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' in the mind.' Observe also that the adverbs denoting the 'place at' are datives in form: as ubi, ibi (like tibi), illic (from stem illo with the enclitic ce), hic, istic, and the like.

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20 Terra. In this and the following sentences we have instances of the preposition being omitted before nouns naming the place at,' beside those excepted in rule f. Observe especially loco, and when the adjective totus is joined to a noun. Before most such nouns however the preposition is placed. 21 Patria. In this and the following sentences we have instances of the preposition being omitted before nouns naming the place from,' beside those excepted in rule f. Prepositions are almost always placed before such nouns after verbs denoting simple motion from a place, as going, coming, walking: but after verbs which contain the idea of motion from, as departing, expelling, and the like; the preposition is more readily omitted.

It is hard to give any general rule for the use of prepositions with the ablative. But it may be remarked that with some verbs the usage of the best writers has established a rule which can only be learnt by practice: but that with most verbs common sense is the best guide. Use a preposition when it is at all wanted to make the meaning clear.

X.

1 Time. The Rules for 'motion from and to,' and 'operation at,' which were applied in the last chapter to nouns naming Places, are applied in this chapter to nouns naming Times. The following slight differences however should be noted.

1. Nouns naming the time to' are in the accusative, and the 'time from' are in the ablative, just like nouns naming place:' but prepositions are not omitted, as they are before the names of towns.

Instances of time to' and 'from' are given in the first few sentences of this chapter; but they are not noticed in the rules at the head, as they are not of such frequent occurrence as instances of the time through which an action is continued, and the time at which it is performed.

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2. Nouns naming the time through' are in the accusative; but a preposition is not necessary, as it is before the names of places. 2 Through. We have seen that the idea of motion 'to' includes the idea of motion through' (Ix. 4): and this of course applies to time as well as to any other object: for if I pass through a given time, I come to each moment of it in turn.

3 Per annos..

In this and the following sentences we have instances of the preposition per placed before nouns naming time 'through ;' though before nouns naming actual times, as years, days, and the like, it is commonly omitted. But it should be prefixed if the noun names an object that lasts through time; as peace, war, famine, pestilence, and the like.

4 Horis. In these sentences we have instances of the time' through' in the ablative. The construction is not usual, but may be explained in this way. Instead of the battle being regarded as lasting through five hours, which would require the accusative, it

regard animi, which constantly occurs, as one of the many instances of the primary dative denoting 'at.'

is regarded as taking place in: that is, in all of; the five hours, which admits of the ablative. Just as in the sentences on Place, we had tota urbe, in the whole of the city,' instead of per totam urbem, 'through the whole of the city' (Ix. 90).

5 Decimo. In this and the following sentences we have instances of the usual construction with the ablative; namely, time at,' just as we had place 'at' in the last chapter. And this construction, as we have seen, was derived from the primary idea of the dative. Since then in the chapter on Place we found that the Dative retained a portion of its old use; as in the names of towns, domi, belli, animi, and the like; we might expect something of the kind in nouns naming the Time. And something of the kind may be found, though not in modern use. The forms die septimi, die noni, die crastini are found in old writers, septimi &c. being old datives of the o declension like Mileti (Ix. n. 12). Also in such words as postridie (from posteri die)' on the day after,' pridie 'the day before,' heri 'yesterday,' luci by daylight,' are traces of the same use. So ubi means at which time,' as well as at which place.' 6 Adventu. By our Rule (Ix. a. II) the Ablative, as derived from the Dative, does not only mark operation in, but operation at in the widest sense. Hence not only nouns naming actual times, as 'hour,'' day,' are in the ablative, but also nouns naming events at, or on, or about which some action is performed. Thus in this line, at Cæsar's arrival;' in the next, at sunset.'

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7 In tempore. In this and the following sentences we have the prepositions placed before nouns naming the time at.' But this is not common.

8 Diebus. In this and the following sentences we have the noun in the ablative naming the time, not exactly at, but in the course of, which an action is, or is not, performed: 'I concluded the war in the course of fifteen days.' So in 52, 'In the course of many years Roscius has not come to Rome;' his coming has not taken place in the many years.

9 Annis. This use of the ablative follows from the above construction, but leaves something to be supplied by the sense. Emilius has vowed the temple at some time in the course of the seven previous years; but as no time is mentioned, and the action is not a continued one, the sense requires it to be either the beginning or the end. Now it clearly is not the end; therefore it must be the beginning, Æmilius had vowed the temple eleven years before.' The stricter construction would be undecimo anno. 10 Diebus. Here the sense on the contrary requires the end, not the beginning, of the few days to be meant."

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11 Obiit. Here too the sense requires that it should be at the end of the few days that Caia died. His marks the days as close to the time when she made her will. She made her will, and in the course of a few days from that date she died.

12 Abhinc. Here on the other hand the beginning is referred to; 'thirty days ago.' In the following sentence we have both beginning and end meant: Barbari oppidum paucis diebus, quibus co Romani venerant, expugnatum cognoverant, Cæs. III. 23. The Romans came at the beginning of the few days, and the town was stormed at the end of them; both events happening in them.

XI.

1 A servo. In this chapter we have two uses of the ablative, derived from the First Law for the Ablative (Ix. Rem. a). Of these uses the chief is the one expressed in Rem. e, and illustrated in this sentence. If the boy is carried by the slave, he suffers the carrying from, or at the hands of, the slave. The action of carrying comes from the slave. Hence servo, the noun naming the agent from whom the action comes, is in the ablative case; the preposition a or ab being always added by way of distinction, in accordance with the usage of nouns, not the names of towns or small islands (1x. Rem. ƒ ).

2 Portatur. Observe how an active sentence, as servus puerum portat, can be changed into a passive sentence, as puer a servo portatur. Puerum, the word in the accusative after the transitive verb portat, passes into puer, the subject-word to the passive verb portatur; the boy being now the subject about which the sentence is made. And servus, the subject-word to portat in the active sentence, passes into the ablative with the preposition a or ab.

3 Concurritur. We have seen in the last note how the accusative after a transitive verb in the active voice can pass into the nominative to the same verb in the passive voice. But the verb must be transitive for this change to take place. If the verb be intransitive, as curro, ambulo, there is no accusative case after it to pass into the nominative. We cannot say curro hominem ‘I run a man;' ambulo puerum, 'I walk a boy;' and therefore we cannot say homo curritur, a man is run;' puer ambulatur, 'a boy is walked. In other words, intransitive verbs cannot pass through the passive voice, as transitive verbs can. But though we cannot say, curror, 'I am run;' curreris, thou art run;' homo curritur, 'the man is run;' yet it might we expected that we could say, cursus curritur,' the course is run,' as we do in English; since we can say, curro cursum (B). But this is not the Latin idiom. The Latin idiom is to use the verb impersonally; that is, without a subject word; as curritur, a running is made.'

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In Latin therefore, the intransitive verb may pass through the passive, but only in the third person singular of each tense; and without a subject-word, or impersonally; as curritur, currebatur, curretur, cursum est, &c. And inasmuch as it is used impersonally, it is commonly used when we do not care to particularise the persons by whom the action is performed. It answers therefore to the French use of the word on, or to our indefinite use of the pronoun they,' or of 'men:' as, undique concurritur, 'they run together,' or, men run together from all sides.' Or it may be rendered by a passive sentence: as, diu pugnabatur, 'for a long time the battle was maintained.'

But, though it is not necessary or perhaps usual to name with such verbs the agent by whom the action is performed, it is possible to name him; and then the usual construction with ab is adopted: as, ab oppidanis concurritur, a rush is made by the townsmen,' the townsmen run together:' the ablative with ab being used, because the action of running together proceeds from the townsmen. See note 1.

4 Paretur. Pareo was our type-verb for that class of verbs which are intransitive in Latin, but transitive in English (see v. 5): and with these special care is wanted in the passive voice. For as in

English we cannot say, 'the man is run,' we are not likely to say in Latin, homo curritur. But in English we can say, 'I am obeyed,' and therefore we might expect to say in Latin, ego pareor. But this is wrong; for the rule is absolute. If the verb in Latin be intransitive, it cannot pass through the persons of the passive voice and those verbs are intransitive which are followed in Latin by the dative case. It is only a word which can stand in the accusative after an active verb that can stand in the nominative before a passive verb. Therefore the Latin for I am obeyed,' is not, ego pareor, but paretur mihi, obedience is yielded to me.' 'Thou art resisted' is not, tu resisteris, but resistitur tibi, 'a stand is made against you.'

5 Mortuus. For the conjugation of Deponents, see Pr. 61.

6 Datus est. In going through the passive voice the pupil will do well to remember the four classes into which we divided verbs in going through the active voice: namely, I. Intransitive verbs like Ambulo. II. Intransitive verbs like Cedo (including Pareo). III. Transitive verbs like Porto. IV. Transitive verbs like Do (v. 1.). In the first part of this chapter we have only to do with transitive verbs; for they only pass fully through the passive voice. In the first six lines we have the verbs of the class III. like Porto. But in line 7 we see how verbs like Do pass into the passive. Librum, the word in the accusative after the active dedit, becomes liber, subject-word to the passive datus est. Homo, subject-word to dedit, passes into ab homine, to denote the agent from whom the action of giving proceeds; that is, by whom the action is performed. So far exactly like porto. But the dative puero remains the same in the passive sentence as in the active. For the boy is operated on in exactly the same way. Whether I say, 'The man gave the book to the boy;' or, The book was given by the man to the boy,' the boy is operated on, not directly, but indirectly: he is not moved in position, but is affected by having the book given him. In fact, to keep the original idea of the dative, the book is so operated on as to be at, or by the side of, the boy; and therefore in each sentence puero is in the dative case: The book was put by the man by the side of the boy.'

Similarly, sentence 8 passes from the active sentence, Turnus bellum Latinis intulit: and sentence 9 from the active sentence, Lavinia advenam Turno prætulit.

7 Victi. Just as the Copula may be omitted with the complementadjective (v1. d), so it may be with the participle: or, instead of saying that it is omitted, perhaps we should rather say that it is not wanted. For if we put an adjective by a noun, we can only mean that the object named by the noun possesses the quality denoted by the adjective. The copula is really wanted only when we wish to show the time or the manner in which the object possesses the quality, not the simple fact of possessing it now. Hence the copula should only be omitted when it would be in the present indicative.

With regard to the participle, take this rule. If in a sentence there is a participle and no verb, count the participle as the verb. 8 Somnium. In these sentences we have instances of the Cognate Accusative (b): those nouns being called Cognate nouns which name the action denoted by the verb.

9 Pugnatur. In this and the following sentences we have instances

of verbs like Ambulo (Class I.) passing through the passive impersonally, as explained in rule 3.

10 Cessum. In this sentence we have Cedo, the type-verb of Class II., in the passive. But most verbs of this class are like pareo. See

next rule.

11 Invidetur. In this and the following sentences we have instances of verbs like Pareo, which pass through the passive only impersonally as explained in rule 4.

12 A servis. The agent, though generally omitted with the passive of intransitive verbs, has, when expressed, its noun in the ablative after a or ab, just as with the passive of transitive verbs. Thus from the active sentence, servi vobis resistent, the passive sentence is formed thus. There is no subject-word, no word that is in the nominative, because there is no word in the accusative after resistent: but the active resistent becomes the impersonal passive resistetur, 'resistance shall be made.' Vobis remains the same, because there is no difference whatever in the way in which you are operated on, whether the sentence be active or passive. But servi, the subject-word of the active sentence, becomes a servis in the passive, because the resistance proceeds from the slaves: Resistance will be made to you by your slaves,' or 'You will be resisted by your slaves.'

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13 Palabantur. In this and the following sentences we have instances of deponent verbs-and these also fall into the four classes: namely, I. Intransitive verbs like Ambulo, as palor wander '(83): II. Intransitive verbs like Cedo and Pareo, as irascoram angry,' and medeor heal' (85); III. Transitive verbs like Porto, as miror, 'admire' (94); IV. Transitive verbs like Do, as largior, 'bestow (100).

14 Medeor. Here we have the two sorts of verbs which come under Class II. Irascor' am angry,' 'rage,' and assentior assent,' are exactly like Cedo, because they are followed by the dative case, while the corresponding English verbs are intransitive: whereas medeor' heal,' minitor' threaten,' blandior 'flatter,' auxilior' help,' and the like, are like Pareo; because they are followed by the dative case, while the corresponding English verb is transitive. 15 Miseremini. For these genitives after verbs of pitying and remembering (with the opposite obliviscor 'forget') see VIII. Rem. 2. 16 Desine. In this and the following sentences we have examples of Rem. f. Originally, as we have seen, the genitive denoted motion from;' and therefore we had instances of the genitive after verbs of ceasing and freeing (VIII. 82), and more commonly after words denoting want and emptiness (55, 82). But the ablative, being the case in use to denote motion from,' is the usual case after all such words; for they all convey the idea of 'motion from.' If I cease from a thing, I move from it. If I free another from a thing, I move him from it. If I deprive him of a thing, I move him from it. If I am the son of a man, I am descended or come from him; and so on. After some of these words, it seems a matter of indifference whether a preposition be prefixed to the noun or not: but after the following words; levo, exonero, absolvo, inanis, orbus; it very rarely is prefixed.

Verbs of this sort may be classed with verbs like Cedo in Class II.; for they both denote actions that have to do with objects without operating on them directly (or to them), and are therefore both

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