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1890 are as follows: S. C., D. T. Seeley; V. C., Mrs. E. B. Laraway; P. C, D. H. Rook; C., Mrs. L. Messner; F. S., W. W. Laraway; R. S., Mrs. E. M. Adams; T., W. G. Long; H., Mrs. E. M. Arnold; G., B. F. Shergerland; S., C. G. Esler. The number of beneficiary members is thirty-four and of honorary members thirtv-two.

United Council No. 80, R. T. of T., was organized August 10, 1886. The officers in 1887 were P. C., E. R. Sherman: S. C., A. N. Heard; V. C., S. Howard; R. S., JohnBogart; F. S., Martha Sherman; T., Mrs. L.Westhrook; P. C., E. M. Wheeler. In 1890 the following named officers were elected: S. Howard, Mrs. Knerr, A. Simpson, Mrs. Lenehan, R. S. R. Knerr. Miss Smith, E. E. Comstock, William Campbell, Miss Abbey, Miss. Hacock and E. W. Mann. The membership at present numbers 110.

Women's Protective and Reform Association of Bradford was incorporated in May, 1882, with the object of aiding women seeking a virtuous livelihood. Amanda T. Jones was president; Artie B. Willard, vice-president; Margaret B. Stone, Mary A. Wolcott, Mrs. John Brown, Augustus W. Newell and H. S. Davis, directors. Among the members were Mrs. F. H. Stanford, M. D., and Mrs. J. J. White.

The Young Men's Christian Association was organized May 27,1889, when a board of managers was appointed. This board comprises C. P. Cody, F. D. Cleland, H. S. Thompson, J. T. Evans, J. L. Davidson, W. W. Brown, H. W. Blakeslee, J. W. Davis, W. H. Dennis, E. E. Tait, E. T. Howell, J. A. Perkins, P. A. Kent, John McCrum and S. Hollenbeck. The association proposes to rent the principal room on the second floor of the new Masonic Temple. In 1890 W. H. Dennis was chosen president; P. A. Kent, vice-president; J. T. Evans, treasurer; S. Hollenbeck, recorder, and J. G. Purple, general secretary. Total number of members 131.

The Cherra Bicker Cholim Relief Society was incorporated January 14, 1884, on petition of Rev. S. Weil, K. Berwald, H. Sigel, A. Joseph, H. Cohen and I. Cohen.

Typographical Union No. 185 was organized in May, 1879, with George J. Klehm, W. R. Barnwell, James Howell, R. A. Russell, James Spear, C. H. Widgeon and Harry K. Welsh, members. The corresponding secretary of this union is James W. Leasure, and the recorder. George O. Slone. Among the members are R. A. Russell and H. K. Welsh of the first organization, W. J. Cotter, D. A. Ropp, George Hummell, S. C. Gilman and A. G. McKenna. The officers for 1890 comprise R. A. Russell, president; George O. Slone, secretary; J. W. Leasure, correspondent; H. K. Welsh, treasurer; W. J. Cotter, vice-president, and J. Fetterley, chairman of executive committee. There were sixteen members in March, 1890.

Oil Exchange Division No. 254, Locomotive Engineers, was formally organized June 7, and completed organization July 7, 1884, with L. J. Jones, chief; James Wheeler, first engineer; J. R. Banta. second engineer; H. G. King, H. Kendall and O. Burke, assistant engineers; C. A. Clough, guide, and C. L. Shaffer, chaplain.

Folwell Lodge No. 326, Brotherhood of Locomotive Firemen, was instituted July 10, 1886. Among the officers were E. Bellington, G. P. Clough, J. H. Fenner, C. W. Palmer and P. T. Lane. The following named are the officers for 1890: G. P. Clough, master; C. H. Alger, secretary; G. E. Lovelace, collector, and M. W. Maybee, magazine agent.

The Cigar-makers Union claimed the following named officials: President, R. Coeninberg; vice-president, P. Hopkins; financial secretary, J. Semhauser; corresponding secretary, P. H. Kieley; recording secretary, P. H. Kieley; sergeaut-at-arms, M. Singer; trustees, W. Ruble, J. Harbrecht, and treasurer, John Bohne. The four principal officers for 1890 are P. Hopkins, J. Harbrecht, T. J. Gary and J. Casterline.

The Well Drillers Union was incorporated November 27, 1888, with C. H. Snively, James G. Winger, H. Gosser, C. H. Ley and D. W. Brenton, trustees.

The Bradford Athletic Club was organized in February, 1886, and secured spacious rooms in the Producers' Petroleum Exchange for athletic exercises, as well as club quarters. .The list of members in 1887 was as follows: H. A. Marlin, C. R. Huntley, Tom Kennedy, C. M. Dodge, C. H. Lavens, J. M. Fuller, B. F. Smith, E. P. Whitcomb, H. C. Brooks, J. L. Johnson, W. H. Powers, L. E. Mallory, E. W. Wolfe, C. M. Brennan, Fred Davis, Heber Denman, John Denman, M. B. Pierce, C. K. Book, B. F. Kennedy, L. E. Hamsher, Sam Kennedy, R. C. Sherman, W. R. Weaver. C. A. Mitchell, W. G. Gray, J. L. Barrett, Fred McKee, J. P. Taylor, J. A. Johnson, G. L. Roberts, William Cochran, S. G. Bayne, G. H. Mills, T. B. Flynn, J. C. Flynn, W. J. Alexander, C. P. Cody, R. H. Gibson, W. S. Watson, H. K. Williams, C. E. Tucker, W. L. Curtis, B. M. Bailey, G. F. Groves, Harry Egbert, T. P. Thompson, S. C. Rhodes, P. M. Shannon, J. H. Evans, W. J. Russell, H. J. Seigfried, C. B. Shepard, A. Willoughby, G. K. Hawkins, G. L. Watson, W. F. Robinson, J. B. Buttry, G. A. Bodine, W. C. Leonard, H. B. Gee, G. H. Potter, Walt Willis, R. L. Edgett, D. H. Jack, H. C. Sanderson, E. H. Bar nnm, F. D. Wood, C. S. Hubbard, C. F. Collins, Kenton Saulnier, D. J. Thayer, F. E. Wood, J. A. Walker, J. C. Gormely, Robert Long, T. E. McCray, L. B. Prosser, W. P. Shoemaker, Bateman Goe, C. A. Norton, Frank Gifford, S. M. Reid, W. C. Higgins, A. L. Avery, C. C. Youmans, W. W. Bell, I. W. Sherley, A. C. Hawkins, J. E. Haskell, J. C. Greenewald, D. C. Greenewald, J. K. Wilson, M. Matson, J. W. McCray, W. H. Scott, H. M. Spence, S. G. Slyke, C. Foley, E. S. Williamson, W. F. Flynn, R. T. Shaw, J. C. Boyce, R. W. Carroll, W. G. Carroll, D. O'Donnell, J. A. Simonds. C. W. Dennis, E. A. Weart, Clark Hayes, F. H. Willis, F. W. Groves, B. Newcomer, John R. Zook, W. G. Mason, Walter Bovaird, J. B. Farrell, C. C. Conroy, E. L. Adams, M. H. Byles, M. Compton, E. B. Pemberton, D. Marks, S.

G. Coffin, C. H. Filkins, James Robinson, F. G. Boyer, C. E. Hequembourg, A. P. Huey, E. Given, W. W. Splane, C. C. Melvin, A. B. Smith, John P. Zane, E. R. Shepard, E. J. Boylston, J. T. Evans, C. P. Byron, J. W. VanTine, E. T. Johnson, W. H. Orcutt, C. D. Evans, T. N. Barnsdall, J. B. Chapman, L. A. Brenneman, Henry Wilson, William Hanley, F. P. Atkinson, E. W. Coleman, George B. Morgan, J. H. Healey, J. E. Wolf, F. A. Griffin, George A. Sturgeon, J. F. Wilson, W. E. Pickering, H. G. Morrow, F. P. Wentworth, John B. Brawley, R. B. Johnson, John O'Brien, H. H. Stowe, J.

H. Field, F. P. Leonard, A. B. Walker, Frank Chapman, T. J. Powers, John McCrum, W. B. Chapman, B. F. Cushing, J. M. McElrov, J. B. Janes. G. C. Scott, W. C. Kennedy, M. J. Lowe, T. J. Melvin, F. L. "Smith, David Kirk, James Flanigan, L. W. Oaks, E. A. Van Scoy, F. T. Coast, A. M. Straight, J. D. Wolf, O. B. Comfort, Charles Samuels, Harry Brinker, R. L. Mason, A. Fraser, J. W. Jeffry, Joseph Albertson.

The Board of Trade is an important institution in Bradford. An enterpriseing party of Bradford men organized a stock company for the purpose of establishing and conducting in this city a furniture factory. The project was carried into effect. From that organization sprang the Board of Trade. The glass works were started under its patronage, the present shops of the Buffalo, Rochester & Pittsburgh Railroad and several other industrial enterprises. The Board of Trade was allowed to become inactive for a few years, but was reorganized for service early in 1887. Since that time its members have been untiring in their efforts to aid Bradford by encouraging manufacturers to locate here. The board is composed of some of Bradford's best citizens. Col. A. I. Wilcox was general agent. C. B. Whitehead, R. B. Stone, W. W. Brown, C. H. Kennedy, A. J. Edgett, D. C. Greenewald, C. J. Lane, A. W. Newell, J. K. Merriam, H. F. Barbour, Loyal Ward, A. M. Mayer, H. S. Southard, F. W. Groves, S. G. Elliott, C. P. Cody were among the first officers of the revived organization. In January, 1888, the Board of Trade elected the following named directors: R. B. Stone, W. W. Brown, A. M. Mayer, A. J. Edgett, L. Emery, Jr., John P. Zane, F. W. Groves, J. K. Merriam, D. C. Greenewald, G. S. Stewart, A. W. Newell, H. S. Southard, G. A. Berry, C. P Cody, C. H. Kennedy, R. A. Dempsey and S. G. Elliott.

• The Bradford Telephone Exchange was opened in April, 1880, with F. A. Newell, manager. Derrick City, Red Rock, Gillmor and Tarport were connected on April 6. The system has been extended in every direction within the last nine years. In June, 1883, the strike of telegraph employes was inaugurated at Bradford, and continued four weeks. During the strike Barrett & Harvey constructed a private line between the Producers' Exchange and Bradford Exchange, and transacted business at five cents per message. The postal telegraph line was built through Bradford in January, 1884.

The Pompelon Club, organized some time ago, is one of the leading literary societies of the district. The officers for 1890 are C. L. Wheeler, president; Mrs. R. B. Stone, vice-president; L. H. Simons, historian; H. H. North, treasurer; Loyal Ward, Eugene Mullin, Mrs. Ada Cable, O. B. Comfort and John P. Zane, members of committee on literary exercises; W. B. Chapman, Miss McBurney, Miss Biscoe, Ferd Kreiner and W. L. Curtis, members of the executive committee. The topics for discussion are of a philosophical character, such as the "Future of the Republic," by W. J. Milliken; "Free Coinage of Silver," by W. W. Brown; "The Future of the Africo-American," by P. R. Cotter; "The Congressional Embargo," by H. F. Barbour, and "Trend of Thought Favorable to Republican Forms," by T. F. Mullin.

The Columbian Club was organized in the fall of 1889, with L. B. Lockard, president; A. H. Blomer and C. C. Melvin, vice-presidents; George B. Morgan, secretary, and C. P. Byron, treasurer. In October this circle of social Democrats purchased a two-story building in rear of Whitney & Wheeler's office for club uses.

The Bradford Driving Park and Fair Association was permanently organ ized October 11, 1889, with A. C. Hawkins, president; F. H. Chapman, vicepresident; C. C. Melvin, treasurer; W. R. Weaver, secretary, and they with L. E. Mallory, L. E. Hamsher, Joseph French, C. C. Kimball, H. G. Cutting, James Baylor, C. DuBois, R. A. Dempsey and P. Newell were directors.

Manufacturing and Other Industries. — In former pages references are made to the pioneer saw mills and shingle makers of this section. Late in the "fifties" the manufacture of oil from local coal was attempted; in 1861-62 oil explorations were begun, but not until 1878 was a practical effort to discover the oil ocean made.

In the fall of 1871 Foster built a derrick, and began work on the Henchie farm. He struck a log at a depth of 180 feet and farther down a fifteen-barrel well—the first in the district which paid expenses. This well soon gave out, and in 1873 the Butts & Foster, the Olmsted, William Barnsdall's, on the Hooker farm, and that on the Buchanan farm were the only evidences of oil successes. Theo. E. Barnsdall pumped the first two producing wells, and states that

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