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1 Subject-word. The meaning of the words 'noun,' 'object,' 'subject,' &c. is given in the Introduction (1, 25), but may be here briefly repeated.

A Noun is the name of an object. An Object is anything whatever that we can think of. The Subject is that particular object about which the sentence is made. And the Subject-word is the word in the sentence, whether noun or pronoun, which names the subject.

By Remark a then you can find the subject-word. It is that word in the sentence which stands in the nominative case. 2 Person. By the verb agreeing with the subject-word in person is meant, that if the subject-word is ego or nos, the pronoun for the first person, the verb is in the first person: if the subject-word is tu or vos, the pronoun for the second person, the verb is in the second person: if the subject-word is any other word whatever, the verb is in the third person.

3 Example. The example may be parsed thus: Nauta, Noun of the First, or a, declension; singular number, masculine gender, 'sailor.' In the nominative, because it is the subject-word; that is, because it names the subject of the sentence.

Ambulat. Verb; third, singular, present, indicative, active, from ambula 'walk.' Agreeing with the subject-word nauta in number and person.

4 Pugnabamus. See Remark c. Pugnabamus agrees in number and person with the subject-word nos; which is omitted, because there is no emphasis or distinction implied, as there is in the first sentence. Similarly stabas (8) agrees with tu omitted, pugnabitis (10) with vos, pugnaveram (17) with ego, &c.

5 Pugnaras. For the contraction of pugnaras, ambularis, &c. see Primer 59 (note).

6 Jaces. Verbs like jace 'lie,' are commonly called Static verbs, because they denote 'states' rather than actions. In English there is often no corresponding verb, so that we have to translate by an adjective with the copula 'be;' as tepe-o 'I am warm,' albe-o ‘I am white.' But as the mere fact of there being such verbs in Latin would seem to imply that such states are in some sort regarded as actions, we shall for convenience speak of Static verbs as denoting actions; and include them in the class considered in this chapter; that is, as verbs like Ambulo 'walk,' Class I. Static verbs are chiefly of the second or e conjugation. 7Flavescit. Under the head of verbs like Ambulo 'walk,' come also the verbs called Inceptive: that is, verbs which denote that an action is beginning to be performed. These are chiefly formed

from Static verbs by adding sc to the stem; as laba 'totter,' labasc-o 'I begin to totter;' tepe 'be warm,' tepe-sc-o 'I begin to be warm,' 'I get warm;' dormi 'sleep,' obdormi-sc-o 'I fall asleep.' If the stem end in a consonant, the link-vowel i is inserted; as gem 'groan,' gem-i-sc-o 'I begin to groan.' But Inceptive verbs are seldom formed from stems ending in consonants: almost always from stems ending in e. These verbs have no forms for the perfect tenses, which indeed are hardly wanted. If they are, the perfect tenses of the static verb are used; as floresco, florui (from flore).

8 Maturescunt. Just as in English there are seldom static verbs answering to the Latin static verbs, so in Latin there are some wanting that might be expected, as there are Inceptive verbs formed from them. Or rather, these are formed straight from the adjective, passing over the gap left by the missing static verb, but ending in esc, just as if there were a static verb ending in e. And so if ever a perfect is wanted, it is formed as from a stem in e. Thus from the adjective pingui 'fat' we have, not pingui-sco, 'I grow fat,' but pinguesco, as from pingue. So we have the perfect maturui, as from mature, though there is no verb matureo, but only the adjective maturus 'ripe.' And an Inceptive verb may be formed even from a noun. Thus from silva 'wood' we find, not silva-scit 'runs to wood,' but silvescit, as from silve. But we have vespera-sco (116) from vespera 'evening,' and puerasco (rare) from puera 'girl.'


1 Portat. Dominus and portat are parsed exactly like nauta and ambulat in the first example: and puerum may be parsed thusPuerum. Noun; acc. sing. from puero; n. puer; m.; 'boy.' In the accusative after portat, as naming the object operated on directly by the carrying.

2 Accusative. This is the first Law for the accusative; but it is not illustrated in this chapter. See Int. 9 and chap. ix. 6.

3 Case. This, the second and commonest Law for the accusative, is illustrated in this chapter. For the way in which it flows from the first Law, see Int. 13. Actions are said to operate directly, when they pass straight into objects, for the most part causing them to move. They will be better understood, when they are compared with actions that operate indirectly, as in chap. iv. and v. 4 Portavit. By comparing ch. i. and ii. we may see the broad difference between Transitive and Intransitive verbs, as explained in the Introduction (13). The verbs in i. are all Intransitive. They denote actions which stop short with the agent and have nothing to do with any other object. Hence they are followed by no noun. On the other hand the verbs in ii. are Transitive. They denote actions which pass over straight into objects, for the most part causing them to move; or, in other words, which operate directly. Hence, by the Law, they are followed by nouns in the accusative case. If I carry, drive, plough, bend, drag, &c., I must carry, drive, plough, bend, drag, &c., some object; and therefore there must be a noun in the sentence to name the object. And this noun by the Law will be in the accusative case, because it names

an object operated on directly by the carrying, driving, ploughing, bending, dragging, &c. The object is in fact moved by such actions. But if I walk, sit, lie, sleep, &c., I do not operate on any object at all; and therefore there need be no other noun in the sentence than that which names the walking, sitting, lying, or sleeping object, or in other words the subject, as in the sentences of last chapter.

5 Amasti. For these contractions, see Primer 59 (note).


1 Vocative. For the vocative, see Int. 26.

2 Concord. For Adjectives see Primer 89 and 87 e; also Int. 3034. In the present chapter we have only instances of the adjective as an epithet, not as a complement.

3 Adverb. For adverbs see Primer 82; also Int. 37. An adverb qualifies, or tells something more about, the action or quality denoted by the verb or adjective to which it is attached. Thus in the example the verb vivit tells us that the general 'lives;' the adverb feliciter attached to vivit tells us how he lives-'happily.' The adjective fortis marks him as possessing the quality of bravery; the adverb egregie, attached to fortis, denotes that he possesses it 'eminently,' or in a very high degree. And the adverb valde, attached to the adverb feliciter, denotes that the happiness also exists in a great degree.

4 Conjunction. For conjunctions see Primer 84; also Int. 38, 39. 5 Que. Observe that et stands between the two words coupled together, but que comes after the second word. Thus for 'by land and sea' we have terra et mari, but terra marique. And if there are more words than one to be joined on, as Thessalos ignes in line 27, que comes after the first of these words, as Thessalosque : see also pluviosque ventos, 29. Consequently, if there is a sentence to be joined on, que comes after the first word in the sentence. And it is not written by itself as an independent word, but is always attached to, or made to lean on, the word which it couples. Hence it is called an Enclitic or 'leaner on.' The same remarks apply to ve 'or:' see l. 47.

6 Et vinum. Observe in this and the next two lines the Latin equivalent for our 'both-and.'

7 Imbris. See Primer 22 note.

8 Dulcis. Just as i- nouns take is as well as es in the accusative plural, so too do those adjectives of which the characteristic is i; though perhaps with adjectives es is the more common form.

9 Rhodon. For the accusative Rhodon see Primer p. 120 d: for Mitylenen see Pr. 18. Tempe is also a Greek noun, in the acc. plur., contracted from Téμπeа.

10 Laborantes. Under the head of adjectives come participles, both active and passive, because they can be placed before nouns just as adjectives can, and agree with those nouns in gender number and case. At the same time they keep, as will be seen, the construction proper to the verbs from which they come.

11 Tuam. Under the head of adjectives come all those words which are sometimes called Pronouns, but should rather be called Pronominal Adjectives, because they can be placed before nouns just as adjectives can, and agree with those nouns in gender

number and case. These are the Possessives meus, tuus, suus, noster, vester: the Demonstratives hic, iste, ille; is and its compounds idem and ipse: qui and its compounds, Relative, Interrogative and Indefinite. See Pr. 38, and Int. 35, 36.

12 Egida. A Greek accusative: like Naida. Pr. p. 121 c.

13 Ne. The Latin negative adverb is non with the indicative, ne with the imperative mood (xxiii. 7).

14 Millia. For Numeral Adjectives see Pr. p. 129. Mille is almost always an adjective, millia a noun. But when smaller numbers come between millia and the noun, as here, the construction may go on as if there were no millia in the sentence.


1 Pucro. Librum is parsed like puerum in ii., but puero may be parsed thus

Puero. Noun; dat. sing. from puero; n. puer; m.; 'boy. In the dative after dat, as naming the object operated on indirectly by the giving.

2 Dative. This is the main Law for the dative. See Int. 14 for the way in which it flows from the Primary Idea (Int. 9). An action operates indirectly, when it does not pass straight into an object causing it to move; but operates at or round it, the object remaining at rest.

3 Dabo. Read Int. 19, and compare the verbs in this chapter with those in chap. ii. In both they are transitive; but the verbs in ii. denote actions, which operate only on one object and on that directly, and are therefore followed by one noun in the accusative case: while the verbs in this chapter denote actions which operate on two objects, on one directly and the other indirectly, and are therefore followed by two nouns, one in the accusative and the other in the dative case. Do 'give' may be considered the typeverb of this class, and such verbs as 'lend,' 'add,' 'supply,' 'join,' belong to it. It does not include many simple verbs, but a great number of verbs compounded with prepositions, as will be seen in the course of the chapter. The English verb will be followed by one noun without a preposition answering to the Latin accusative, and by one noun with a preposition answering to the Latin dative. 'To' and 'for' are commonly given as signs of the Latin dative, but it will be seen that almost any preposition may be used in translating it. Verbs of this class are called in the Primer Trajective-Transitive, or Cui-Quid verbs.

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4 Tumulo. By observing carefully these sentences the pupil will come to understand the difference between the use of the accusative and of the dative case. The primary idea of the accusative is 'motion to;' of the dative, operation at:' and these ideas may be traced in the actual use of the two cases. But for practical purposes it is enough if the pupil grasp thoroughly the following simple idea. If an action so operates upon an object as to move it, the noun naming the object will be in the accusative. If an action so operates upon an object as not to move it, the noun naming the object will be in the dative. With the accusative, the action will pass into the object causing it to move: with the dative, the action will operate at; that is, in, on, under, or in some way about, the object, which will remain at rest.


take a few instances. In line 1, the garland is moved, the girl is not moved. In 2 the bodies are moved, the mound remains at rest. And the original meaning of do, 'put,' shows the original idea of the dative still more clearly. I put the garland on the girl; the slaves lay the body on the sepulchral mound. So in 7 the water is put on the flame; in 9 the poison is put in the draught; in 13 the fire is put under the walls; in 10 the food is put before the dogs; and so on. And even in sentences in which no actual bodily movement is spoken of, the idea remains the same. Thus in 3, though the lands are not actually moved, they are moved as property from one owner to another.

5 Se. For se and suus see Pr. 38. Se is one of the three real Pronouns in Latin, as it is always used instead of a noun, and never as an adjective: see Int. 2, 35. Suus is the possessive adjective attached to se, as meus is attached to ego, and tuus to tu. Both se

and suus refer to the subject of the sentence; which must be a word naming a third person, not ego or tu.

6 Ademit. Compare this sentence with the preceding one, and observe that, whether I give the book to the boy, or take the book away from the boy, the book is operated on directly, the boy indirectly. The book is moved the boy is not moved, but simply affected by the action. Hence the noun naming the book will be in the accusative, the noun naming the boy will be in the dative, according to the distinction given in Note 4.

7 Deripuerunt. Compare similarly this sentence and the preceding one. The colours and the arms are moved; the shrines and soldiers are not moved.

8 Bobus. See Pr. p. 121. Stem bov: add bus, bov-bus. Before a consonant, the semi-consonant v is written u: hence we have boubus, which passes by contraction either into bobus or bubus. 9 Circumdedit. This is the first use of circumdo. 'Cato put (or drew) a ditch round the city.' The ditch is represented as operated on directly, being moved or drawn out; and therefore it has its noun in the accusative. The city is represented as operated on indirectly, not being moved, but being affected by the action, which takes place at or round it; and therefore it has its noun in the dative. Circumdo has another use, as will appear hereafter. 10 Fecit. We see by this and the following examples that an object has its noun in the dative, if it is affected by the result of an action, without being actually operated on by it. We can hardly say that Achilles is operated on at all by the making of the arms, but he is affected by the result; for he becomes the possessor of them. The dative then is the case used in Latin when the writer wishes to imply that an object is in any way affected by, or concerned or interested in, an action. And thus it comes to pass that verbs like facio, which seem to fall under the head Porto, because they only require one noun after them, are often found in the same class as Do; that is, with two nouns after them; because the action denoted by them can be conceived as affecting some object. 11 Numitori. This and the following are rather extreme examples of the use of the dative. Numitor is affected by having his heart touched the haughty youth is affected by his anger being roused. We have no corresponding use in English, and cannot translate by any of the ordinary signs of the dative; but commonly employ

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