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April, 1879, with the following named subscribers: J. C. and D. A. Whiteside, J. T. Shute and wife, Reuben, L. L. and Tirzah Dennis, C. P. and J. W. Levde, Ira G. Leseur, E. S. Riddell, A. H. and E. R. Mayo, M. B. Arcbi bald, E. E. Brown. R. A. Pinney, T. M. Bunker, J. S. Cotton, Dr. and Mary E. Chrisman, M. E. Royce, Henry Mapes, A. R. Fowler and J. J. Thompson.

The United Brethren Church was begun in August, 1878, under the supervision of Elder Bennett, who donated the building to the society. It was completed and dedicated February 9, 1879, but destroyed in the great tire of 1SS0, and never rebuilt, the little society worshiping in the Methodist and Baptist houses. Elder Bennett received $1,000 insurance and sold the lot to the Opera House company.

In August, 1878, the purchase of grounds on First street for the Catholic church building was made. In May, 1884, definite steps to build the church were taken, when Father Patterson was chosen president; James Biggins, treasurer; J. C. Walsh, secretary; J. J. Ivera, P. McDonald and P. Ivors, building committee. On September 1, the contractor began work. The building was dedicated October 18, 1885, by Bishop Mnllin, of Erie, assisted by Fathers Patterson, Galligan, Madigan and Smith. The late pastor, Father Patterson, died December 21, 1889, and was succeeded by Father Cosgrove.

Eldred Lodge, No. 560, A. F. & A. M., was chartered June 8, 1882, and constituted September 6. The past masters of this lodge are W. Dunbar, William A. Young, C. H. Kaufman, P. O. Heasley, A. B. Rowley, A. H. Mayo. The officers elected for 1890 are: W. A. Young, W. M.; R. A. Mackie, S. W.; C. W. Dorrion, J. W.; C. C. Moses, Treas.; F. D. Wheeler, Sec. Eldred Masonic Hall, in the third story of the Alford or Davidson building, is said to be one of the most complete in this section of the State.

In June, 1886, S. N. Johnson, Frank Parker, S. Brumberg, D. C. Holcomb, B. F. Hopewell, W. A. Hopewell. W. H. Bradley and Henry Templeton inaugurated a movement for the establishment of an Odd Fellows' lodge. In August Brumberg was elected N. G.; R. W. Snyder, F. S.; H. G. Heath, Sec, and William Duringer, Treas.

Rebecqa Lodge of Eldred was instituted in January, 1890, with H. G. Heath, N. G.; Mrs. George Gridley, V. G.; Mrs. Heath, Sec.; Frank Havens, Asst. Sec.; Mrs. J. W. King, Treas, with Luella Havens, Mrs. Arnot. Mrs. Doerr, Mrs. J. H. Douglass, Dena Dornberg, Susie Gridley, Mrs. J. Dennis, Robert Templeton and W. N. Llewelyn filling the other offices.

A tent of the K. O. T. M. was organized at Eldred in August, 1884, with G. B. Booth, F. H. Carter, T. C. Cole. M.V. Hotchkiss, R. A. Mackie, J. M. Addle, W. H. Perdoma, A. A. Fisher, S. R. Hays, William Duringer, M. L. App, S. R. A. Hays and E. O. Hotchkiss, officers, in the order of rank. The officers elected for 1890: Edmund Smith, Com.; G. C.Wiedman,R. K.; M.V. Hotchkiss, F. K, and George E. Smith, Lt.-Com.

The Knights of Labor established their lodge at Eldred in 1885, with thirtythree members and the following named officers: J. McFrazier, A. A. Fisher, J. E. Lawrenee. L. Wilson, J. B. Leo, A. Donnelly, N. Browner, S. A. Smith, S. A. Irwin, J. S. Dalton, H. S. Patton, F. Woodmansee, P. Nitrower, H. M. Dale and Jacob Martin.

The Equitable Aid Union was organized at Eldred, September 23,1880, with A. W. Nelson, president; Mrs. E. A. Spiller, vice-president; J. P. Morgan, secretary, and Dr. Morris, medical examiner.

The Mutual Protective Association was organized in June, 1879, with C. B. Jackson, E. R. Howden, F. C. Stillman and O. E. Rowley, principal officers.

Northern Council, American Legion of Honor, was organized June 6,1879, with W. H. Hoffman, W. H. Kline, W. P. Russell, E. J. McCurdy, J. E. K. Morris, J. McCurdy, J. W. Yard, B. G. Spiller, J. A. Uncopher, J. W. Churchill and Dr. Guthrie, officials.

J. R. Jones Post, G. A. R., No. 156, was mustered in, February 3,1880. with

C. C. Moses, B. G. Spiller, F. M. Adams, W. H. Richmond, W. A. Howell, L.

D. Dennis, James Marshall. J. S. Hicks, W. H. Hoffman, James Biggins of Second United States Sharp Shooters, Lewis Ralph, George Newland, A. J. Dnryea, George W. Colegrove, G. T. Dennis, E. H. Nichols and Ellis Coder. J. S.. Hicks, of Eleventh United States Regiment, was first commander, and G. T. Dennis, of the Eighty-fifth New York Volunteers, adjutant, succeeded in 1882 by A. J. Duryea, Two Hundred and Seventh Pennsylvania Infantry, who served until succeeded, January 8, 1886, by Adjt. VVilliam S. Hnzen, of Sturgess' Rifle Regiment. F. M. Adams, of Fifty-eighth Pennsylvania Infantry, served as commander in 1888; J. S. Hicks in 1884; A. H. Mayo, of the United States Engineer Corps, in 1885; C. C. Moses, in 1886; A. C. Douglass, 1887; A. H. Mayo, 1888, with L. D. Hill, of the One Hundred and Eighty-seventh New York Infantry, adjutant, who was re-elected for 1889, when Patrick McDonald, of the Twenty-seventh New York Infantry, was elected commander. There were 153 members enrolled, of whom about 100 remain in the post, although at date of last report there were only seventy-two members reported. The officers for 18VM), in order of rank, are: P. McDonald, Com.: M. M. Dalton, S. V. C.; Ezra Marsh, J. V. C.; A. H. Mayo, S. M.; G. T. Den ni?. Chap.; Norman Wright, Serge ; Frank Adams, O. of D.; W. Wilmarth, O. of G.; A. C. Douglass, I. G.; Frank Hibbard, O. G.

Eldred Woman's Relief Corps was instituted November 19, 1886, with Madams B. E. Marsh, L. A. Douglass, F. M. Squires, C. J. Hazen, C. M. Wolcott. A. Keyes, J. Sterling and S. Howell, officers in the order of rank. Mrs. Chase is president for 189!); Mrs. Mary Cotton, S. V. P.; Libbie Moses, J. V. P.; Mrs. A. J. Clark, Sec.; Mrs. Havens, Treas.; Mrs. T. A. Douglass, Chap., with Mrs. Howell, Mrs. King, Mrs. Pepper and Mrs. Ellis, filling the other offices.

Nichols Camp, Sons of Veterans, was organized in January, 1887, with C. M. Slack, captain; N. Zeak, lieutenant, and John Learn, second lieutenant.

Eldred Lodge, No. 278, K. of P., was organized October 13, 1889, with the following named members: I. N. Stickle, P. C.; H. A. Johnston, A. M. Palmer, A. N. Squires, W. G. Roberts, E. S. Rogers, K. of R. and S.; W. B. Rogers, C. W. Franklin, C. Y. White, F. M. Rockwell, H. E. Rockwell, W. W. Grove, C.

G. Richardson, W. A. Young, C. H. Kaufman, W. D. Russell, Fred Julien. C. C.; A. H. Mayo, C. W. Dorrion. F. P. Beamer, E. W. Doane, J. Lemmler. A. D. Gould, Lewis Balfour, F. Simon, R. Doerr, W. F. Burr and F. A. Carter. The officers for 1890 are: Robert Templeton, C. C.; W. B. Rogers, T. C.; A. M. Palmer, M. A.; L. Balfour, Prelate: R. Doerr, M. of E.; H. A. Johnston. K. R. S.;

H. E. Rockwell, Trustee.

The Chess Club, organized in February, 1890, elected H. G. Heath, Pres.: F. F. Brown, V. P.; C. W. Franklin, Sec.; Allen Morse, Treas.; A. H. Mayo and L. D. Hill, Trustees.

The Young Men's Catholic Association was organized in 1889....The officers of the Library Association, chosen in March, 1890, are: Mrs. W. B. Archibald, Pres.; Mrs. T. L. Sartwell, V. P.; Mrs. A. T. Barden, Treas.; Miss Jennie Wolcott, Sec.

The Eldred Board of Trade was organized in July, 1887, with A. B. Rowley, president; E. C. Wolcott, vice-president; E. R. Mayo, secretary; E. S. Rogers, treasurer; P. 0. Heasley, W. A. Young, W. B. Archibald, F. Simon and R. H. Owens, directors.

The Bank of Eldred was opened in February, 1879, in the Dolan House, with P. McGough, president, and S. M. McGough, cashier. In April the office was removed, owing to the owners being engaged in wider fields. The Eldred Bank, chartered in the fall of 1881, completed the present building in 1882. The officers at the time were W. L. Hardison, president; D. D. Moriarty, vicepresident; P. O. Beasley, cashier; J. D. Downing, Dr. W. L. Chrisman, M. Fin negan, W. A. Young, J. V. Ritts, and the president and vice-president, directors. The Eldred Bank robbery was perpetrated September 11, 1884. It appears that Cashier Heasley and Clerk Sloan were placing the cash in the safe, preparatory to closing; a bearded burglar appeared, and covering the officials named with a revolver, gathered up $2,500 and disappeared.

The Eldred Savings and Loan Association was organized in May, 1889, with D. L. Robbins, president; B. F. Greenman, vice-president; A. D. Gould, secretary; W. B. Archibald, treasurer; F. F. Brown, attorney; J. C. Welch, B. T. Hopewell and the officials named, directors.

In May, 1879, W. L. Chrisman and Reuben Dennis constructed a system of water-works, the latter agreeing to connect the dwelling houses with the main pipe and supply water for $1 per month.... The Eldred Water-Works, the enterprise of E. A. Barden, date back only to November, 1889. The water is obtained from the springs southeast of the town, where a reservoir of 3,000 barrels capacity was constructed. Up to March, 1890, pipes were laid on Mechanic street.

The Eldred Gas Company was organized in January, 1884, with Sam. M. Jones, Joseph R. Morse, Daniel E. Jones, James D. Downing and W. L. Hardison, members.

The Eldred Oil Company was organized in November, 1879, with A. B. Rowley, president; M. Finnegan, vice-president; A. D. Gould, secretary, and T. C. Wainman, treasurer. The executive committee comprised A. T. Barden, W. B. Archibald, A. Lemex, W. L. Chrisman, J. Uncopher, J. I. McCarthy, W G. Robarts, T. H. Ford, B. Alford, H. H. Mullin, E. R. Mayo and B. E. Cutler. In January, 1880, drilling was commenced on the Stull farm.... In October, 1883, White & Leaven's lamp-black factory on Indian creek was established .... The Windfall glycerine factory, owned by George H. Dana, of Duke Centre, was blown to atoms in January, 1885; James Simmons and a boy named Charles Thompson were killed. A large hemlock tree forty feet to the east, and the magazine equidistant on the south, were lifted up bodily.

G. T. Dennis, manufacturer of the Dennis Botanic Remedies, came to what is now Eldred in 1822 with his parents; in later years traveled extensively as far west as Illinois, and in 1873 established the "Great American Panacea," a medicine which was received with much favor. In later years he has introduced a number of medicines and extracts, all of which are accorded an excellent reputation by his neighbors of McKean county. .

Dr. Bates' Medicine Company was formed in 1886, with Dr. Morgan and A. D. Gould members. The medicines are prepared at Eldred and are advertised by a regular traveling company.

The Carriage Leather Manufactory of James N. Duffy was established in July, 1887. The location of the works is on the old Stull farm, near the junction of the Western New York & Pennsylvania Railroad and the Narrow Gauge, on the right bank of the Allegheny river, below the town of Eldred. Mr. Duffy has been connected with this business since 1846, beginning at Newark, N. J., and gives his great industry at this point personal supervision. In 1889 additions to the original works were made, and the facilities for tanning and finishing all kinds of leather used in the construction of carriages, and all kinds of patent and enameled leather used by saddlers and harness-makers,are ample.

The Wolcott Opera House was completed in August, 1884, for E. C. Wolcott, A. T. Barden, Miles Loop, W. B. Archibald and A. B. Rowley.

In 1865 there was high water, which came up in the road where Main street is now made, but that memorable flood was placed in the back-ground by that of May 31, 1889, which passed the water-mark of 1865, on the old Barden house at Eldred, by twelve inches. From Archibald's to the St. Elmo, on the west side, not a place escaped a thorough wetting, and from Welch's to Barden's, on the east side, the bank, Sartwell's, Owens Brothers' and Hill's were the only places high enough to escape. Carter's furniture store, above the St. Elmo, received its share of wetting. Sidewalks were either afloat or turned up on edge, boats flitted about the streets, through yards and in stores, while a horse and wagon became an object of curiosity. It was a picture of Venice with the rough side out, and was especially brilliant when at night the large open gas lights shown upon the water, and pleasure parties enjoyed a boat ride through the streets.

CHAPTER XIV.

HAMILTON TOWNSHIP—HAMLIN TOWNSHIP.

Hamilton Township Topography Geology Population Resident

Tax-payers, 1836-37—Officers Elected In 1889—Villages.

Hamlin Township Boundary—Topography Oil Wells—Discovery Of

Limestone—Forests—Population—Resident Tax-payers, 1847-48.

Mount Jewett—Its Rise And Growth—Natural Gas—IndustriesPostOffice—Churches And Cemetery—Society—Kinzua Bridge—Oil ComPanies.

HAMILTON TOWNSHIP is bounded on the north by Corydon township, on the east by Lafayette township, on the south by Wetmore township and on the west by Warren county. In 1879 the following described territory, taken from Wetmore township, was added to its southwestern corner: Warrants 2514, 2597, 2400, 2394, 2399. 2352, 2338, 2465, 2563, 2395, 2318 and 2391. Kinzua creek, which rises in Keating township, flows in a general westerly course to the confluence with the South branch, five miles due north of Wetmore, thence northwesterly, and passes out of the township near its northwest corner. Chappel fork and its numerous feeders divide the north one-half, and Two Mile run, a branch of the Tionesta, divides the southwest annex, as it runs northwest from Wetmore via Ludlow, leaving the county a point west of Windfall run. Wild Cat run flows southwest into Two Mile, while numerous small streams course down the plateau openings into the streams named. Paine's summit, in the north, is the highest measured elevation, being about 2,100 feet above tide level; the lowest, 1,240 feet, where the Kinzua enters Warren county. At Ludlow depot the sub-Olean conglomerate is exposed, its top being 116 feet above the track. At the Hulings & Davis well, drilled in the fall of 1878, one and one-half miles northeast of this exposure, 48 feet of Olean, 343 feet of Mauch Chunk and Pocono, 60 of

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