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D. Hagadorn, killed at Cold Harbor, June 1, 1864; H. H. Haines, died January 24, 1865; John A. Jennings, February 23, 1863; Leslie Lyons, July 7, 1864; Charles N. Lawton, wounded at Cold Harbor, died at Arlington; Jerome Notting, wounded September 29, 1864, died October 4 at Hampton, Va., and Philip Roades, died September 24, 1864. In this command no less than eighteen substitutes are accounted for, nineteen drafted men and nine deserters.

EIGHTY-THIRD REGIMENT, P. V. I.

The Eighty-third Pennsylvania Infantry comprised, among others, Lieut. Plympton A. White, of Company D, who enlisted in McKean county, also Matthew Hayes, both of whom were wounded at Malvern Hill; William Schlabach, Julius W. Day, wounded at Gettysburg; Thaddeus Day, at Malvern Hill; Eugene Clapper, Charles J. Nichols, died of wounds received at Malvern Hill; D. Coyle was wounded there, and killed at Gettysburg; Calvin H. Wilks, of Company H, died at Richmond, Va., of wounds received at Laurel Hill. Gott Lehman, of Roulette, served in Company I, also P. C. Glancy, John and Judson Ames, and Norman Scott, of Centreville.

ONE HUNDRED AND FIFTIETH REGIMENT, P. V. I.

The One Hundred and Fiftieth Regiment (New Bucktails) effected organization at Camp Curtin September 3, 1862, and claims service with the One Hundred and Forty-ninth, sharing in many, if not all, of the successes and reverses of that command. Langhorne Wistar, of the old Forty-second, was chosen colonel; H. S. Huidekoper, lieutenant-colonel, and Thomas Chamber lin, major. When the colors of the One Hundred and Forty-ninth Regiment were captured at Gettysburg, they were recaptured at once by the sister regiment, and later, when it became too evident that the President was to be sacrificed to the policy of the Confederacy, the authorities called on Col. Stone to assign two companies of the One Hundred and Fiftieth to take the place of the United States troops as President's guard at the Soldiers' Home. On the arrival of Companies C and H there, they would not be received, as the regulars had no orders to retire, and so returned to their command. In the meantime orders came relieving the regular troops, who marched, leaving the Home unguarded; but when these false steps were discovered Companies D and K were ordered thither, while later Company D was ordered to guard the Soldiers' Home with Company A, leaving Company K to guard the place until relieved in June, 1865, when it was mustered out with the other companies.

Company G, of this command, was raised in McKean county with Horatio Bell, captain. He was killed at the battle of the Wilderness May 6, 1864, and Lieut. Samuel R. Beckwith, commissioned captain, who served until musterout. Lieut. Dan. J. Keys resigned in June, 1863, and was succeeded by James M. Robinson, commissioned May 7, 1864. Second Lieut. Daniel Beckwith served to the close; Sergt. Clark Weels was discharged in December, 1863; Cyrus W. Baldwin was killed on the North Anna river, May 23, 1864; S. DeLoss Taggart, wounded at Hatcher's run, died at Lookout, Md., February 20, 1865; J. L. Beers was mustered out at the close, also John Swink, Buckley D. Catlin and E. H. Judkins; Sergt. Lorenzo Hodges, who was wounded at Gettysburg, died July 16, 1863.

There were no less than fifteen members of this company honored with the position of corporal: Putnam Barber, W. H. Haven, W. F. Lovejoy, William Brown, C. D. Winship, M. L. Lanphere, William A. North, Wilson W. Tubbs, H. M. Kenny, H. L. Burlingame, H. A. Young and C. C. Tripper served to the close of the war. Theo. Yardley was killed at Hatcher's run; Joseph B. Otto, died October 30, 1862, and William J. Holmes, wounded at Gettysburg, died July 23, 1863. The only musician, Daney Strickland, served from September, 1862, to June, 1865.

The private troops who fell on the field, or who died from the effects of wounds or other causes, are named as follows: L. M. Adams died in 1864; Melville Baldwin, at Richmond, Va., in 1864; A. M. Beckwith, in 1863; Ben Fulton, John Benson and Nathan Hand were killed at Gettysburg. July 1, J.863; Delos Otto, at the battle of the Wilderness, and Philetus Southwick, at Spottsylvania, in May, 1864; William P. Carner died in captivity, December 11, 1864; T. D. Colegrove, November 21, 1862, and D. A. Morse, October 30, same year, at Washington; L. F. Haven died in prison, August 31, 1863; Oscar Moody died in Richmond prison February, 1864; W. Merrick, a prisoner, died July 20, 1863; W. J. Mills, in Andersonville, August 6, 1864; J. A. Morris, in March, 1865; Isaac Pelgrim, wounded at Gettysburg, died July 1, 1863; Steve Seymour died March 13, 1863; Charles B. Slocum died in captivity in May, 1864; Jeffry Kenny died March 3, 1863.

The record of discharged soldiers after a full term of service contains the following names: William Brockam, Joseph D. Ball, Willard Cummings, Joseph Coats, M. M. Catlin, Charles Dickerson, Edward Finnegan, John Mead, F. Fuller, Robert Graham, J. S. Hodges, L. F. Hovey, George Loomis, George T. Otto, Samuel L. Provin, William T. Strickland, Wesley Starks, Thomas Smith and Judson Skiver. Robert B. Warner was discharged for disability.

The private troops discharged on surgeon's certificate were Merrit J. Baldwin, W. H. Baker, Silas A. Devaul, Richard Goodwin, Thomas Good, Elias Grimes, John B. Gleason, Moses R. Ford, Levi Holcomb, Charles Karr, Ebenezer Leonard, Wellington Lord, George Loomis and Edward Simpson in 1862-63. S. DeLoss Taggart died some years ago. The transfers to V. R. C. included Joseph D. Ball and Benjamin Treat; William Ellis was sick at muster-out; John B. Litch, was wounded at Hatcher's Run, and in hospital at date of disbanding; Miles Lovejoy was transferred to the United States army in 1862. The alleged deserters were Miles Hess, in 1862, and John Barron, in 1863.

ONE HUNDRED AND SEVENTY-SECOND REGIMENT, P. V. I.

The One Hundred and Seventy-second Regiment was organized at Camp Curtin. in November, 1862, with Charles Kleckner, colonel. Elk and McKean counties contributed detachments to this command, who accompanied the regiment to Yorktown, December 2, to relieve the Fifty-second Pennsylvania Infantry garrisoning that post. In July, 1863, the command moved to Hagerstown, Md., was attached to the eleventh corps, joined in the pursuit of the Confederate forces to Williamsport, returned to Warrentown, and was mustered out August 1, 1863.

TWO HUNDRED AND ELEVENTH REGIMENT, P. V. I.

Company C, of this regiment (one year) was mustered in September 16, 1864. with Warren Cowles, captain; A. J. Sparks, lieutenant; John M. Pelton and William C. Smith, second lieutenants. Cowles was mustered out with command June 2, 1865, as brevet major; Sparks was killed at Petersburg, April 2, 1865; John M. Pelton died of wounds received there, and Smith, who took his place, was mustered out. Sergt. Harvey D. Hicks was killed at Petersburg; Sergts. H. H. Sparks, J. Shattsbury, R. A. Smith and F. B. Harvey were mustered out. Corps. M. S. Sheldon, Joel Hancock and Eli Stevens were wounded at Petersburg; while John Smith, J. G. Otto, R. E. Gerrish, T. Thompson and S. L. Holcomb were mustered out unwounded, also Musicians S. R. Seamans and N. M. Tubbs. 4

Of the private troops Andrew Calhoun was wounded and died at Petersburg; John Largay died October 21, 1864; Simon Martin, Charles D. McKeown, Peter W. Struble and Jonathan Studley were wounded at Petersburg; Sanford Provin and Martin VanSickle were wounded at Fort Steadman, Va., March 25, 1865; Henry McDowell and William Nuff died in February, 1865, and were buried at City Point, Va.; John W. Nobles was missing at Petersburg, and C. H. Besse was captured September 29, 1864.

The private troops mustered out were H. and J. Arnett, A. A. Acre, J. C. Allen, I. B. and A. J. Brown, E. Barton, F. S. Bradford, A. R. Barnaby, William Cooper, J. Cavanagh, J. M. Caldwell, M. Cummings, M. L. Campbell, M. Daley, M. G. Dennis, J. Dunbar, G. Emigh, J. Frugen, Enos Grover, J. R. Greene, J. E. Graham, A. Gray, Reuben and H. M. Gross, A. Giles,

A. Holcomb, J. Judd, M. J. Coons, J. D. Kessler, W. K. Kidder, E. R. and Al. Loop, Henry Largey, John Leahy, Thomas Madden, A. C. and Josiah Myers, J. McQuoine, William M. and William McIntosh, J. T. and Hymen Otto, J. Patterson, Le Roy Paugh, Henry Reedy, W. T. Ross, Benson and

B. F. Robbins, A. Stockdill, F. Sanderson, W. F. Stewart, A. Sharp, F. Thorpe, W. M. VanSickle, F. Verbeck, W. Wiley, A. G. Walters, George Wood and James Walshe. Henry Sperhouse was a prisoner from November, 1864 to March, 1865, and J. C. Lewis was alleged to have deserted.

MISCELLANEOUS.

Lieut. Patrick Kelliher, Twenty-eighth United States Infantry, served with the Pennsylvania Volunteers during the war, and died at Fort Davis, Tex., in 1876.

In May, 1861, a Juvenile Home Guard company was organized at Smethport. The ages of the troops ranging from five to fourteen years, the arms were wooden guns, and the music, tin whistles and a tambourine.

In June, 1863, Judge Holmes, of Bradford township, was appointed deputy-provost-marshal for this district, and he appointed Sheriff Blair, O. Vosburg, L. S. Bard and Thomas Malone enrolling officers, the two last named being disabled soldiers of the old Bucktail regiment, the latter working in the Citizen office when he went into the Bucktails with William R. Rogers.

In 1863 the enrolling officer struck a family who believed that Andrew Jackson ran for president every four years. The old man and his several sons annoyed the officer and even, when he was leaving, one of the boys called out: "Hello there, you haven't enrolled the old dog yet," referring to a dog lying near the house. "Well," says the officer, "I have all the pups down, and they'll answer for the first draft."

The draft of August, 1863, met with resistance on several quarters, and near Port Allegany, it is alleged, an organization to oppose conscription was in existence. In January, 1864, H. S. Campbell, then provost-marshal of the Nineteenth Military District, called for ninety men from McKean county, while five deserters, taking refuge in Liberty township, were sought for. In March, 1864, the quota of McKean county was placed at 153. On March 12 a meeting of citizens of Bradford township, presided over by William Barton, with A. T. Newell, secretary, resolved to issue bonds for $7,000 to pay county troops.

Jonathan Colegrove enlisted in the Chenango County (New York) Military Company for the war of 1812, and served at Sacketts harbor until discharged for disability.

The Soldiers' Monument was dedicated June 2, 1886, according to the G. A. R. ritual. Lewis Emery, Jr., presided, and A. W. Norris delivered the address.

CHAPTER VIII.

NEWSPAPERS -SCHOOLS—PHYSICIANS.

Newspapers—Introductory—Journals And Journalists—Bradford NewsPapers—bradford Press Club—Miscellaneous Journals.

Schools—Grant Of Land And Money By John Keating—First Schools— Primitive Eleemosynary Institution—Early School At Smethport— Education Law—School Commissioners And Delegates—School Tax— Statistical Report For 1888.

Medical—Physicians, Past And Present—Early Practitioners—Indian Doctors—Remarkable Cure—Itinerant Disciples Of ^esculapius—McKean County Medical Association—List Of Medical Men Who Have Registered In Mckean County Since 1881.

v NEWSPAPERS.

THE beginnings of journalism are contemporary with the beginnings of commercial and political progress. Like these two important branches, journalism advanced slowly but certainly, and toward the close of the eighteenth century, assumed pretensions, which have since become governing principles. The newspaper took its full share in the trials and sacrifices of the Revolution here, and even before that time, pointed out to the peoples of France and America the odious system of class government, defining it as aristocracy—a coalition of those who wish to consume without producing, to occupy all pub lie places without being competent to fill them, and to seize upon all honors without meriting them.

The journalists of that period were of the Franklin type the world over, but cast in another matrices of thought; they knew nothing of the spirit of Republicanism, if we accept a few publicists of France who dared to arraign the aristocracy that grew wealthy on the robbery and degredation of thousands of human beings. When great political reformations followed revolutionary teachings, their attention was given to educating the enfranchised masses. Titles were abolished, and ten thousand symbols of old-time ignorance and viciousness were swept away. The Bohemian era was introduced under the new dispensa- • tion, and with it came some of the best and the most liberal thoughts of the emancipated world.

Bohemia has none but adopted sons;

Its limits, where fancy's bright stream runs!

Its honors not garnered for thrift or trade,—

For beauty and truth men's souls were made.

The vulgar sham of the pompous feast.

Where the heaviest purse is the highest priest,

The organized charity—scrimped and iced

In the name of a cautious, statistical Christ;

The smile restrained, the respectable cant,

When a friend in need is a friend in want.

Where the only aim is to keep afloat,

And a brother may drown with a cry in his throat.

Oh, I long for the glow of a kindly heart and

the grasp of a friendly hand.
And I'd rather live in Bohemia than in any other land.

When the county was organized, and up to 1826, when the first courts were held at Smethport, not one of the pioneers dreamed of a printing press. In 1827 D. Gotshall was county printer, his office being at Williamsport or Wellsboro. The following bill, presented to Sheriff R. Wright, is the evidence of the county's first expenditure for printing:

January 13, to one year's paper f 2 00

April 17, to advertising proclamation 2 50

July 24, to libel for divorce and sale 4 25

August 22, to proclamation 1 37

September 13, to printing band-bills 4 00

November 13, to advertising sale of real estate 1 00

November 27, to libel for divorce and probate 5 00

Total $20 12 .

Rankin, Lewis & Co. also did some printing for the county this year.

In 1828 Benjamin B. Smith of the Phoenix, Wellsboro, was appointed county printer, for on April 29 he gave to Joseph Allen an order on the commissioners for $29.34, being very near the total amount of contract. This order was given to cover a judgment obtained by Allen against J. F. Donaldson, but was not paid until September following. In 1831 A. H. Cory entered the Phoenix office, and set type for McKean advertisements. A few years passed by, when Hiram Payne, who came to this county in 1830 from Bradford county, Penn., established the Forester, as related in the history of Smethport. This was the pioneer newspaper of the county and the first in the district, except the papers at Wellsboro, Warren and Franklin, which were in existence in 1832, when in the State convention Mr. Payne claimed to represent more territory, more bears, more wolves, more porcupines and more wild-cats than any five members of the convention, and the members called his territory "The Wild-cat District." Miner, his son, is in New York city, and Fred, is at Waverly, N. Y. A daughter married a son of John E. Niles. Volume II, No. 19, of the Forester and Smethport Register was published June 14, 1834. Mr. Payne died two years ago at Waverly, N. Y. The press used in his office was brought hither from Philadelphia, and was known as a "Ram age Press."

The McKean County Journal was issued by Richard Chadwick in 1834. This life-long prothonotary of the county published the paper until September, 1837, when he sold the office to Asa H. Cory for $300.

The Beacon and McKean County Journal was issued in September, 1837, although No. 51, of Volume Lis dated April 13, 1839. It bears the name of Asa Howe Cory as publisher. He bought the office of the Journal. Among the advertisers were John Montgomery, of the Williamsville limekilns, twenty miles southwest; of Holmes & Co.'s Smethport tannery; S. Sartwell, Jr., a stock of fulled cloth, and B. Freeman, a stock of general merchandise. O. J. Hamlin and Hiram Payne were the resident lawyers, and W. Y. McCoy, resident physician. [Dr. George Darling moved to Brookville before this period.] Thomas Hunt, a boy of seventeen years, left home, and for his recovery the father, John Hunt, an English shoemaker, offered a reward of one cent. The academical exhibition to be held on April 3, 1839, was also advertised. Mr. Cory sold to J. B. Oviatt, who established the Settler and Pennon.

The Settler and Pennon, published at Smethport in the summer of 1839 by William S.. Oviatt, was continued in 1845 by J. B. Oviatt. Volume II, No. 10, is dated December 24, 1840. Mr. Oviatt abolished Chadwick's independent ideas, and espoused the Democratic idea of the time.

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