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$21,000 were realized from them before they were abandoned. In 1875 Jackson, Walker & Co. struck their well on the Kennedy farm, and found it to be a 100-barrel one, being the only true producer at the time. Jackson & Walker had from ten to twenty wells in operation before work on the Quintuple commenced.

The village proper of that day contained about 300 inhabitants, but the stampede which followed this discovery soon swelled the population to thousands, and the modern Bradford was commenced.

The Emery Manufacturing Company's Refining Works were established in 1887 by Mr. Haggerty, on the north city line, as a small oil refinery of two cheese-box stills, with a capacity of 150 barrels each. The works became the property of Lewis Emery, Jr., under whom the little refinery was conducted until the explosion last winter. Early in 1889 two hall-stills, perfected by Mr. Wilbur, were added, enlarging the capacity considerably and changing the whole system materially. The Commercial Gazette, referring to this new industry in August last, says:

Their entire works will be completed and in full operation by about the middle of October, and then they will consume 1,000 barrels of crude per day. They will be operated by an entirely new system, called the Hall improved process. The Hall system gives a continuous distillation, and this industry will be the only one in the country having it in use. When it can be said that Mr. L. Emery, Jr., the proprietor, has a pipe line of his own; a tank line of his own; owns a sufficient production of crude to supply the works; has a house in Philadelphia supplied with plenty of tankage and distributing wagons with which to speedily deliver his products to dealers; and in fact is provided with everything to perfect such an enterprise, it can be safely said that the success of the Emery Manufacturing Company is assured, and that Bradford can lay claim to the most modern oil industry of the age. Mr. Emery is one of the "old-timers" in the oil business, having followed it since 1865, when he made his debut at Pithole. He came to this city July 28, 1875, and in the following September completed three miles north of here by contract the second well in the Bradford field. His experience in the refining of petroleum is also quite extended, he having been one of the firm of Logan, Emery & Weaver, of Philadelphia, who disposed of their plant there in 1887. The products of this institution are high-test burning oils, and an article they are now making that is meeting with much favor wherever introduced is their "petroleum linsine," used in the mixing of paints, taking the place of linseed oil.

The Rock Glycerine Company, R. A. and C. G. Dempsey and N. Francis, members, established their business in 1881. The factories at Custer City, Penn., and Lima, Ohio, turn out nitro glycerine, dynamite and torpedo supplies in large quantities, supplying the two fields and outside territory. This company also own over thirty oil wells.

H. G. Cutting, a resident of Bradford since 1876, now operates about fifty wells, the gas from which is used for heating and illuminating purposes in the city.

The Bradford Oil Company was incorporated in 1876 with J. T. Jones, president, T. J. Powers, treasurer, and H. E. Brown and H. H. Adsit, directors. This company own over 300 wells in this and the adjoining Allegany county, N. Y., yielding about 800 barrels per day. For almost fourteen years the members have held a leading place among oil producers.

Whitney & Wheeler established their house in 1875, and the same year founded the Tuna Valley Bank. The dual business was conducted with uniform success until the panic of 1884, when by the failure of their New York correspondent—The Metropolitan National Bank—the firm were obliged to suspend and make an assignment for the benefit of their creditors. The suspension occurred in 1884, and through no fault of theirs the firm found themselves suddenly deprived of the business that they had worked so hard and faithfully to build up. Undaunted by this great disaster, however, they went manfully to work to retrieve their losses; and to their honor and credit be it said that by February, 1886, they had paid their creditors in full with interest, and resumed the control of their property. Since commencing business the firm have confined themselves exclusively to the conduct of their extensive producing interests Their property in this connection is of the most valuable in the oil regions, and they are among the heaviest producers of petroleum in this section.

The Oil Well Supply Company, sand-reel and band-wheel shop, located on Davis street, employs fifteen men, and its product is valued at $40,000 annually. The officers of the company are John Eaton, president, Pittsburgh, Penn.; K. Chickering, secretary, Oil City, Penn.; E. T. Howes, treasurer, Bradford, Penn.; K. Saulnier, assistant treasurer, Bradford, Penn. The Eaton, Cole & Burnham Company, of New York, and Bridgeport, Conn., are the Eastern correspondents of this company, and are equally well and favorably known. This is the only establishment in the world from which can be obtained everything necessary to drill and equip oil, gas or artesian wells. The machine shops are located on North Mechanic street, where fifty men are steadily employed. Labor, iron, steel and other incidentals bring the total expenditures to the sum of $100,000 per annum.

C. E. Tucker is one of the heavy jobbers in nitro glycerine and torpedoes. C. L. Casterline is also an extensive dealer in this class of goods. R. Jennings & Son have been engaged in oil production since 1870, and now hold a leading position among the well proprietors of this field in which they own 125 wells.

The Sucker Rod Factory of Gideon Chapman was established here in 1878. W. G. Chapman's shop on Dresser avenue employs three men, who turn out $20,000 worth of rods annually.

The firm of Wheeler & Simonds was organized in 1877, and the office has been in Bradford since 1879. The business of the firm consists in the production of petroleum, valuable fields being owned in Butler, McKean, and other counties, from which the annual output is of vast magnitude. S. A. Wheeler came to the oil regions from Toledo, Ohio, in 1870, and began operating in Venango county, near Franklin. Later he was interested in Butler county, being manager and part owner of the '' Relief Pipe Line Company'' for some years previous to forming his present connection. Mr. Wheeler is also a member of the firm of Whitney & Wheeler, and has long been numbered among the representative business men and financiers of this section. J. H. Simonds came to the oil regions in 1864, and has operated in Venango, Butler and McKean counties, his first principal operations having been in the famous "Pithole District."

The McKee Bull and Sand-wheel Factory was established in 1872 at Franklin, and moved to Bradford, in 1878, by J. W. McKee. The bull wheel manufactured is what is known as the '' patent sectional,'' its great feature being that it can be detached from the shaft at will. The sand-wheel is made also upon the same principle, and in addition the establishment turns out solid wheels to order, and all parts of all machinery.... The Corbett Reel and Rig Company's shop is located on Hilton street; employs eight men and does a business of $100,000 annually.

The Tuna Iron Works of W. C. Walker & Co., produce $50,000 worth of iron ware annually, and give employment to sixteen men.

The Central Iron Works of Bovaird & Seyfang were established in 1872, and now give employment to 100 men. The product of this establishment embraces engines of from six to 100 horse-power, a noted specialty being a newly improved oil engine. This great utility is manufactured in sizes of twelve, fifteen and twenty horse-power, and is especially adapted to drilling in deep territory, under which circumstances its great rapidity and unsurpassed strength are readily perceived. The firm also manufactures special machinery of all kinds, and are, in all probability, the heaviest producers of drilling and fishing tools in the world. They also deal extensively in boilers, steam pumps, tubing, casing, new and second-hand machinery, machinists' supplies, and the output is valued at $100,000 annually.

William Robertson & Son, machinists, works located on Chestnut street, employ six men and do a $25,000 business annually. The business of this concern was originally established at Pithole, Penn., in 1865, by the head of the firm, who removed to this city in 1880, and two years later admitted his son, D. W. Robertson.... Brown & Manning do a business at 33 Webster street. They employ four men and do a business of $12,000 annually. They run a machine shop.... Robert Manning, a native of Pennsylvania, came to Bradford in 1880, and established his present business in the early part of 1885

D. Phillips, machinist, transacts an annual business of $55,000; employs

ten men.... The Ross Machine & Repair Shops were established by G. W. Ross in 1875, and conducted by him until 1886 when J. H. Ross took charge.

The Eureka Iron Works, operated by S. McCaughtry, H. Harris, W. H. Pepper and R. Ireland, produce all kinds of fishing and drilling tools, sandpumps, boilers, mud sockets and casing cutters. The shops are on Foreman street, and the annual business is over $20,000.

The S. R. Dresser's Packer Factory is located near the Quaker Rod Shop. Oil and-Gas well packers are specialties.... Connelly Bros, boiler works, located on Hilton street; employ seven men and do a $12,000 business per annum.... Shearer & Hicks, machinists, shop located on Railroad street; employ 10 men and do a $35,000 business per year. . . m. J. Rose, machinist, shop on Cory don street; employs two men and does a $30,000 business yearly .... Winthrop & Delvin have a small machine shop at No. 35 Webster street; they are practical men and do their own work; they do in the neighborhood of $4,500 yearly.. . .John Ley has a large plant, a machine shop, on Corydon street; employs twelve men, his yearly business aggregating $25,000.. . .The Lock Manufacturing Company,located at 25 Webster street,employ two men and do a trade of $5,500 per annum.... Bradford, Bordell & Kendall railroad shops, located up the east branch; employ twenty men and do a $20,000 business yearly.... Buffalo, Rochester & Pittsburgh railroad shops, located on the east branch, employ 156 men and do a $250,000 business per annum.

B. C. Quigley's Ash and Hickory Sucker Rod factory was established here in 1885, although he was a resident of the city for six years prior to that time. His factory on East Main street is thoroughly equipped.

L. Emery, Jr., & Co's oil well, machinist and railroad supply house, and general hardware store was established in 1876. The store is one of the largest business places in the city. The premises consist of a double two-story brick structure, with large plate glass windows in front, and the interior is systematically and conveniently arranged with all the modern facilities for the handling and displaying of goods. The mammoth stock embraces all kinds of silverware, cutlery, jewelry, optical goods, hardware, and in short everything in the merchandise line excepting shoes and dry goods. A specialty is made of oilwell, machinist and railway supplies, the stock carried being the largest and most complete in this section of the country. The firm's large warehouse for the accommodation of the surplus is located near the Union Depot. In addition to the above interests the members of this firm are among the heaviest oil producers in this region, under the title of the Emery Oil Company. This is a separate branch of their extensive business, the office being located at No. 41 Main street. They employ in the several departments of their enterprise a great number of people, and their trade extends throughout the oil regions.

The hardware and oil supply store of H. A. Jamieson and W. H. Pickett was established in 1864 by J. H. Mitchell. The present owners took charge in 1871... .Bodine & Walker's business was founded in 1876 by George Bodine.... The Bradford Stone Company was established by C. R. Cosolowsky in May, 1886.... J. B. McElwaine founded his oil-well supply house in 1879, and later established branches at Duke Centre and Kane, Penn., and Bolivar, N. Y.... The Jarecki Manufacturing Company is represented by E. A. Weart. .... Boggs & Curtis machine and oil well supply store dates to 1884.... R. W. Carroll's agency was established in 1884. He handles the goods of the American Tube and Iron Company, the Gutta Percha and Rubber Manfacturing Company, the Belknap Manufacturing Company, the Hoyt Metal Company, the Crosby Steam Gauge and Valve Company, the Hart Manufacturing Company, the Titusville Iron Works, the Watertown Steam Blower Company, the Standard Boiler Feeder Company and many others.... The Tifft Engine and Boiler Manufacturing Company has been represented by A. McLean since 1869. Their office here was established in 1860.... Dennis & Booth, successors to Jones, Dennis & Booth, established their building business in 1877.

The Bradford Glass Works were erected in 1884 on the site of Brain's brick-yard, near the Erie Railroad track. A proposition to re-open this industry was pending in June, 1889. The proposition materialized, and on September 25, 1889, the window-glass factory made the third run or heat. Since the successful opening of the works, A. P. Lewis, manager, with thirty-five glass-blowers, seven flatteners, eight cutters, four pot-makers, three packers and sixteen helpers have formed the working force. The glass-blowers received from $125 to $250 per month. No less than 1,000 persons witnessed this third run.

Bradford Toothpick Factory employs twenty persons and does a $20,000 business per year. Factory on Hilton street.

The Clark Mill, on the island, is the only saw-mill in the city. For twentyfive years Mr. Clark has been connected with the lumber industry; product 4,000,000 feet of hemlock annually... .H. Tuthill, dealer in sash blinds and dressed lumber, employs three men and does a yearly business amounting to $30,000; the plant is located at 54 Chestnut street; the house was founded in 1881 by D. Wright.... C. F. McAmbly, lumber merchant, yard on Hilton street; employs eighty-five men; his business amounts to $500,000 per annum.... P. A. Kent's yard was established in 1883... .The G. Koebly carriage shops, on the island, is one of the largest industries of this class in this section of Pennsylvania... .Herman Frank, cigar manufacturer, No. 12 Congress street, employs twenty men, and does a $50,000 business per year.... M. L. Pomeroy, harness, etc., employs two men and does a $5,000 business annually; shop located at 6 Pine street.... W. H. Walker, manufacturer of harness, etc., whose house was established in 1879 by L. B. Hill, also does considerable business.

John Meyer's upper factory and leather shop was established in 1878.... Sendker Bros.' shoe store was established in 1880, and C. M. Bosworth's in 1885.... Drew's furniture factory was founded in 1880-81.... The Consolidated Bottling Company was incorporated in 1882; it is simply a consolidation of the firms of A. F. Kent, Woodbury & Campbell, Mayer Brothers and T. Blakely & Company; the business is well carried on... .Campbell Brothers' bottling works, on Davis street, is a large industry here.... Brennan & Davis' jewelry store was established in 1883; C. H. Norton's in 1881.

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