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In this class of genitives the idea of 'motion from,' though not so apparent as in the former, may be traced thus. Every effect comes from its cause, as the stream comes from its spring. Now a noun in this genitive may generally be considered as naming the producing cause from which some effect flows. Thus the glory or the food is the cause which produces the desire. The girl is the cause which produces the love: the love as an effect comes from her as the cause. And even in 36 the women may be regarded as the cause from which the wrong-doings proceed1. Still there can be no doubt that in these genitives the ideas both of possession and of motion from' are somewhat forced, and it is more natural to regard, as we often do, the action as going towards an object rather than as coming from it. Thus we talk of the injuries done to the Sabine women,' 'rage at the death,' affection for the girl,' rivalry for the throne,' and so on. And so in Latin we can regard the action as going toward the object — -we can say noster in te amor, tuus erga me amor, ira erga duces, remedia adversus venena, and the like.


8 Lectio. In these genitives after verbal nouns we have an extreme use of the genitive of the passive possessor. As in the last rule, we should rather have expected to find the action going towards the object, the reading towards the books, rather than from them; and therefore such verbal nouns followed by the same case as the verbs from which they are formed. And instances of this sort are found; as, Quid tibi hanc digito tactio est? What are you touching this woman for?' justitia est obtemperatio scriptis legibus, 'justice is obedience to written laws.' But this construction did not make way in the language, and the genitive construction was preferred. We can easily say admiratio viri admiration of the man,' the man being the cause from which the admiration proceeds; and hence this construction came to cover all such nouns, as lectio librorum, the reading of books,' interfectio regis, 'the killing of the king;' though it is far-fetched to regard the books as possessing the reading, or as the cause from which the reading comes. And it was probably on this account that the construction was not a favourite one. With some words indeed it was hardly ever used, a curious construction with the participle being adopted instead; as rex interfectus instead of interfectio regis, for which see Ch. xx.

9 Romanorum. Notice here in the same sentence both uses of the genitive; the injuries done by the Romans to the Sabine women.' 10 Militum. In this and the following sentences we have instances of the Partitive genitive, where the idea of 'motion from' may be thus traced. If we cut a whole into parts, it is not with the intention of letting the parts lie as they are, included in the whole, but of taking one or more of them away from the whole. Hence instead of the Partitive genitive we may have ex with the ablative, as duo ex pastoribus, two of the shepherds.'. 11 Ordinis. These and the following genitives are commonly called genitives of quality. They seem to follow naturally from the use of the partitive genitive. If we speak of a man of a certain class,' we regard the class as a whole of which the individual man is a part; and if we speak of a man of courage,' we can regard

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1 Hence this genitive is sometimes called the Genitive of the Cause.

the courage as a class or sort, of which the man is an individual instance. For a similar use with the ablative, see Ch. XII., note 4.


1 Cupidus. Exactly the same reason seems to hold for the genitive after adjectives as after nouns. If glory is the cause from which the desire flows, it is also the cause from which comes the fact of the man being desirous.

2 Nostrum. For the difference of meaning between these two sentences, see VII. d.

3 Plena. It will be seen that adjectives denoting fulness may also be followed by the ablative: see ch. XII. 27, 32.

4 Vacuus. It will be seen that adjectives denoting emptiness may also be followed by the ablative: ch. xI. Rem. f.

5 Meminit. For the defective verb memini, see Pr. 74. And observe that memini may also be followed by the accusative as in the next line.

6 Implevit. Verbs denoting fulness are very seldom followed by the genitive; much more frequently, as will be seen, by the ablative. Verbs however denoting the opposite to fulness, as want, are often followed by the genitive; though more commonly by the ablative. See ch. XI.

7 Desine. In this and the two following sentences we have verbs of ceasing and freeing followed by the genitive. But this is not the proper construction in prose, the ablative being used (ch. xI.). The sentences however are given to show the original use of the genitive, namely, 'motion from. In this way too may be explained the genitive after adjectives and verbs denoting emptiness, want, and the like; as in all such the notion of taking 'from' is contained. See Int. 23.

8 Conscia. In this and the following sentences we have a few adjectives that may be followed by the genitive and dative: by the genitive, because they are connected with nouns that are followed by the genitive of the passive possessor; by the dative, because they denote qualities that can be conceived as operating indirectly on objects. Conscius sum facinoris, 'I am cognisant of the deed,” ‘I have a knowledge of the deed: the deed being the cause from which my knowledge comes. Conscius sum facinori, 'I am privy to the deed:' the deed being the object at or about which my knowledge operates.

9 Miseret. In these impersonal verbs the special force of the cases is most distinctly marked. They seem to be remains of the old language before the introduction of the nominative case, which, as dealing with words not things, appears to be of later date (Int. 25). But in these sentences we see the actual working of the action from one object to another. From the lame old man (gen.) pity comes into me' (acc.); 'from his cowardice shame goes into the boy;' 'from your conduct disgust enters my soul,' and so on. 10 Expertes. See Rem. c.

1 Sentences to which an asterisk is affixed are inserted, not for imitation in prose, but as showing points of construction.


1 Ablative. For the double origin of the Ablative see Int. 21-24. The name 'ablative,' which was given to the case by Julius Cæsar, points only to its genitive origin: and it was characteristic of that active-minded man, in thus naming it, to seize on the active (or 'from') idea involved in its origin from the genitive, rather than on the more quiet (or 'at') idea involved in its origin from the dative.

2 Prepositions. For Prepositions see' Pr. 83 and Int. 40. The lines there quoted for the cases which follow prepositions should be learnt; as it is sufficient for the purpose at present to be acquainted with their use, the reasons being in some instances somewhat hard to understand.

3 Place. In this chapter the Laws for the cases which are perfectly general in their application, being true of any object whatever, are applied to actual places; as towns, countries, houses, fields, and the like.

4 Through. 'Motion to' is the primary idea of the accusative, but a part of this idea is 'motion through.' For in moving through a space, I come to each point of it in turn. Hence when we say that 'motion to' is the primary idea of the accusative, we hold it to include 'motion through.'

5 Commonly. This word must be attended to, as the rule is by no means universal. For, firstly, prepositions are not always placed before all such nouns except those mentioned in the text. They are always (in prose) placed before such nouns in the accusative, but not always before such nouns in the ablative (line 90, &c.). And, secondly, the names of towns, &c., are not always without prepositions (66). Still for common use the rule holds.

6 Venit. In this and the following sentence we have instances of the accusative marking the place to which motion is directed. As 'motion to' is the primary idea denoted by the accusative, these sentences might have come at the beginning of the second chapter, where the accusative is first mentioned. But they fall more conveniently here, both because they come properly under the head of 'place,' which we are now considering; and also because the idea of 'motion to,' through the primary one denoted by the accusative, is not in such common use as the secondary or derived idea that the accusative follows transitive verbs: or, in other words, that if an object is spoken of as operated on directly, its noun is in the accusative case. In fact so completely has this secondary idea become the ruling idea of the accusative case, that nouns are in the accusative after a transitive verb without any preposition (or additional sign); whereas, when the accusative denotes 'motion to,' a preposition is required, with the exception given in Rule f. It must be carefully noted that, though the rule for the accusative applies in this chapter to nouns naming 'place,' as in the next to nouns naming 'time,' it is equally true for nouns naming any object whatever; as living creatures, material objects, thoughts, and so on: and that for all such a preposition is required. 7 Ad Siciliam. Observe the difference between the prepositions in and ad. Macedoniam and Siciliam are in the accusative, because they name the places to which motion is directed. This is shown by 'm,' the case-ending of the accusative. But the prepositions,

as additional signs, show the sort of 'to:' in showing that Æneas went into' Sicily, into the inside of it; ad showing that the king sailed to' Sicily, to the outside of it. He did not enter it in his ship.

8 Per Italiam. So the preposition per shows that the motion is directed to each portion of the object in turn, that is, through it. Observe that, before nouns naming 'place,' per is always required to convey the notion of 'through' (cf. x. c.), except when the notion is simply one of distance (as in line 17). Puer ambulat per Romam, the boy walks through Rome:' here Romam, though the name of a town, requires the per to distinguish the kind of motion. But, puer ambulat duo millia passuum, 'the boy walks two miles.' Here per is not required, for the two miles can mean nothing else than the space through which he walks. He might walk 'to' Rome, but he cannot walk 'to' two miles. The Latin language it must be remembered is an exceedingly sensible language; the sense almost always guiding us to the rule. Thus we may say of prepositions that they are seldom added, unless they are wanted to define further what is broadly stated by the termination of the case. 9 Macedonia. In this and the following sentences we have instances of the Ablative marking the place from which motion is directed. 10 Ab Sicilia. Observe that ex and ab further define the 'from' idea denoted by the ablative, just as in and ad further define the 'to' idea denoted by the accusative. Ex means 'from the inside of ;' in means to the inside of,' an object. Ab means 'from the outside of;' ad means to the outside of,' an object. Thus in 23 they run from the inside of the city; but in 24 I drove the beggar from the outside of the door.

11 In Gallia. In this and the following sentences we have instances of the Ablative marking the place at which the action operates. 12 Mileti. By Rule e the names of towns are in the dative; but Mileti looks like a genitive from stem Mileto. See Int. 24, from which the following is abridged for nouns of the second (or o) declension. The original dative ended in i, as Mileto-i. Now this might be contracted either into Mileto (like okw), or into Miletoi (like očko), and then Mileti. Of these two forms, Mileto was employed for all ordinary cases of the dative: but for the original use of the dative, that is, to denote the place at, the special form Mileti was reserved.

Though this is doubtless the explanation of the forms Mileti, Tarenti, domi, humi, &c., it seems probable that both in the first and second declensions such nouns came in the singular to be regarded in common usage as genitives1; and that the plural nouns came to be regarded as ablatives.

13 Carthagini. Just so, in the singular number of the third declension, the ablative came sometimes to be used instead of the dative; especially in poetry, as in this and the next sentence. For as the ablative was used with all other nouns to mark the 'place at,' it seemed unnecessary to retain for the names of towns only such an oldfashioned and unique use of the dative.

14 Thalamo. This and the three following sentences show well the difference between the accusative and ablative, and the use of preposi

The secondary idea of possession denoted by the genitive would allow this use; for if I dwell at Miletus, Miletus for the time possesses me. Also the Greek usage favours it.

tions as additional signs. The ablative Thalamo shows that the queen was sitting 'at,' that is, in close proximity to, her chamber: the preposition in shows the sort of proximity; that she was sitting, not under, nor in front of, but 'in' her chamber. The accusative Thalamum shows that she was walking towards' her chamber: the preposition in shows that she passed into' it. So the ablative arbore shows that the apples lie at,' or near, the tree: the preposition sub shows the kind of nearness; that they lie, not in, nor on, nor in front of, but under' the tree. The accusative arborem shows that the throwing was directed towards' the tree: the preposition sub shows that the result of the throwing was that the apples lay 'under' the tree.

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Observe, that it is the case of the noun which marks the difference between motion to,' and 'operation at,' an object. The preposition is an additional sign; showing, if followed by the accusative, the sort of 'to;' if followed by the ablative, the sort of at,' or the sort of from' (Note 4). In English, where we have no case ending, we can sometimes mark the difference by changing the preposition, but not always. Thus, we can translate in either by 'in' or 'into' according to the case: but we cannot mark the distinction in translating sub, as we say 'under' with both cases. 15 In arbore. Observe that the preposition in does not make it clear in Latin whether we mean in' or 'on.' The ablative arbore shows that the girl is sitting 'at' a tree: but the preposition in does not distinguish whether she was sitting on a tree, or inside a (hollow) tree. This however can generally be decided by the


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16 Ad patrem. Observe in this and the following sentences the difference between the English and Latin idioms. We say, 'to her father at Rome;' but in Latin it is put more correctly to Rome to her father:' both nouns being in the accusative, because the motion is directed both 'to' Rome and 'to' her father. So in English, from my mother at Capua;' but in Latin, from Capua from my mother: both nouns being in the ablative, because the motion is directed both from ' Capua and 'from' my mother. 17 Ab Roma. Here a preposition is prefixed to the name of a town; but it is commonly omitted.



18 Domi. Observe that domi may be used in this sense with a noun; as, domi Cæsaris, 'in Cæsar's house: or with a possessive adjective; as, domi suæ, in his own house:' but with other adjectives the ablative with in is used: as, in domo pulchra, in domo illa, and the like. Similarly domum can be used with a noun and possessive adjective without a preposition, and sometimes domos in the plural. Prepositions however are occasionally prefixed, as in nostram domum, in nostra domo.

19 Militia. Observe these few other nouns which are used like domi in the old sense of the dative, and (in the second or o declension) with the special form in i: as, militiæ, 'in the field,' ' on foreign service;' belli, 'in war,' 'abroad;' humi, 'on the ground;' animi',

1 Animi is commonly thought to be in the genitive, and there is no reason why it should not be. We have seen (VIII. 8) that there are adjectives followed both by the genitive and dative; and so, as we can say sanitas animi soundness of mind,' we may be allowed (VIII. a) to say sanus animi 'sound of mind,' as well as sanus animo 'sound in mind.' Accordingly we find sanus mentis aut animi tui, Plaut. Trin. 454, and desipiebam mentis, where mentis is clearly in the genitive. But surely such a use of the genitive is forced, and it is simpler to,

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