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served his apprenticeship. From 1855 to 1874 or 1875 Mr. Wright resided at Janesville, except while assisting in compiling the Chicago Directory. Charles E. Wright, his son, died in 1809, while on the editorial staff of the Times. A short time prior to his death he contributed a few papers on local history to the Miner, and for years was a contributor to the Reporter.

The Ceres News was issued at Ceres in 1874 by Jerry Barker. One volume was issued within fourteen months, when a humorous valedictory was issued. The disappointed editor died a poor man, at Machias. The second paper published at Ceres was the Courant, issued by J. P. Herrick in the summer of 1886. The success of this journal under Mr. Herrick is told by the fact that in May, 1889, a two story building was completed, and opened as the office. The Oswayo Valley Mail is the new name of the Consolidated Ceres Courant and the Sharon Leader, of which Mr. Herrick is publisher. The consolidation dates to April, 1889.

The Eldred Express was issued at Eldred August 17, 1878, by Judson Howden, publisher, and A. J. Hughes, of the Reporter, owner. In September, 1879, this journal was consolidated with the present Reporter of Port Allegany.

The Eldred Eagle was issued at Eldred by A. D. Gould, August 24, 1878, as an independent journal in politics. When the Express people witnessed the failure of the Eldred oil field, they ceased their contest with the American bird, who has held the field successfully down to the present time.

The Herald was issued at Duke Centre in November, 1879, by Wellington & Carr. Other journals followed during the great oil fever at this point; but now the Auger is the only journal published. A number of small papers were issued at various oil camps since 1878, such as the Bordell Bazoo, The Driller.

The Kane Blade was published at Kane as an independent weekly newspaper by O. B. Lay, from 1879 to 1882. It was printed in Ridgway, until the tire of September, 1882, destroyed the printing office there, when the Blade suspended publication.

Kane Leader.—On July 2, 1885, Earl Bros., of Sterling and T. J. Malone, of Ridgway, formed a partnership and published the Kane Leader. Earl Bros., on March 11, 1886, sold their interest to a friend of Mr. Malone's. December 24, 1880, Mr. Malone transferred his interest to Miss Ada C. Malone, who, under the name of "The Leader Publishing Company" managed the paper until May 5, 1887, when it was purchased by Eugene J. Miller. During the Prohibitory Amendment Campaign of 1889 Mr. Miller sold the paper to a Prohibitionist who desired to control it, and Miss Malone again became its publisher in 1889. The Leader is a weekly journal carefully edited, and replete with local news.

SCHOOLS.

The school history of McKean county begins in September, 1807, when John Keating, the donor of the county seat, set aside 150 acres for the support of a teacher, and subscribed £500 toward a school building. A reference to the transactions of the commissioners will show that for fifteen years, at least, no steps were taken to utilize this liberal grant. The first school, however, was opened at Instanter in 1809. Joseph Otto taught the second school in the county at his house. It was an eleemosynary institution, suggested by the ignorance and wants of the times, and, like the age, very primitive. In time the academy was established at Smethport, a few subscription schools were opened throughout the county, and the system of common schools was adopted.

Richard Chadwick taught a school at Smethport in 1828, having constructed c

a frame house for that purpose in rear of the present Methodist church. Mr. Chadwick compiled an arithmetic, and had it printed at Williamsport, which was used for a number of years. The lied School-house was erected on the lot where Dr. Freeman now resides, in about 1884. Jedediah Darling, Anson and William Burlingame and Dr. Graves were among the first teachers, and to them the children of the pioneers went to be educated.

In November, 1834, the education law was in force here, Amos Patterson, Brewster Freeman and John Smith being commissioners. John Morris was delegate from Ceres; Lemuel Lucore, from Shippen; Orville Ketchum, from Keating; Ambrose Corey, from Bradford; Russell M. Freeman, from Corydon, and Henry Scott, from Sergeant. All agreed on appropriating moneys for common schools, and levied a school tax of one mill per dollar valuation. In 1835 the delegates were Rensselaer Wright, John^Jhandler, Nathaniel White, A. Corey, David Cargill and Daniel A. EsterbrooksTTrom the respective townships, with Asa P. Barnaby, of Liberty, and Epaphas Root, of Hamilton. A mill tax was authorized in the face of strong opposition. In 1836 William White represented Norwich as school delegate; James Greene took Freeman's place as commissioner, and a one-half-mill tax was authorized.

The growth of the system is shown by Supt. W. P. Eckels' report on the schools of McKean county for the year ending June 4, 1888. This document gives the following figures: 163 school-houses, or 190 rooms, 6 houses being built during the previous year; 63 male and 202 female teachers; 4,668 male and 4,360 female pupils, of whom 6,435 attended school; school tax, $93,599.28; State moneys, $7,212; total revenue, $117,833.53, of which the sum of $64,762.36 was paid to teachers. The total expenditures amounted to $111,514.52.

There were fifteen graded schools, and twenty-four districts in which books are supplied free. At Bradford there were five school buildings, containing thirty-two rooms. There are 1,905 pupils enrolled, presided over by thirtythree female teachers, of whom Miss Ella M. Boyce was superintendent. The Catholic separate schools, in charge of the Sisters, also claim a large attendance.

PHYSICIANS.

In 1817 Dr. Butterfield, who settled at Clermont, then called Instanter, attended, in 1818, Richard Chadwick, of Rich Valley. Dr. Coleman was a farmer and hotel keeper near the Coleman homestead. He was a very excellent citizen, but did not make medicine a profession.

Dr. George Darling, the first physician of the county who devoted his time to the profession, settled at Smethport in 1827-28. Dr. R. B. Graves was school-teacher and physician. Dr. W. Y. McCoy came shortly after, and married Dr. Darling's daughter, who died in 1832. She was the first person Vouried in the old Smethport cemetery. WTilliam Printup, a native physician 'of the Oneida Indians, was born during the Revolutionary war, and consequently was too young to share with his tribe in their removal to Canada, or death. At the time that George Long, George Saltsman, Peter Grove and the other great frontier men were carrying on their warfare against the Indians on the Sinnemahoning, Printup was a boy, but he remembered the two companies of Oneidas—one of ^wenty-five men (hunters), one of forty men (warriors)—who were still working under the British license. This Printup, with the remaining Oneidas, hunted through this district until 1845. Elihu Chadwick, Jr., was dangerously ill at Lafayette Corners, twelve miles west of Smethport, in June, 1831, and the local physicians failing to cure the sufferer, Printup took charge of the patient, and within ten days had him able to ride home in an ox sled, Edmund Freeman and Gideon Irons assisting.

Dr. Jedediah Darling died February 22, 1871. He was born in Massachusetts September 25,1814, and came to Bunker Hill with his father in 1822. After a term of study in Dr. McCoy's office he began practice. Dr. Joshua Baxom was at Smethport prior to 1837. The house in which he lived, while being moved in 1838, careened, killing Joseph Barnes, who was assisting in the work. Dr. Jones is said to have practiced at Smethport as early as 1840; Drs. Nobles and E. C. Olds were at Littleton (Bradford), and also Goit Brown and McDougall. About this period a number of physicians, whose names are scattered throughout the sketches of townships and boroughs, were here. Dr. B. F. Cory studied in Ohio, and practiced here as early as 1844, then moved to Ironton, Ohio, in 1852, where he now resides. Dr. Wisner came here early in the "fifties," moved to Michigan after the war, where he died about 1887. Silvanus D. Freeman came in 1856, and still resides here. Henry L. McCoy came after the war. Kanistanaux, an Indian doctress, was a professional visitor in 1866, and also Dr. A. C. Jackson.

The McKean County Medical Association was organized July 24, 1880, with Dr. F. M. Follett, president; Dr. Hand, vice-president; Dr. S. B. Dorn, secretary, and Dr. Murdoch, treasurer. Drs. Matteson, Buss, Dorand, Wallace and Wright, with the officers, were the constituent members. Dr. Shoemaker, of Bradford, died in 1888. Dr. S. D. Freeman, Dr. Dorn, Dr. Buss, Dr. Henry L. McCoy, have served the society as presidents.

The following is a list of the medical men who have registered in McKean county from 1881 to 1889, inclusive:

Those who registered in 1881 were

Silvanus D. Freeman, Buffalo, 1856.
Edward G. Brown, Buffalo, 1875.
Thomas H. Carroll, Buffalo, 1881.
Wilfred W. Streeter, Washington, 1875.
Matthaeum M. Griffith, Philadelphia, 1867.
Henry Wilson, Buffalo, 1872.
Joseph H. Shuey, Cleveland, 1876.
W. P. Shoemaker. Ann Arbor, 1874.
Myron A. Todd, Cleveland, 1876.
Bela B. Phelps, Buffalo, 1847.
O. S. Wright, Ann Arbor, 1875.
David E. Matteson, Cleveland, 1873.
T. J. Martin, Philadelphia, 1878.
Aug. F. McKay, Georgetown, 1872.
A. F. Groves, New York, 1879.
Chester B. Hubbard, Ann Arbor, 1877.
Sylvester S. Satterlee, Cleveland, 1872.
Charles D. Buss, New York, 1876.

G. H. Monegan, Cleveland, 1880.
L. B. C. Phelps, Columbus, 1877.
Henry A. Page, Yale, 1865.
W. W. Powell, Ann Arbor, 1&54.
Frank H. Murdoch, Ann Arbor, 1873.
Thomas H. Stewart, Berks. Mass, 1844.
Kay A. Sweet, Buffalo, 1880.
Justin C. Elliott, Buffalo, 1851.

H. A. Canfleld, Ann Arbor, 1877.
Jirmes Love, Pennsylvania, 1851.
Edwin A. Walter, Cleveland, 1879.
G. W. Rae, Canada, 1875.
G. E. Benninghoff. Cleveland, 1879.
Sidney E. Ford, Cleveland, 1878.
John D. Maloy, Buffalo, 1875.
A. M. Williams, Philadelphia, 1867.

as follows:

Abram Mayer, Bavaria, 1866.

F. M. Follett, Buffalo, 1863.

G. S. Wykoff, Buffalo, 1877.

J. A. Wallace, Philadelphia. 1869.

G. W. Weaver, Philadelphia, 1873.
James L. Carnahan, Cleveland, 1874.
John C. Swan, Philadelphia, 1876.

H. Scott Baker, Ann Arbor, 1855.
A. R. Baker, Cleveland, 1879.

James T. Kinsler, Bellevue, N.Y., 1867.
Julius Scheffer, Germany, 1865.
Urban G. Mease, Philadelphia. 1867.

W. L. Craig. , 1871.

W. F. Conners. New York, 1880.
W. H. Kinnier, Albany, 1881.
Merritt Wilcox, Philadelphia, 1866.
Horace A. Place, New York, 1878.
W. R. Dorand, Philadelphia. 1870.
Thomas D. Ross, Cleveland, 1878.
Henry L. McCoy, Buffalo, 1868.
W. Robert Hand, Cincinnati. 1877.

John E. McDougal, , 1871.

James V. Otto, Buffalo, 1878.
John S. Stearns, Buffalo, 1872.
A. K. Corbin, New York, 1881.
H. T. Dunbar, Cincinnati. 1876.
Nathaniel Sweet, Buffalo, 1865.
W. A, Hobday, Buffalo, 1881.
C. H. Gumaer. Ann Arbor, 1878.
Thomas E. Lewis, U. S. Cert.. 1863.
Albert H. Smith, Buffalo, 1865.
Fred C. Cluxton, Canada, 1870.
Luther Phillips, Cincinnati,•1856.
W. C. Tracy, Boston, 1866.

a frame house for that purpose in rear of the present Methodist church. Mr. Chadwick compiled an arithmetic, and had it printed at Williainsport, which was used for a number of years. The lied School-house was erected on the lot where Dr. Freeman now resides, in about 1884. Jedediah Darling, Anson and William Burlingame and Dr. Graves were among the first teachers, and to them the children of the pioneers went to be educated.

In November, 1834, the education law was in force here, Amos Patterson, Brewster Freeman and John Smith being commissioners. John Morris was delegate from Ceres; Lemuel Lucore, from Shippen; Orville Ketchum, from Keating; Ambrose Corey, from Bradford; Russell M. Freeman, from Corydon, and Henry Scott, from Sergeant. All agreed on appropriating moneys for common schools, and levied a school tax of one mill per dollar valuation. In 1835 the delegates were Rensselaer Wright, Jolm^handler, Nathaniel White, A. Corey, David Cargill and Daniel A. EsterbrooksTfrom the respective townships, with Asa P. Barnaby, of Liberty, and Epaphas Root, of Hamilton. A mill tax was authorized in the face of strong opposition. In 1836 William White represented Norwich as school delegate; James Greene took Freeman's place as commissioner, and a one-half-mill tax was authorized.

The growth of the system is shown by Supt. W. P. Eckels' report on the schools of McKean county for the year ending June 4, 1888. This document gives the following figures: 163 school-houses, or 190 rooms, 6 houses being built during the previous year; 63 male and 202 female teachers; 4,668 male and 4,360 female pupils, of whom 6,435 attended school; school tax, $93,599.28; State moneys, $7,212; total revenue, $117,833.53, of which the sum of $04,762.36 was paid to teachers. The total expenditures amounted to $111,514.52.

There were fifteen graded schools, and twenty-four districts in which books are supplied free. At Bradford there were five school buildings, containing thirty-two rooms. There are 1,905 pupils enrolled, presided over by thirtythree female teachers, of whom Miss Ella M. Boyce was superintendent. The Catholic separate schools, in charge of the Sisters, also claim a large attendance.

PHYSICIANS.

In 1817 Dr. Butterfield, who settled at Clermont, then called Instanter, attended, in 1818, Richard Chadwick, of Rich Valley, Dr. Coleman was a farmer and hotel keeper near the Coleman homestead. He was a very excellent citizen, but did not make medicine a profession.

Dr. George Darling, the first physician of the county who devoted his time to the profession, settled at Smethport in 1827-28. Dr. R. B. Graves was school-teacher and physician. Dr. W. Y. McCoy came shortly after, and married Dr. Darling's daughter, who died in 1832. She was the first person V'buried in the old Smethport cemetery. William Printup, a native physician 'of the Oneida Indians, was born during the Revolutionary war, and consequently was too young to share with his tribe in their removal to Canada, or death. At the time that George Long, George Saltsman, Peter Grove and the other great frontier men were carrying on their warfare against the Indians on the Sinnemahoning, Printup was a boy, but he remembered the two companies of Oneidas—one of t^wenty-five men (hunters), one of forty men (warriors)—who were still working under the British license. This Printup, with the remaining Oneidas, hunted through this district until 1845. Elihu Chadwick, Jr., was dangerously ill at Lafayette Corners, twelve miles west of Smethport, in June, 1831, and the local physicians failing to cure the sufferer, Printup took charge of the patient, and within ten days had him able to ride home in an ox sled, Edmund Freeman and Gideon Irons assisting.

Dr. Jedediah Darling died February 22, 1871. He was born in Massachusetts September 25,1814, and came to Bunker Hill with his father in 1822. After a term of study in Dr. McCoy's office, he began practice. Dr. Joshua Baxom was at Smethport prior to 1837. The house in which he lived, while being moved in 1838, careened, killing Joseph Barnes, who was assisting in the work. Dr. Jones is said to have practiced at Smethport as early as 1840; Drs. Nobles and E. C. Olds were at Littleton (Bradford), and also Goit Brown and McDougall. About this period a number of physicians, whose names are scattered throughout the sketches of townships and boroughs, were here. Dr. B. F. Cory studied in Ohio, and practiced here as early as 1844, then moved to Ironton, Ohio, in 1852, where he now resides. Dr. Wisner came here early in the "fifties," moved to Michigan after the war, where he died about 1887. Silvanus D. Freeman came in 1856, and still resides here. Henry L. McCoy came after the war. Kanistanaux, an Indian doctress, was a professional visitor in 1866, and also Dr. A. C. Jackson.

The McKean County Medical Association was organized July 24, 1880, with Dr. F. M. Follett, president; Dr. Hand, vice-president; Dr. S. B. Dorn, secretary, and Dr. Murdoch, treasurer. Drs. Matteson, Buss, Dorand, Wallace and Wright, with the officers, were the constituent members. Dr. Shoemaker, of Bradford, died in 1888. Dr. S. D. Freeman, Dr. Dorn, Dr. Buss, Dr. Henry L. McCoy, have served the society as presidents.

The following is a list of the medical men who have registered in McKean county from 1881 to 1889, inclusive:

as follows:

Abram Mayer, Bavaria, 1866.
P. M. Follett, Buffalo, 1863.
G. S. Wykoff, Buffalo, 1877.
J. A. Wallace, Philadelphia, 1869.

G. W. Weaver. Philadelphia, 1873.
James L. Camahan, Cleveland, 1874.
John C. Swan, Philadelphia, 1876.

H. Scott Baker, Ann Arbor, 1855.
A. R. Baker, Cleveland, 1879.
James T. Kinsler, Bellevue. N.Y., 1867.
Julius Scheffer, Germany, 1865.
Urban G. Mease, Philadelphia, 1867.

W. L. Craig, , 1871.

W. F. Conners, New York, 1880.
W. H. Kinnier, Albany, 1881.
Merritt Wilcox, Philadelphia, 1866.
Horace A. Place. New York, 1878.
W. R. Dorand, Philadelphia. 1870.
Thomas D. Ross, Cleveland, 1878.
Henry L. McCoy, Buffalo, 1868.
W. Robert Hand, Cincinnati, 1877.

John E. McDougal. , 1871.

James V. Otto, Buffalo, 1878.
John S. Stearns, Buffalo, 1872.
A. K. Corbin, New York, 1881.
H. T. Dunbar. Cincinnati. 1876.
Nathaniel Sweet, Buffalo, 1865.
W. Hobday, Buffalo, 1881.
C. H. Gumaer, Ann Arbor, 1878.
Thomas E. Lewis, U. S. Cert.. 1863.
Albert H. Smith, Buffalo, 1865.
Fred C. Cluxton. Canada, 1870.
Luther Phillips, Cincinnati, -1856.
W. C. Tracy, Boston, 1866.

Those who registered in 1881 were
Silvanus D. Freeman, Buffalo, 1856.
Edward G. Brown, Buffalo, 1875.
Thomas H. Carroll, Buffalo, 1881.
Wilfred W. Streeter, Washington, 1875.
Matthaeum M. Griffith, Philadelphia, 1867.
Henry Wilson, Buffalo, 1872.
Joseph H. Shuey, Cleveland, 1876.
W. P. Shoemaker, Ann Arbor, 1874.
Myron A. Todd, Cleveland, 1876.
Bela E. Phelps, Buffalo, 1847.
O. S. Wright, Ann Arbor, 1875.
David E. Matteson, Cleveland, 1873.
T. J. Martin, Philadelphia, 1878.
Aug. F. McKay, Georgetown, 1872.
A. F. Groves, New York, 1879.
Chester 8. Hubbard, Ann Arbor, 1877.
Sylvester S. Satterlee, Cleveland, 1872.
Charles D. Buss, New York, 1876.

G. H. Monegan, Cleveland, 1880.
L. B. C. Phelps, Columbus, 1877.
Henry A. Page, Yale, 1865.

W. W. Powell, Ann Arbor, 1854.
Frank H. Murdoch, Ann Arbor, 1873.
Thomas H. Stewart, Berks, Mass, 1844.
Kay A. Sweet, Buffalo, 1880.
Justin C. Elliott, Buffalo, 1851.

H. A. Canfleld, Ann Arbor, 1877.
James Love, Pennsylvania, 1851.
Edwin A. Walter, Cleveland, 1879.
G. W. Rae, Canada, 1875.

G. E. Benninghoff, Cleveland, 1879.
Sidney E. Ford, Cleveland, 1878.
John D. Maloy, Buffalo, 1875.
A. M. Williams, Philadelphia, 1867.

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