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The Tomahawk and Scalping Knife was the name given to a sheet published at Smethport fifty years ago. In February, 1841, it became so objectionable as to be brought before the grand jury and pronounced a nuisance. Dwight Holcomb was the printer, and he and others were editors.

The McKean Yeoman and Elk County Advertiser, Volume III, No. 10r bears date April 28, 1849, A. H. Cory being editor. No. 1 was issued in December, 184(5, by B. F. and A. H Cory, publishers. The journal was Democratic. In its pages the legal advertisements of Elk county were continued for some years, and a good deal of attention was given to Elk county political news.

The McKean Orbit, Volume II, No. 27, published by J. B. Oviatt, was issued August 2, 1851. The first paper was issued October 13, 1849, by N. W. Goodrich and J. B. Oviatt. John R. Chadwick thinks that the Yeoman was merged into the Orbit in 1849.

The McKean News, Volume I, No. 52. published by George B. Backus, is dated October 2, 1852, the first number being issued September 13, 1851, as a Whig journal. Backus is said to have sold the office to F. A. Allen, and moved to Colorado, where he died about the year 1870. The News was neutral in politics.

The Citizen was established by F. A. Allen (who moved to Mansfield, Penn., and established the Soldiers' Home there) in September, 1853, and was conducted by him until the spring of 1858, when he sold to Lucius Rogers, formerly of the Warren Mail, who published the paper at Smethport up to July 14, 1860, when the office was moved to Shippen (Emporium), and the paper issued December 28. Volume I, No. 42, of the McKean Citizen is dated April 7, 1855, and bears the signature of Charles H. Allen, editor.

The McKean County Miner, successor of the Bradford Miner, was issued June 6, 1863, by L. Rogers, the news pages being devoted to war items. In May, 1871, E. H. and J. C. Bard were publishers, and L. Rogers editor, of the Miner; but on July 27 following, H. F. Barbour took the place of J. C. Bard and also that of Capt. Rogers. On March 11, 1880, E. H. Bard, who for the greater part of eighteen years was connected with the Miner, and who, in 1873, sold his interest in the office to H. F. Barbour, repurchased the office and was publisher until January, 1883, when Mr. Barbour again took control, selling to Capt. Rogers in January, 1884.

The McKean Democrat was established at Smethport in 1879 by Clark Wilson, one of the oldest newspaper men in the State. This journal is devoted solely to Democratic interests.

In 1831-32 Orlo J. Hamlin wrote the historical sketch published in 1832 in Hazard's Gazetteer, and in 1850 Josiah Priest wrote a history of the Oswayo Valley, which was never published.

The Bradford Miner was established at Bradford in 1858 by Daniel Kingsbury, J. K. Haffey and others. The editor, John Keenan Haffey, a native of Armagh, Ireland, born in 1831, died at Beverly, N. J., in November, 1881. In 1852 he came to Bradford, married Diantha DeGolier, in 1858 established the Bradford Miner, and in 1861 entered Col. Kane's regiment as sergeant of Company I. On returning in 1865 he was one of the first to be interested in the oil exploration on the outskirts of the present city, and became active in oil circles. The New Era was founded at Bradford in 1875 by J. K. Haffey as a semi-weekly newspaper; but six months later he sold to Ferrin & Weber. After the death of Daniel Kipgsbury, Col. Haffey aided the Universalist society in securing the property at the corner of North Mechanic and Corydon streets, and after the collapse of the first society organized a second. In 1878he established the Banner at Beverly, N. J.

The Bradford Era was issued October 29, 1877, in Bradford, from the office of Weber, Ferrin & Persons (over the old Star Clothing House on Main street). The salutatory points out its independent principles, and further states as follows: "We do not run the paper for glory or notoriety; that we could have obtained by becoming the president of a savings bank, pocketing the depositors' money and then going to State prison. * * * * We have faith in the Latin proverb, Omnia Vincit Labor." In 1878 Mr. Thornton, now of the Bradford Era, took the position of oil reporter on the old Era, and in September of that year furnished the first perfect review of the Bradford oil field.

The Daily Breeze was established in the fall of 1878, at Bradford, by David Armstrong for a stock company. L. C. Morton, who died at Montreal in 1884, was one of the staff, and altogether it was credited with being one of the leading daily journals of the State. S. K. Dunkle was the first business manager until succeeded by Mr. Linderman. Early in 1879 the publishers of the Breeze purchased the opposition Era office, and Jordan, Longwell & Co. took charge of the consolidated journals and continued the publication of the Era. W. F. Jordan was editor, with P. H. Linderman, business manager, J. C. McMnllen, oil reporter, L. C. Morton, night editor, and E. A. Bradshaw (who succeeded Frank Vbgel), city editor. The notice of incorporation of The Era Publishing Company appeared in August, 1887, when H. McSweeney, C. H. Lay, Jr., F. G. Ridgway, John R. Campbell and William T. Scheide petitioned for a charter. Patrick C. Boyle was then editor of the Era, with George S. Bright associate manager, who resigned to take charge of the Jamestown News, when A. L. Snell, who was previously oil editor, was promoted associate manager. The present staff comprises P. C. Boyle, A. L. Snell, C. Dennison (who succeeded C. H. Steiger transferred to Toledo) and A. H. Thornton. There are fifteen printers employed. Mrs. Ada Cable is reporter for the Era, the only lady engaged in reportorial work in the city, and with the exception of Miss Malone, of Kane, the only one in the field.

The Bradford Sunday Herald was issued in Bradford, August 4, 1878, by the Herald Company, in the interests of the labor party and greenback money.

The Sunday News was established April 15, 1879 [On the Sunday prior to April 11, 1879, the Era ceased publication of a Sunday issue.], by Butler Bros., now of Buffalo, who continued publication up to November, 1883, when P. H. Linderman purchased the office. This journal has been regularly published down to the present day.

The Daily Blaze was established by David Armstrong in April, 1879. On one occasion the paper was printed in blood-red ink, to signify its terrible hostility toward the Standard Oil Company. His staff comprised S. K. Dunkle, manager; and J. L. Howell, foreman and local editor. The office was on the corner of Newell avenue and Webster street, adjoining the old Academy of Music. The Blaze went down in a blaze of glory within three or four months, and the editor-in-chief moved to Canada.

The Star was established in 1879 by Eben Brewer (now editor of the Erie Despatch) as an evening journal. Late that year the office became the property of F. N. Farrar and A. J. Cai r, and in May, 1880, H. F. Barbour purchased the latter's interest, and the same fall sold to R. B. Stone, who was practically sole owner. In 1883 the office was sold to George E. Allen & Co., who conducted the Star until May, 1884, when Mr. Barbour became halfowner and editor. In June, 1885, the Star Publishing Company was incorporated, with H. F. Barbour, president, and R. E. Whiteley, secretary and treasurer. In October, 1885, the office was moved from the old stone building on Pine street, to the present quarters in the Producers' Exchange. There are fourteen hands employed. George E. Allen, who posed as a lazy man while running the Star, was making a success of the Railway Magazine, of Buffalo, in 1885.

The Petroleum Age was issued in December, 1882, by W. J. McCullagh and A. J. Carr. In July, 1880, A. L. Snell came to Bradford as correspondent of the Oil City Derrick, and became connected with the Era. In 1882 he joined the Cherry Grove Scouts, and in August, 1883, he purchased the Petroleum Age, then published by W. J. McCullagh & Co., J. C. McMullen and W. C. Armor being the partners in the new purchase. On December 1, 1887, Mr. Snell and Mr. Armor sold their interests to McMullen, who continued publication until his death. The Age was very ably conducted.

The Sunday Morning was established at Bradford in 1882, Phil. J. Welch being then editor, and Benzinger & Edwards proprietors. This journal is said to have run only a short time, and closed with the publication of Walt Whitman's poem, Blades of Grass, the issue selling for $1 per copy.

The Sunday Mail was established at Bradford by A. J. Carr. Toward its latter days it was printed in the Star office, and in 1884 was absorbed by the Star, hence the hyphenated name, Star-Mail, given to the weekly edition of the Star. The paper was established in 1881.

The Kendall Church Visitor is published at Tarport.

The Evening Call was issued at Bradford in November, 1885, to oppose the Star, which then opposed the Typographical Union. The life of this journal was short, indeed, having ceased publication early in the following December.

The Daily Oil News was issued at Bradford October 3, 1887, by J. C. McMullen and E. A. Bradshaw. The journal continued regular publication until June, 1888.

The Bradford Press club was organized January 29, 1884, with Will F. Jordan, president; George E. Allen, vice-president; P. H. Linderman, treasurer; A. J. Carr, financial secretary; C. H. Steiger, recorder; George H. Leader, Col. L. M. Morton, T. E. Kern, L. E. Fuller and J. C. McMullen, directors; Joseph Moorehead, E. A. Bradshaw, Dr. N. L. Willard, L. F. Camp and Col. L. M. Morton, committee men.

The Reporter was established at Port Allegany by A. J. Hughes, May 27, 1874. The editor made many specious promises and, what is better, more than fulfilled them; for seldom, if ever, has a local journal, more complete in news items and historical and industrial reviews, been examined by the writer. F. A. Thomas, now of the Miner, was the first typo here. As Mr. Hughes has held the editor's chair continuously since 1874, he may be considered the senior member of the newspaper circle of McKean. He witnessed the establishment and fall of many newspaper enterprises, the while building up his own office, until now it is one of the most perfect news and job establishments in this congressional district. From the files of the Reporter many interesting items of history have been obtained. Among the officers of the Pennsylvania Editorial Association, elected at Harrisburg, January 22, 1890, was A. J. Hughes, of the Reporter.

C. E. Wright, who died here in March, 1889, was born in New York State September 5, 18i4. In 1838 he married Martha Wright, of Eldred, and soon after moved to Honesdale, where he published the Herald. Later he returned to Deposit, N. Y., and founded the Courier, in which office "P. V. Crosby''

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