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they called the North Kane Railroad, from the Philadelphia & Erie Railroad, at Kane, for two miles down the south branch of Kinzua Creek. In 1888 they sold their mills at North Kane and the railroad to G. W. Campbell & Sons, who made the North Kane Railroad form a portion of their Kinzua Creek & Kane Railroad. The Kinzua Creek & Kane Railroad was chartered to run from Kane to Neely's mill on the Western New York & Pennsylvania Railroad, and about six miles have been completed. In consideration of right of way and of a loan of money necessary for its construction this railroad was extended to a connection with the Pittsburgh & Western Railroad, forming a belt line through the borough, and entered into a permanent contract with Elisha K. Kane, by which any manufacturer locating upon its line within borough limits is entitled to free use of the tracks, or to have cars brought to his works and returned to the main railroad at a charge of only 75 cents per car.

In 1882 a railroad was built between Coudersport, in Potter county, and Port Allegany, in McKean county, known as the Coudersport & Port Allegany Railroad. The Kinzua Creek Railroad Company was chartered in February, 1890, to build twelve miles of track from Anderson switch, of the Western New York & Pennsylvania Railroad, to the big bridge on the New York, Lake Erie & Western Railroad.

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CHAPTER X.

BRADFORD TOWNSHIP AND CITY OF BRADFORD.

Bradford TownshipGeneral Description—Census Statistics—Early Settlers Land Warrants And Companies Early Schools And Churches—Some First Things—Bradford Village In 1875—Township Officers Elected In 1890—Villages.

City Of Bradford Pioneers—Origin Of The Town—Oil Boom, Etc.

Fires—Municipal Affairs—Light And Heat Companies—Banks, Etc.— Oil Exchanges Post-off Ice— Hotels—Schools—Churches—CemeterIes—Hospital—Societies, Etc.—Manufacturing And Other Industries —conclusion.

BRADFORD TOWNSHIP is bounded on the north by the south line of Foster township, south by Lafayette and Keating townships, east by Otto township, and on the west by Corydon township. The east branch of Tuna Creek*, running north from" Lewis run, near the center of the south line, forms a confluence with the west branch at Bradford, while at Tarport and Babcock the main stream receives Kendall Creek and Foster brook. The west branch heads in Two Mile run and flows northeast from the southwest corner of the township to Bradford city. Kendall creek rises in the southeast corner and flows northwest to Tarport, and Foster brook rises near the east line of the northeast quarter of the township, flowing almost west to Babcock. Manila creek, the principal feeder of the west branch, comes down from the heights in the northwest corner. A hundred smaller streams are found here, some finding a way to the main streams through deep canyons. Mount Raub, a mile east of Bradford, is the highest measured point, being 2,225 feet above level. The lowest point (1,415 feet) is where Tuna creek enters New York State. All the higher points are capped by Pottsville conglomerate, which is either the Kinzua Creek sandstone or the Olean conglom., while in the south and west the Johnson run sandstone is found resting on its Alton coal bed. The dip of the Olean and, consequently, the oil sand from Rock City to Tarport (nine miles) averages five and one-half feet per mile; Tarport to Bradford, thirteen feet; Bradford to DeGolier, twelve and one-half feet; DeGolier to Lewis run, thirty-seven feet; Bradford to Marilla summit (summit elevation 2,040 feet, and distance six miles), three feet per mile, and the average dip from Tarport to the southeast corner of the township is fourteen feet per mile. The total thickness of rocks explored in the outcrop or wells is 1,977 feet extending from cap of Mount Raub to the Chemung formations. Bold outcrops of Olean conglomerate are visible in the Tuna Valley, and west of Custer City they take the peculiar features of the formation at Olean, Rock City, where the summit is 2,350 feet above tide. In the Marilla region occurs the extreme northern outcrop, in the United States, of the Appalachian coal basin, but the area is so small it is held in little estimation by coal men. At Lewis run is the black band iron ore (under a bed of black band shales) which yielded on test 43.75 per cent of metal. Near the head of Two Mile run, just across

• Tuna creek derives its name from the eddy at ita mouth, called by the Indians Ichunuagwant or Big Cove with Large Mouth.

the south town line, five varieties of ore exist, one of which yields 48.65 per cent of metal, and one as low as 23.10 per cent. The mineral paint ore on the Foster farm was largely used by the Erie Railroad Company some years ago in painting depots, bridges and cars. It was ground and mixed with crude oil, and found to be very desirable for an outside paint. There being no mill near in which it could be ground, the expense of transporting it to Buffalo, having it ground and then sent to market, was too great for the limited capital of the party engaged in its manufacture. A barn now standing near Smethport built some years ago by Col. Wilcox is entirely constructed of McKean county products except the nails, and is painted with the paint in question.

The population of Bradford township and village in 1870 was 1,446, of which 100 were foreign-born citizens. In June, 1874, the number was estimated at 1,500, including 350 in the village. The oil production for the preceding six years was roughly estimated at twenty-one barrels per day, which sold for $1.30 per barrel. One lumberman ran over 5,000,000 feet of white pine logs and manufactured over 3,000,000 shingles that year, and with the other lumber and bark interests of Zeliff, Clark & Babcock, Peterson, J. W. Hilton and P. T. Kennedy brought to the township at least $150,000. Three hundred cows yielded 112,000 worth of butter and $3,620 worth of cheese, while grain and root crops, cattle, sheep, hogs and horses contributed largely to the township's wealth.

The population of Bradford township in 1880 was 2,699. In 1888 the township gave 270 Republican, 132 Democratic, 41 Prohibition and 19 Labor votes, or a total of 462. This number multiplied by six, as in the case of Bradford city, gives the population, at the close of last year, 2,772.

The population of Bradford city in 1880 was 9,197. * Of this number 2,622 resided in the First Ward, 1.704 in the Second, 2,603 in the Third, 1,520 in the Fourth, and 1,228 in the Fifth. In November, 1888, there were 178 votes cast in the First Ward for the Republican candidate for president, 265 for the Democratic, and 8 for the Prohibitionist; in the Second Ward the figures were 242, 112 and 15, respectively; in the Third, 143, 181 and 17; in the Fourth, 228, 106 and 7, and in the Fifth, 122, 73 and 9, while Streeter received 7 votes in all the wards, or 913+737+56+7 -1,713, multiplied by 6 equals 10.278, the population based on vote.

The resident tax-payers of Bradford township in 1844-45 were Philo Ackley, N. J. Buel, Smith Barton, William Coleman, John Dudley, James Cooper, Orrin Fuller, C. Lukins, Hiram and J. O. Beardsley, Phil. Barron, Chester Barron, Asmit Brown, Bradley & Fobes (saw-mill owners), Jones and A. L. Buchanan, A. W. Buchanan, George Brookmire, William Beardsley, Aaron Boon, James Babcock, H. C. Blakesley; James Blair (assessed $100 for a gold watch), Andrew and W. P. Browne, John Boyd, Henry Conklin, Erastus Croak, Ed. Case, J. L. Colegrove, Dyer Cramer, John Corwin, Henry Collins, John and Orrin Coleman, J. F. Clark, Jared Curtis, Philetus Corwin, Dana & Smith (grist- and saw-mill owners), William Dikeman, Joe DeLong. Ben., Dan. and Sam. Dikeman, Lorenzo and Silas Drake, James, Abel, David and William DeGolier, Nathan DeGolier (saw-mill owner), F. E. Dodge, Tom Doloff, Samuel and Darius Emery, H. Edson, P. D. Dean (owner of a gold watch), L. Dewey (owner of a silver watch), Nathaniel, Newton and Warren Edson, William Fisher (saw-mill owner), G. W. Fisher, H. Fox, M. Filler, Jonathan Fuller & Son, Isaac Farr, Ephraim Foster, David Foster, Edmond Freeman (farmer, near Custer City), C. D. Foot, L. S. Foster, Daniel and H. W. Glass, R. Gates, Nathan Green, A. and A. L. Houghton, Hiram Hagadorn, William Hook, O. Hegle, Orrin and Benjamin Havens, Simon Hamond, A. O.

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