamp is west of Ginals

[graphic]

burg, in a basin 2,200 feet above the ocean, while west of this pond one of the feeders of Marvin creek steals north from Seven Mile summit. Howard's farm, 2,100 feet above ocean level, is on the divide between Smith brook and Five Mile run. The highest measured point in the township is at Chappel Hill, in the extreme northeast section, 2,310 feet above ocean level, but it is said the hill, 7,000 feet north, has a greater elevation. The lowest point is where the West Clarion enters Elk county, the elevation being 1,600 feet. The conglomerate bottom follows the summits, being 2,300 feet at Chappel Hill and 1,950 at Williamsville, while a little northeast, on Instanter creek, it is 2,050. From Chappel Hill to Bunker hill, a distance of two and seven-eighth miles, the dip is about 300 feet, or 104 feet per mile, and from Wilcox well No. 1 to Williamsville there is no dip. The thickness of the greatest exposure is 710 feet, which shows 285 feet of coal measures, 325 feet of Mauch Chunk and Pocono, and 100 feet of red Catskill; but from well records geologists have ascertained that the carboniferous and devonian structures exist for at least 2,500 feet in this township. The Dagus coal bed exists on the hill between Red Mill brook, Beaver run and Instanter creek, at a depth of about sixty feet, and twelve feet above the limestone formation. This slaty limestone outcrops on the old Wilcox farm, between Clermont and Warner's brook. The rock is about six feet thick, and quarrying and burning it were for years the industries of the neighborhood. As has been stated the coal bed rests over this immense deposit of lime rock, while under the coal is the white fire-clay bed, from two to three feet in depth. The Johnson run sandstone (a hard white and yellow rock) reaches a thickness of fifty feet, and is prized by builders much more than the Kinzua Creek sandstone, which falls to pieces under the influence of the weather.

Wilcox well No. 1, on Warrant 2,676, a mile north of Elk county, was drilled in 1864 to a depth of 1,600 feet by Adams & Babcock, and subsequently drilled to 1,785 feet, when the tools were lost and work abandoned. The well, however, showed signs of life and sent up great columns of gas and water as high as 115 feet, which feat it repeated every seven minutes, until new efforts to develop it were made, when the procedure changed, the intervals of explosion being longer and the discharge of water greater in volume. With difficulty the well was tubed and oil obtained, but again was abandoned and the gas allowed to escape, a match applied, the derrick burned, and in 1871 was controlled by a wooden plug. In August, 1876, when well No. 2 was drilled, gas was carried 855 feet to be used as fuel in boring No. 2, while the surplus gas was conducted through a two-inch pipe, and discharged over a water tank, splashing the pipe and, the pressure being thus released, formed a circle of ice around the opening. In January, 1877, an effort to remove the wooden plug resulted in taking up 175 feet of casing, when an eight-minute geyser was brought into existence. In May gas ceased to flow, but on July 14 the old seven-minute explosion was renewed in wells Nos. 1 and 2, and the gas from No. 2 was used as fuel in drilling No. 3 from October, 1876, to June, 1877. In March, 1879. Hamar & Ernhout's well, at the mouth of Head brook, was down 2.230 feet, and Hamar's well on Wild-Cat run 2,000 feet

Sergeant township, in 1880, claimed 922 inhabitants. In 1888 there were sixty-four Republican and fifty Democratic votes cast, or a total of 114, representing about 570 inhabitants.

The first reference to the Cooper lands in McKean county is contained in an old day-book, dated August 22, 1809. This book is in possession of W. J. Colegrove. Cooper's farm is mentioned (Clermont) and the names of Van Wickle, Freeman and Outgalt appear. There was a saw-mill at Cooper's

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